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Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (January 1982) Volume 08 Number 01"

GPeative 
GorapatiRg 

the #1 magazine of computer applications and software 



Videodiscs 

Using them with 
small computers 

Survival : 

Moon Adventure Game 




In-depth Evaluations: 

• Castle Wolfenstein 

• TRS-80 Invaders 

• Eastern Front (Atari) 

• Games for the VIC 

Expanding Your TRS-80 







176956 



■UCK4 1 




do 



1 

} 

lies: 


P 

i 

i 




them 


' 



THE COMMODORE COMPUTERS 

"FROM s 300 TO $ 1995, THEY COST LESS AND GIVE 
YOU MORE FOR YOUR MONEY. READ OUR CHART." 



The idea of a computer in every office and home used to be 
science fiction. Now it's becoming a reality. The question is. 
with so many to choose from, which computer should you 
buy? When you consider the facts, the clear choice is 
Commodore. 

COMPARE OUR $995 COMPUTER 



—William Shatner 



FEATURES 


COMMODORE 

4016 


APPLE 

II 


IBM 


Base Price 

12" Green Screen 

IEEE Interface 

TOTAL 
Upper & Lower 
Case Letters 

Separate Numeric 
Key Pad 
Intelligent 
Peripherals 
Real Time Clock 
Maximum 5 Vi" Disk 
Capacity per Drive 


$995 
Standard 
Standard 

$995 

Standard 

Standard 

Standard 
Standard 

500K 


$1,330 
299 
300 


$1,565 
345 
NO 


$1,929 

NO 

NO 

NO 
NO 

143 K 


$1,910 

Standard 

Standard 

NO 
NO 

160K 


Pnies arc a, of the mam recent published price lists. September. 1 

capabil,t,csolthe(l6K>PET'4U16 Disk Driscs and Primer, are m* included in prices M.idel, 1 
shown vary in their degree of e*pamlahiln\ 



Many experts rate Commodore Computers as the best 
desk-top computers in their class. They provide more storage 
power- up to 1,000,000 characters on 5Va" dual disks - than 
any systems in their price range. Most come with a built-in 
green display screen. With comparable systems, the screen is 
an added expense. Our systems are more affordable. One 
reason: we make our own microprocessors. Many 
competitors use ours. And the compatibility of peripherals 
and basic programs lets you easily expand your system as 
your requirements grow. Which helps explain why 
Commodore is already the No. 1 desk-top computer in 
Europe with more than a quarter of a million computers sold 
worldwide. 

WE WROTE THE BOOK ON SOFTWARE, 

The Commodore Software Encyclopedia is a com 
prehensive directory of over 500 programs for 
business, education, recreation and personal use. 
Pick up a copy at your local Commodore dealer. 

FULL SERVICE, FULL SUPPORT. 

Commodore dealers throughout the country offer 
you prompt local service. In addition, our new 
national service contract with TRW provides 
nationwide support. Visit your Commodore 
dealer today for a hands-on demonstration. 





I Commodore Computer Systems 
6X1 Moore Road 
King of Prussia. PA 19406 



Canadian Residents: 

Commodore Computer Systems 

3370 Pharmacy Avenue 

Agincourt. Ontario. Canada. M1W 2K4 

Please send me more information. 

Name 




Cm. commodore 

v COMPUTER 



CIRCLE 1 20 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



"My own IBMoomputer. 
Imagine that" 



One nice thing about having your own IBM Personal 
Computer is that it's yours. For your business, your 
project, your department, your class, your family and, 
indeed, for yourself. 

Of course, you might have thought owning a 
computer was ttx> expensive. But now you can relax. 

The IBM Personal Computer starts at less than 
$1,600' for a system that, with the addition of one- 
simple device, hooka up to your home TV and uses your 
audio cassette recorder. 

Ybu might also have thought running a computer 
was t(X) difficult. But you can relax again. 



IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS 

•ADVANCED EEATVRES EOR PERSONAL '.O.VII'l II RS 



User Memory 

I6K 2SGK bytes* 
Permanent Memory 
(KOMHOKbvtcs* 
Microprocessor 
HlKll '-po.il. WIH8* 
Auxiliary Memo ry 
2 optional internal 

diskette drives. 

SW. l60Kby.cs 

per dbhene 
Keyboard 
83 keys, 6 ft. curd 

attaches to 

nneni unit* 
10 function keys* 
10 ki\ numeric pad 
Tactile feedback 



Display Screen 
I ii>Ui rvv>luiu>n 

'"hxJSOV)* 
HO cluractcrs x 2S lines 
I pper and k ma la 1 * 1 
( iffeefl pn» >sph» ir 

screen* 
Diagnostics 
ft i\\vr < m self testing* 
Parity checking* 
Languages 
BASIC. Pascal 
Printer 
Bidirectional* 
s< i characters/Sect kkI 
L2 character styles, upti 

132 characters/line 
9x9t haractef matrix* 



Color/Graphics 
Bat made 

10 colors* 
2VnharacUis.il id 

symbols In ROM 
Gnftia made. 

resolution 

520h x MOV* 
black ,s: cchiic resolution 

640h x 200v* 
Simultancs us graphic s ft 

lc-xl capability 
Communications 
KS-232C interface 
Asynchn >rh <us ( stan/sti >| 

protocol 
Upu>9600bta 

per second 



The IBM Personal Gamputcr 



Getting started is easier than you might think, 
because IBM has structured the learning process for you. 
Our literature is in your language, not in "computerese." 
Our software involves you, the system interacts with you as 
if it was made to --and it was. 

That's why you can be running programs in just one 
day. Maybe even writing your nun programs in a matter 
of weeks. 

For ease of use, flexibility and performance, no 
other personal computer offers as many advanced 
capabilities. (See the box.) 

But what makes the IBM Personal Computer a 
truly useful tool are software programs selected by IBM's 
Personal Computer Software Publishing Department. 
\bu can have programs in business, professional, word 
processing, computer language, personal and 
entertainment categories. 

You can see the system and the software in action at 
any ComputerLand® store or Sears Business Systems 
Center. Or try it out at one of our IBM Product Centers. 
The IBM Data Processing Division will serve those 
customers who want to purchase in quantity. 

Your IBM Personal Computer. Once you start 
working with it, you'll discover more than the answers 
and solutions you seek: you'll discover that getting 

there is half the fun. Imagine that.==^= =* 




BM PkkJikM 
.! othrf M.frc 



IHM hnunalt umputcrcleml 

>». (WH» J22-440U In Alaska <>r Hawaii, <«xi> i 47-OWO 




Z\ |ur CJ.iini* ytnS-80 16K ZavS Modi /Mod3 C.i-.-.eitfe — $15 9! 

/TRS-80 32tyLev2 Modi /Mod3 Diakatf— $19 95 I 

/ Optional Jgfatieli (or Model 1 — / $39.95 I 

Dunrfor 2 item-,. 1J5°to for 3 or mirv I 

Plaaaa add $n 75 per ordejrfor postage lyh.indhmj, c.iiii ra aidant* .idi 6°(o 
Outsida yrTiA faxeapfl Canada! plaaaa .*id $3 00 per Arder for poataga /. 



lie uvrillrn mi mi. m hint l.intju.ii) i- foi\hli|h (ju.iltl y >|r.iphlCS & '.0 



.write tor our tomplrt .• c.itiil 

Aiidikwc.ii.il lieanaad from Atari 




8 issue...in this Issue... in this 



evaluations & profiles 



34 Invaders for the TRS-80 

Super Vaders and Space Intruders 

38 Escape From Castle Wolfenstein 

A-\ Profile of Ed Zaron 

Real world programmer makes good 

42 Game Software for the VIC-20 

44 Eastern Front 
* The Atari goes to war 

Expanding the TRS-80 Model I 
48 Exatron MM + 
50 LNW System Expansion 

58 Aurora Systems Videodisc Controller 

CO Ad war Video Proc Mod 

Videotaping from the Apple 



Linzmayer 

Brill 
Earle 

Lubar 
Blank 

Dyk 
Zatarga 

Ahl 

Ahl 



articles 

-1 O Beating the Arcade Games Small & Small 

° Asteroids. Battlezone. Galaxian. RipOff. Space Invaders 

CQ Adventure in Videoland Lubar 

** v Roller-coaster A computer/videodisc adventure 

80 The Rollercoaster Game Dissected Ahl 

QA Visions of the Future Onosko 

Videodisc technology: current and future 

QO Videodiscs in the Classroom Kehrberg & Pollack 

An interactive economics course 

1 04 v ,s ,or videodisc Kellner 

Using a Videodisc with Apple Super Pilot 

1 06 The First Na,ional Kidisc Blizek 

' w " TV becomes a plaything 

1 1 2 Shopping for Videodiscs Ahl 

' ' fc Smokey and the Bandit 

-i -1 Q The New Tax Law Jacobs 

' ' ° How will it affect computer owners? 



the cover 



William Oyler plays a hard game of Startovox at Leisureland 
Amusement of Morristown. NJ. See page 18 to learn how you 
can improve your score on five popular arcade games. 



applications & software 



1 22 DSK Kevboard ,or ,he Apple 

Increase your typing speed 



Niesink 



1 26 B ' 9 Nurnbers and Small Computers . . Zimmerman 

A PET program to handle large numbers 



-1 42 Survival 

An adventure on the moon 



Rush 



departments 

A Dateline: Tomorrow 

News and views 

"| Input/Output 

-J4 Editorial 

The magazine of the future 

1 20 Notices 

1 54 How to Solve " 

Computer Problem Solving Contest 

1 64 IBM |ma 9 es 

In which we discover how. where and why 

172 Software Legal Forum 

More on Midway 

1 76 TRS - 80 Strings 

Graphics hints 

1 82 Intelligent Computer Games 
** Shogi 



1 90 Outpost: Atari 
1 ' w A Beginner's guide to character sets 

210 New Products 

220 Computer Store of the Month 

224 Index to Advertisers 



Ahl 

Readers 
Ahl 

Fee 
Piele 

istie 

Novick 

Gray 

Levy 

Small & Small 

Staples 
Gibbons 






January, 1982 
Volume 8, Number 1 

Creative Computing (ISSN 0097-8140) is published monthly by Creative Computing. 

P O Box 789-M Morristown. NJ 07960 Second Class postage pain 

68501 

■; located at 39 East Hanover Ave . Morris Plains NJ 07950 Phone 

Domestic Subscriptions 1? issues S20. .'•'• issues *37: 36 issues »53 Send 

subscription orders or change of address I P O I Creative C 

PO Box 789 ' 07960 Call 800-631-8' 

Jersey call 201-540-0445) to order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank 

• 1 by Creative Computing All rights reserved Reproduction prohibited 
Printed in USA 
Creative Computing is printed by Mid-America Webpress. Lincoln, NE 68501 



JANUARY 1982 






f 




sorr 


Publisher/Editor-in-Chief David H. Ahl 


Editorial Director 


George Blank 


Editor 


Elizabeth Staples 


Associate Editor 


David Lubar 


Managing Editor 


Peter Fee 


Contributing Editors 


Dale Archibald 

Charles Carpenter 

Thomas W. Dwyer 

Stephen B. Gray 

Glenn Hart 

* Stephen Kimmel 

Harold Novick 

Peter Payack 

, Alvin Totller 

L C. Barry Townsend 

fl Gregory Yob 

Karl Zinn 


Editorial Assistant 


Andrew Brill 


Secretary 


Elizabeth Magin 


Production Manager 


Laura MacKenzie 


Art Director 


Sue Gendzwil 


Assistant Art Director 


Chris DeMilia 


Artists 


Diana Negri 

Candace Figueroa 

Carol Ann Henderson 

Eugene Bicknell 


Typesetters 


Jean Ann Vokoun 
Maureen Welsh 


Advertising Sales 


Rick Burdett 

Renee Fox Christman 

Jeff Horchler 

Renea Cole 


Marketing 


Laura Conboy 


Creative Computing Press 

Managing Editor Edward Stone 


Software Development 


William Kubeck 

Kerry Shetline 

Eric Wolcotl 

Neil Radick 


Software Production 


Bill Rogalsky 

Rita Gerner 

Heather Everitt 


Operations Manager 


William L. Baumann 


Personnel & Finance 


Patricia Kennelly 


Bookkeeping 


Ethel Fisher 


Retail Marketing 


Jennifer Bun- 
Laura Gibbons 
Roxanne Memmolo 


Circulation 


Frances Miskovich 
Dorothy Staples 
Molra Fenton 
Carol Vita 
Elsie Graft- 
Brian Chamberlain 
Regina Jones 
Terri Murphy 


Office Assistants 


Rosemary Bender 

Linda McCatharn 

Diane Feller 

Mary McNeice 

Barbara Werry 


Order Processing 


Jim Zecchin 
Ralph Loveys 



Shipping & Receiving 



Gall Harris 

Linda Blank 

Mark Smith 

Karen Brown 

Susan DeMark 

Ronald Antonaccio 

Scott McLeod 

Nick Ninni 

Mark Archambault 
Mike Gribbon 



advertising sales 

Advertising Coordinator 
Renee Christman 
Creative Computing 
P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown. NJ 07960 
(201)540-0445 

Western States 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

1290 Howard Ave., Suite 303 

Burlingame. CA 94010 

(415)348-8222 

In Texas call (713) 731-2605 

Southern California 

Jules E. Thompson. Inc. 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates. CA 90274 

(213(378-8361 

Mid-Atlantic, Northeast 

CEL Associates. Inc. 
27 Adams Street 
Braintree. MA 02184 
(617)848-9306 

Midwest 

Ted Rickard 
435 Locust Rd. 
Wilmette. IL 60091 
(312)251-2541 

New York Metropolitan Area 

Nelson & Miller Associates. Inc. 
55 Scenic Dr. 

Hastings-on-Hudson. NY 10706 
(914)478-0491 

Southeast 

Paul McGinnisCo. 
60 East 42nd St 
New York, NY 10017 
(212)490-1021 



attention authors 

Creative Computing will not be 
responsible for the return of unsolicited 
manuscripts, cassettes, floppy disks, pro- 
gram listings, etc. not submitted with a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

OK to peprint 

Material in Creative Computing may 
be reprinted without permission by 
school and college publications, per- 
sonal computing club newsletters, and 
nonprofit publications Only original 
material may be reprinted; that is. you 
may not reprint a reprint. Also, each re- 
print must carry the following notice on 
the first page of the reprint in 7-point or 
larger type (you may cut out and use this 
notice if you wish) 

Copyright © 1981 by Creative Com- 
puting. 39 E Hanover Ave. Morris 
Plains. NJ 07950 Sample issue $2 50, 
1 2-issue subscription $20. 

Please send us two copies of any publi- 
cation that carries reprinted material 
Send to attention: David Ahl. 

micporopm 

Creative Computing is available on 
permanent record microfilm For com- 
plete information contact University mi- 
crofilms International. Dept. FA, 300 
North Zeeb Road. Ann Arbor. Ml 48106 
or 1 8 Bedford Road . London WC 1 R 4E J . 
England 



foreign customers 



Foreign subscribers in countries listed below 
may elect to subscribe with our local agents using 
local currency Of course, subscriptions may also 
be entered directly to Creative Computing (USA) 
in US dollars (bank draft or credit card) All foreign 
subscriptions must be prepaid 

Many foreign agents stock Creative Computing 
magazines, books, and software However, please 
inquire directly to the agent before placing an 
order Again, all Creative Computing products may 
be ordered direct from the USA— be sure to allow 
for foreign shipping and handling 



CANADA 


Surface 


M 


Mrsar 


C$29 


n/a 


2-year 


55 


n/a 


3-year 


80 


n/a 


AUSTRALIA 


M 


SA 


1-year 


28 


52 


2-year 


54 


101 


3- year 


78 


150 


ELECTRONIC CONCEPTS PTY . LTD 




Attn Rudi Hoess 






Ground Floor 55 Clarence St 






Sydney. NSW 2000 Australia 






ENGLAND 


£ 


c 


1-year 


1500 


30 00 


2-year 


30 00 


54 00 


3- year 


45 00 


80 00 


CREATIVE COMPUTING 






Ann Hazel Gordon 






27 Andrew Close 






Stoke Golding. Nuneaton CV12 6EL 




GERMANY 


dm 


dm 


1-year 


52 


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3-year 


141 


250 


HOFACKER-VERLAG 






Ing W Hofacker 






a Munchen 75 






Posnach 437. West Germany 






HOLLAND. BELGIUM 




1 


1-year 




119 


2-year 




231 


3-year 




332 


2XF COMPUTERCOLLECTIEF 






Attn F de Vreeze 






Amstel312A 






101 7 AP AMSTERDAM Holland 






ITALY 


IL 


IL 


1-year 


34 000 


52000 


2-year 


53000 


72.000 


3- year 


72 000 


87 500 


ADVEICO S R L 






Via Emilia Ovest. 129 






43016 San Pancrazio (Parma) Italy 






Attn Giulio Bertellini 






JAPAN 


Y 


Y 


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ASCII PUBLISHING 






Aoyama Building 5F 






5-16-1 Minami Aoyama. Minato-Ku 






Tokyo 107. Japan 






PHILIPPINES 


P 


P 


1-year 


214 


363 


2-year 


413 


716 


3-year 


596 


1059 


INTEGRATED COMPUTER SYSTEMS INC 




Suite 205. Limketkai Bktg . Ortigas Ave 




Greenhills P O Box 483. San Juan 






Metro Manila 31 13. Philippines 






SWEDEN 


Kr 


Kr 


1-year 


123 


206 


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405 


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603 


HOBBY DATA 






Attn Jan Nilsson 






Fack 






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OTHER COUNTRIES 


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CREATIVE COMPUTING 






PO Bo«789-M 






Morristown NJ 07960 USA 




• 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ANNOUNCING fl INVOLUTION 
IN TH€ COST OF PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 




VISflCCOUNT Is o fully integrated business and accounting 
system designed for use in small businesses. VISflCCOUNT is 
extremely comprehensive and professional, yet it is very easy 
to use. The system is controlled from o series of interconnected 
menus permitting user-friendly operation. Everything you need 
to set-up and operate the system is provided with the 
VISflCCOUNT package Experts have estimated the 
development costs for a fully integrated software system 
ranges between $7,200 and $22,000. t uihen you buy 
software the developer has to recapture this expense. 
Computer Services Corporation of America is selling its software 
with a view that volume soles can almost negate this 
development cost. 

OUR GUARANTEE — Buy both our software and that of our 
competitors (who will no doubt charge several times our price 
because they need to recapture their development cost). 
Compare the two systems and we know you'll return theirs 
(moke sure they'll let you return their software). If you decide 
not to keep our system, then return it within 45 doys for a full 
refund. Once you've used our system we're confident you'll be 
delighted. 

T 



VISRCCOUNT 



What Vou Receive 

• Nine 5Vi" double density disks (or six 8" single 
density disks) 

• €asy-to-use operator's manual (over 200 pages) 

• Self-study guide on bookkeeping and accounting (over 
180 pages) 

• Cassette based instruction program on set-up and 
operation 

Available for Apple * , TRS-80. and most others 
•The Apple version requires the Microsoft Z80 softcord. 
CSCfi has CBHSIC2. CP/M and Microsoft Z80 softcord in stock. 









EXTRA: MAILING LIST PROGRAM 



Features 

Menu Driven: The entire system 
runs from a single master menu 
which accesses numerous subsidi- 
ary menus, when needed, to per- 
form the full spectrum of business 
and accounting functions. 

Self-Documenting: All the infor- 
mation needed to use the sytem 
is provided in an easy to self- 
study format. 



Requirements: 48K CBRSIC2 
2 DISK DRIVES CP/M 




Send $159 for the VISRCCOUNT system 



COMPUT6R S6RVIC6S CORPORATION of RM6RICA 

332 €ast 30th Street New Vork. New Vork 10016 

Order Toll Free 1 800-221-2486 

Technical Number 1-212-685-0090 



Name 



Address 



Citu/State/Zip 

Master Charge 

No. 



Visa American €xpress 
€xpires 



1981 Computer Services Corporation of America 



Vour System 

Disk Size □ SV*" double density 8" single density 



CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
5 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



c w. . . dateline : tome wo w. . . dai 



David H. Ahl 



RALLY ARCADE GAMES LICENSED TO COMMODORE FOR VIC 20 



Bally has licensed Commodore to manufacture its arcade coin-op games in cartridges 

for the VIC-20 Computer. Retail prices will range from $24.95 to $39.95. 

This is the second license agreement Bally has entered into recently, the other 
being with Atari for PacMan for use on Atari computers. 

SEARS TO HANDLE NEC, IBM, VECTOR GRAPHIC 

Sears acknowledged recently that it's retail computer stores will handle three 
lines of computers: the NEC PC-8000, IBM personal computer and Vector Graphics Series 3. 
This is a big boost for NEC whose internal squabbles between two competing divisions 
accompanied by on-again, off-again contracts confused and soured many independent 
retailers. 

VIDEODISC MANUFACTURERS THEIR OWN WORST ENEMIES 

Elsewhere in this issue, you'll find the first computer/videodisc game. It uses 
an Apple computer, Pioneer VP-1000 Laser Disc player and Aurora interface. You'd think 
Pioneer would be delighted to have a new form of software on the market to enhance the 
usefulness of their player. 

Not so. John Talbot, Pioneer's marketing vice president won't speak to us, they 
refused to loan us a player for development and to show the game at the fall round of 
personal and home entertainment shows, and haven't responded to our offer to let them 
demonstrate the game at CES. 

Not only that but attorneys at MCA feel the Screen Actors Guild contract prohibits 
the use of the movie discs for use with computer game software. Apparently a disc is sold 
only to be viewed straight through as a movie and not for any interactive use. 

Do laserdiscs have a future? Technologically, yes. In the real world, not until 
Pioneer and the SAG take off their blinders. 

RCA VIDEODISC ALSO OFF TO SLOW START 

RCA geared up to produce 500,000 SelectaVision videodisc players in 1981 but so 
far has sold only 40,000. At the present sales rate of 750 per week it is obvious that it 
has not caught the imagination of the consumer in any major way. Apparently most people 
just don't seem to understand what a videodisc is; nor do they see advantages of the disc 
compared to tape. 

From our standpoint, the RCA system with its grooved disc and stylus has less to 
offer for computer interfacing than the laserdisc optical system although, as mentioned 
above, Pioneer is being anything but cooperataive. 

CBS, AT&T EXPERIMENT WITH TELETEXT IN GARDEN STATE 

Starting next fall 200 households in Ridgewood, NJ will be furnished with an 
"integrated data terminal" consisting of a color CRT and keyboard which will be able to 
access a wide array of services including news, sports, weather, entertainment and 
shopping. The data base material will be transmitted over NJ Bell lines from a host DEC 
PDP 11/70 computer. CBS will be producing most of the programmed material. The trial is 
slated to run for 7 months and will have more computer functions than the recently aborted 
Austin, Texas experiment. 

6 CREATIVE COMPUTING 




And guess who stars as the 
novie monster You! As any of six 
i monsters More if you 
"lave the disk versu 

You i 11 id destroy 

our of the world's large* 
nost densely populated cities in 
jver 100 poss i ; ianos 

: rom Tokyo to the Golden Gate, 
the deadliest i 

>esea 

You i / am- 

who simultaneously 

. humans ,vh^ radi. 

If you wi 
:reature. think of I 

m the 
I but tasty tidb" 

But as in 
novies. you're up against every- 

it you — even nm 

ntiStS 

.ithits 
jwn m 

yedm 

the 
•dbook 

your- 






k\. 



r* 



€ 









n 



-T, 



GET CRUSH, CRUMBLE & CHOMP 

now at your local dealer for your APPLE, ATARI, 
or TRS-80 before it's too la 



r% 



10 ON READER SERVIC 



Baked Apple* 

Last Thanksgiving, a designer from 
Lynn/Ohio Corporation took one of 
the company's Apple Personal Computers 
home for the holidays. 

While he was out eating turkey, it 
got baked. 

His cat, perhaps miffed at being left 
alone, knocked over a lamp which started 




fire which, 



other 




amonj 
unpleasantnes, meJ 
his TV set all over his 
computer He thought 
his goose was cooked. 

But when he took the 
Apple to Cincinnati Computer Store, 
mirabile dictu, it still worked. 

A new case and keyboard made it 
as good as new. 

Nearly 1,000 Apple dealers have 
complete service centers that can quickly 
fix just about anything that might go 
wrong, no matter how bizarre. 

So if you re looking for a personal 
computer that solves problems instead of 
creating them, look to your authorized 
Apple dealer. 

You 11 find everything well-done. 

[cippkz 



The personal computer. 




For the authorized dealer nearest you, call (800) 538-969*. In California, call 18001 662-9238. Or write: Apple Computer Inc., 10260 Bandley Dr . Cupertino. CA 95014 

CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



put... input/output... in 



Berlitz 

Dear Editor: 

The July 1981 issue of Creative Computing contains a letter 
from David Gross commenting on the problems of translating 
between Basic dialects. As I have just translated the program 
in question, "Streets of the City" Creative Computing, April 
1981), from the TRS-80 Basic to Applesoft, perhaps I can 
help with this problem and also point out some problems in 
the published program listing. 

The most important rule in translating any program is that 
you must understand the intent of the original code. "Streets 
of the City" is written in an extended Microsoft Basic and 
uses only a few features unique to the TRS-80 version. 

These features relate primarily to the TRS-80 screen format 
and character set. The screen is organized as 16 lines of 64 
characters each, and may include mixed text and graphics 
characters. The text characters are the standard 7-bit ASCII 
character set. These are augmented by 64 graphics characters 
with ASCII code values of 128 to 191 and which are listed in 
several recent reviews of printers that come equipped to print 
them, such as the Epson MX-80; and by 64 "space-compression 
codes" with ASCII code values of 192 to 255. Each of the 
latter will produce N-192 spaces, where N is the ASCII code 
value of the character being printed. In "Streets of the City" 
they are used to "clear to the end of line." 

TRS-80 Basics include a PRINT AT (Level I) or PRINT @ 
(Level II) statement to allow both horizontal and vertical 
tabbing on the screen. Each possible screen position is indexed 
from (zero, upper left) to 1023 (lower right) such that positions 
to 63 form the top line, positions 64 to 127 the second line, 
and so on. 

This statement causes scrolling on line 16 unless the text 
printed is followed by a semi-colon. In translating from the 
TRS-80 version to Applesoft, the main difficulty was to convert 
from a 64 by 16 format to the Apple's 40 by 24 format. 

The only other special function used is RND(N). In TRS-80 
Basics it returns a random integer between and N if N > = 
1. The Applesoft equivalent is to DEF FNR(N)=INT((N+D* 
RND(l) and replace RND(N) with FNR(N) in the rest of the 
program. 

The absence of a directory to explain the meaning of the 
variables proved more of a problem than the translation 
itself. 

In addition, I uncovered the following problems in the 
listing. The fixes suggested here should be TRS-80 compatible: 
they must be translated to other Basics. 
Replacement: 3065 IF YR = 1 GOTO 3241 
Delete: 3071,3072 (they duplicate lines 3052 and 3053) 
Replacement: 3295 IF S2(l) > THEN S6 = .... (rest of line 
ok; eliminates redundant conditional) 
Replacement: 3385 IF T(5.YR) < T(5,0) THEN B3 = T(5,YR)- 
2 ELSE B3 = T(5,0)-2(original had B2 = ...in ELSE clause). 



Replacement: 3655 IF CV < 6 THEN 15496 (original refers 
to non-existent line). 

Replacement: 3700 PRINT "PROPERTY TAX NEEDED";... 
(rest ok; values are in dollars, not mills) 
Replacement: 3784 IF X>2 THEN IF X< =CV THEN 
X3=RND(5) ELSE X3=RND(8) (original has unreachable 
code) 

Replacement: 3801 IF XI >6 THEN 3805 ELSE IF TB(2.YR) 
... (rest ok; original lacks ELSE and second IF is unreach- 
able). 

Replacement : 10627 IF PC< 2 THEN 10630 ELSE IF LS > = ... 
(same problem as 3801) 

Renumber: 15177 BECOMES 15240 (printer went beserk?) 
Ungarble: 15180 by deleting all text after "THEN 15190" (as 
above). 

There are many other places where the program can be made 
more efficient by simplifying expressions and removing paren- 
theses. 

Finally, assuming these problems have been corrected in 
the version sold by Creative Computing Software, let me note 
that the time it took to translate, enter and debug this program 
was probably worth about twice the cost of the disk-based 
version I could have ordered. I suspect this is generally true 
of any lengthy program. 

The only value in doing the translation is to learn new 
Basic "tricks of the trade." Although "Streets of the City" is 
an excellent simulation that I can wholeheartedly recommend 
(I still haven't mastered it!), the code is commendably straight- 
forward, so that this task will be of little value to all but the 
beginning programmer, who will find the lack of a data directory 
especially frustrating when trying to understand the internals 
of this simulation. 

Paul DeBenedictis 

306 Kensington Place 

Syracuse, NY 13210 



Traveller's Checks 



Dear Editor: 

Congratulations on another great issue of Creative Computing 
(August 1981). Although Lloyd Johnson's simulation "Star 
Merchant" is an enjoyable game. I thought it would only be 
fair, to the readers and the source, to mention the source of 
the simulation. 

"Star Merchant" is based on the science fiction role-plav ing 
system "Traveller." I first became aware of the connection 
after examining the cargoes and their base prices. I am 
disappointed by Mr. Johnson's negligence in crediting "Traveller" 
as his source. 



10 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Accounting Plus II 



A 



It Figures 



S«- x v a: a>#= 







-V 



..... 












JLt figures that the same people who 
brought you Accounting Plus" 1 on the larger 
computer systems wouldn't forget the Apple?* 
Accounting Plus II brings to the Apple 
Computer a completely integrated, easy to use 
accounting system. Accounting Plus II doesn't 
require any special hardware, only 48K of 
RAM and two floppy drives or hard disk, 
and you don't have to be a CPA to use it. 
Accounting Plus II organizes and streamlines 
your paper flow and generates checks, 
invoices, statements and purchase orders on 
pre-printed forms. The system supports a solid 
audit trail which your business requires and 
your accountant demands. 



Modules now available: 

* General Ledger 

* Accounts Receivable 

• Accounts Payable 

• Inventory with purchasing 

For additional information call or write 
Systems Plus Inc., 3975 East Bayshore, 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 Phone 415/969/7047 

Seeing is believing. 



Systems Plus 



•I'M of Software Dimentiont, San Jo*e, CA 
**I M of Apple Computer*, Cupertino, CA 




CIRCLE 277 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



"Traveller" is a role-playing system set in the far future 
(57th century A.D.) in a vast empire, The Imperium. containing 
approximately 1 1.000 worlds. The rules cover many facets of 
life in The Imperium and are constantly being expanded. 

"Traveller" is available from hobby stores or from Game 
Designers' Workshop. Box 1646, Bloomington. 1L 61701. The 
basic set is $11.98 (US) and Book O: An Introduction to 
Traveller for $5.98 (US) is an excellent introduction to the 
"Traveller" universe for the beginner. 

Marc Schlichtman 

82 Highland Ave. 

St. Catharines 

Ontario. Canada 

L2R 4J2 



Thanks for the information. We, too, regret the oversight. —EBS 



Freeze Your Boots Off 

Dear Editor: 

I am an occasionally proud and satisfied TRS-80 Model I 
owner. When the system is working, there is none better for 
the money. But when it's not. it's a prime source of frustration 
and anger. 

As I understand from many other TRS-80 users my ailment 
is a very common one and it should just be "lived with." The 
problem/symptom I'm referring to is when the screen "freezes" 
or less frequently the "random reboot." I have read of a few 
fixes for these two problems (most center around poor electrical 
connections at the parallel port connections) and tried most . 
but none work reliably. 

Can you help me with this problem? I would like to know 
what exactly is causing these symptoms/problems and how 
the hardware can be fixed permanently. 

I have faith that your experience and knowledge with these 
matters will save me. Please don't let me down. 

Ronald W. Graham. Jr. 

Graham Marine Electronics 

1 2 Rogers St. 

Gloucester, MA 01930 

This is a continuing problem, which we have not solved. In 
fact, it is the main reason that we have been converting to the 
LNW-80 computer for some of our in-house computing. It has 
yet to show the problem, while our Model I 's and III s do lock 
up. As you mentioned, cleaning the contacts between the 
keyboard and expansion interface helps. Radio Shack went 
through a series of modifications including a buffered cable 
and a direct refresh circuit connection in an attempt to solve 
this, so if you have one of the earliest model Ts, you may be 
able to get some help at your repair center. 

Instead of fixing the problem. I rely on saving the information. 
If you are using TRS-DOS 2.3. NewDOS. LDOS. or DOS- 
Plus, and running a Basic program, you should be able to 



recover your program with BASIC *. See the instructions in 
your manual. 

If you are using Scripsit, press the RESET key and hold 
down ENTER to override any AUTO message until you 
return to DOS READY. Then type DEBUG and press ENTER. 
Next press BREAK to enter the DEBUG monitor. Now type 
G6008 and press ENTER to return to SCRIPSIT with your 
file intact. 

In desperate situations, I use RSM 2D from Small Systems 
Software. Their diskette comes with a short BOOT routine 
that does not disturb resident memory. I load the monitor 
into the top of memory and use the ASCII dump function to 
find my program or data. If I just want a copy. I print it at the 
printer. 

If I want to recover my typing efforts. I note the starting 
and ending locations, convert them to decimal addresses, 
then return to Basic with one file and protect memory where 
my material begins. 

If the ending address is greater than memory location 
32767, you must subtract the ending address from 65536 to 
get the address in a form that Basic can understand. Then I 
use this program, with the appropriate starting and ending 
values substituted for 26810 and -32176. to recover my 
material. 

10 OPEN "0",1, "RECOVER/TXT" 

20 FORM = 26810 TO 32767:PR1NT #1. CHR$(PEEK(M)), 

:NEXT 
30 FORM = 32768 TO -32176:PRINT #1,CHR$(PEEK(M)|; 

:NEXT 
40 CLOSE 

This saves vour material in a sequential disk file called 
RECOVER /TXT. 

Please do not call me for help on these methods. I regret 
that my duties make it impossible for me to coach people 
over the phone. Therefore, I suggest that you practice the 
methods before you need them with dummy data, so that you 
can feel confident when you do have a crash. LDOS has 
special functions to deal with these problems that you might 
also wish to consider. — GB 




12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ow cost software 

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EVERY TYPIST AN EXPERT 

Because our MINCE TEXT EDITOR 

^iws you .1 lull screen image ol the 
text being edited before sou print 
it. you will Im- able to insert, delete. 
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more- . . . <ill iii the touch ol <i key or 
iwol Whal you see on tlie screen is 
what you get. Period 1 

TEXT FORMATTER 
ENHANCEMENT 

our SCRIBBLE 
FORMATTER lets 
you think In terms 
ol the actual 
structure ol the 



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chapters, sections, subsections, 
verses, quotations, and the like an 
tomatlcalty while typing. No longer 
will you have to worry about re 
membering margins, vertical spac- 
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Magazines of The FUTURE 



David H.Ahl 



It's going to be different than many 
people are forecasting. Despite a tremen- 
dous growth in electronic media, I just 
don't see all the newspapers, magazines, 
and other printed materials going out of 
business any time soon. The printed word 
has been with us for a long time and is 
remarkably resilient. I don't believe that 
just because people can contact databases 
and manipulate facts and figures on a TV 
screen that these electronic goodies will 
replace curling up in a chair with an 
interesting magazine or a good book. 

I also believe a substantial number of 
people, perhaps the majority, would prefer 
to get things in the mail rather than over 
the telephone. The motive for this is 
primarily financial. Having worked for 
Ma Bell and having been exposed to their 
desired future directions, it seems to me 
that the Bell System will be moving as 
fast as possible toward usage-sensitive 
pricing. That is, one will pay for the amount 
of time and distance one uses. There will 
be no such things as local calling areas or 
flat rates. Naturally consumers will protest 
this movement, but in the long run that is 
the direction that the Bell System is going. 
Their determination is reinforced by the 
fact that more and more competitors are 
active in the areas of equipment and 
terminal gear and, as a result, the Bell 
System has to look to network use as 
their main source of revenue in the 
future. 

Consequently, although today the cost 
of telecommunications is rising less rapidly 
than the cost of the US mail or parcel 
delivery services and the gap between the 
two is getting narrower, I believe that the 
gap will begin to widen again in the 
future. 

I also believe from a psychological 
standpoint that many people, again perhaps 
the majority, would prefer to do things at 
their own pace, time, and place. For 
example, although some people enjoy 
"timed" games, many people do not. Or, 
in reading a novel, many people prefer to 
read a chapter each night before bed while 



others will sit down and read it straight 
through. This suggests that services that 
are geared to the telephone (or other 
communications service) that force people 
to be in a particular place for a particular 
amount of time (as short as possible if 
you are paying for connect time) and 
complete everything in one burst may not 
be welcomed by the majority of the popula- 
tion. 

What all this suggests to me is that 
there may be a good opportunity to provide 
an alternative to the all-electronic media, 
in particular, a data base retrieval system 
that retains the advantages of the printed 
media. It doesn't take a genius to realize 
that at the moment this alternative is 
computer software in the form of floppy 
disks and tape cassettes, but the speed 
and capacity of these media are rather 
limited. The third alternative, of course, 
is the ROM cartridge as used in the Atari 
video computer system. Texas Instruments 
computer and others. However, this is 
excessively costly and certainly not viable 
for fast turnaround or short runs of an 
item. Obviously with double density and 
two-sided floppy disks, the amount of 
information that one of them can hold 
increases. However, if one is looking at a 
database the size of, let's say, one day's 
worth of New York Stock Exchange listings 
(two newspaper pages) this would take 
several, if not scores, of floppy disks. 
Furthermore the medium is almost com- 
pletely useless if we want to intermix 
moving color pictures, i.e., television quality 
pictures, along with computer informa- 
tion. 

Hence, the medium that 1 think offers 
the most promise, because it requires the 
least additional technology, is the laser 
scan video disk. At the moment, optical 
video disks and their players are relativey 
expensive. However, there are two develop- 
ments on the horizon that lead me to 
believe that the costs will be coming down 
dramatically in the near future. The first 
one is the 4-1/2" all-digital audio disk 
recently announced by Philips and for 
which at least four manufacturers have 
indicated that they will be producing a 
player. The second development is another 
all-digital audio "disk" the size of a credit 
card which has been developed by Dr. 



Thomas Stockham and for which he is 
currently developing a player. In general, 
the target price for audio components is 
under $300 and once some of the majors 
move in, there is usually a flurry of "Chinese 
copies' so that the devices can usually be 
had for S100 or less. 

What this suggests to me is that there 
may be a substantial financial opportunity 
for a company to take the technology 
which is being developed for the audio 
field and apply it to the computer field. 
Like so many other products, the real 
opportunity is not with the hardware but 
with the software. Like Gillette, the only 
reason to sell razor handles is to sell the 
blades. So the real opportunity I see is for 
an array of special subscription services 
offering financial data, coin collection data, 
engineering data, astronomy data, and all 
the different things for which people are 
currently subscribing to special-interest 
magazines as well as broad-based data 
retrieval services such as The Source and 
MicroNet. 

Personally I believe this is a much more 
viable and economically feasible form of 
"electronic publishing" than that currently 
being tested by AT&T with their "elec- 
tronic yellow pages," the Knight-Ritter 
newspaper tests in Florida, and even The 
Source, MicroNet, and other general 
services. 

In summary, the device I see being 
offered is a very inexpensive interface 
between an RS-232 port and as many of 
the all-digital audio players as possible. 
"Electronic magazines" could then be 
offered for the many special interest areas 
mentioned above plus others. There are 
some neat things about this strategy. One, 
piracy would be practically non-existent 
since the equipment to duplicate a laser 
scan disc is rather costly. Two, it's not 
particularly threatening to the existing 
printed media (who have strenuously 
resisted most of the on-the-air electronic 
experiments) or to the electronic media 
as it currently exists. Consequently, while 
the media may not cooperate with a new 
firm, at least they will not be down right 
hostile. 

Disadvantages: One, it will probably 
fail, and two, on the way to failing it will 
cost a bundle. ~DHA 



14 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



■ 







Don't make your 
computer old 

before its time 



Now there's Palantir u - Word 



and Accounting 



Software for Today's Computers 



You've just gotten a brand new computer. Don't tie it down 
with old software. Two-year-old software will make it run 
like a two-year-old computer. 

The microcomputer industry is the fastest growing, most 

exciting industry in the world. Today's printers, terminals and 

disk drives can do things no one even dreamed of two years 

ago. 

But a computer is just a dumb piece of metal until software 

gives it life, and, unfortunately, microcomputer software has 

not kept up with the hardware. 

Until now. 

There's a commonly held belief that you should not buy new 
software because it hasn't been tested. We say, "Hogwash!" 

At one time those complaints might have been valid, but the 
software industry has come of age. We do our testing before 
we release a product, not afterwards. 

More importantly, we've learned that quality cannot be 



tested into a product; it must be built in from the beginning 
by people who know what they ore doing. 

And we do. 

We formed Designer Software because we believed that the 
quality hardware of today demanded software of equal 
quality. It took a lot of time, sweat, money, care, experience 
and talent to make that belief a reality. 

We set high standards, but our team of CPA's, systems 
analysts, programmers, writers, artists and marketers that 
created Palantir" Word Processing and Accounting have 
exceeded all of our expectations. 

Palantir"' is the most professional packaged software ever 
to be offered to the CP/M® market. 

We don't expect to convince you of that with just one ad, and 
we won't try. But if you're in the market for business software, 
we hope we've convinced you to find out more about 
Palantir"' — today's software for today's computers. 



Designer Software 



HOUSTON 



CM u a >»g>ir*wj rrodemoft of D<gi'ol R«v»a'<K 



For more information and the name of a dealer near you, please write, call, 
telex or use The Source. Dealer, distributor and OEM inquiries invited. 

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(713)520-8221 • Telex 790510 • Source TCU671 



CIRCLE 150 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



D»»gw So+i.oft ond Palnnt.f u <« I'odtfnorhf O* PoloM.r l«t 




Introducing 
the Sinclair ZX81 

If you're ever going to buy 
a personal computer, now is the 
time to do it 

The new Sinclair ZX81 is the 
most powerful, yet easy to use 
computer ever offered for anywhere 
near the price only $149 95* completely 
assembled 

Don't let the price fool you The 
ZX81 has just about everything you 
could ask for in a personal computer. 

A breakthrough 
In personal computer* 

The 7X81 is a major advance over 
the original Sinclair ZX80 -the world's 
largest selling personal computer and 
the first for under $200 

In fact, the ZX81 s new 8K Extended 
BASIC otters features found only on com- 
puters costing two or three times as much 

Just look at what you get 

■ Continuous display, including moving 
graphics 

■ Multi dimensional string and numerical 
arrays 

"Plus shipping antl ' les connectors 

for TV and ra«ette A. 'Rfcfc manual 



■ Mathematical and scientific functions 
accurate to 8 decimal places 

■ Unique one-touch entry of key words 
like PRINT. RUN and LIST 

■ Automatic syntax error detection and 
easy editing 

■ Randomize function useful for both 
games and serious applications 

■ Built-in interface for ZX Printer 

■ IK of memory expandable to 16K 

The ZX81 is also very convenient 
to use It hooks up to any television set 
to produce a clear 32 -column by 24-line 
display And you can use a regular 
cassette recorder to store and recall 
programs by name. 



If you already own a ZX80 

The 8K Extended BASIC 
chip used in the ZX81 is available 
as a plug-in replacement for your 
ZX80 for only $39.95, plus shipping 
and handling-complete with new key- 
board overlay and the ZX81 manual. 
So in just a few minutes, with no 
special skills or tools required, you can 
upgrade your ZX80 to have all the 
powerful features of the ZX81 (You'll 
have everything except continuous dis- 
play, but you can still use the PAUSE 
and SCROLL commands to get moving 
graphics) 

With the 8K BASIC chip, your 
ZX80 will also be equipped to use the 
ZX Printer and Sinclair software. 

Warranty and Service Program** 
The Sinclair ZX81 is covered by a 
10-day money-back guarantee and a 
limited 90-day warranty that includes free 
parts and labor through our national 
service-by-mail facilities 

"Does not apply to ZX81 kits 




NEW SOFTWARE: Sinclair has 

published pre recorded pro- 
grams on cassettes for your 
ZXB1. or ZX80 with 8K BASIC 
We're constantly coming out 
with new programs, so we'll 
send you our latest software 
catalog with your computer. 



ZX PRINTER: The Sinclair ZX 
Printer will work with your ZX81. 
or ZX80 with 8K BASIC It will 
be available in the near future 
and will cost less than $100 



16K MEMORY MODULE: 

Like any powerful, full fledged 
computer, the ZX81 is expand- 
able Sinclair's 18K memory 
module plugs right onto the 
back of your ZX81 (or ZX80. 
with or without 8K BASIC) 
Cost is $99 95. plus shipping 
and handling 



ZX81 MANUAL: The ZX81 
comes with a comprehensive 
164 -page programming guide 
and operating manual de- 
signed for both beginners and 
experienced computer users 
A $10 95 value, its yours free 
with the ZX81 










Introducing 

the ZX81 kit 

If you really want to 
save money, and you enjoy 
building electronic kits, you 
can order the ZX81 in kit form 
for the incredible price of just 
$99.95* It's the same, full-featured 
computer, only you put it together 
yourself. We'll send complete, easy 
to-follow instructions on how you can 
assemble your ZX81 in just a few hours. 
All you have to supply is the soldering iron 

How to order 
Sinclair Research is the world's larg- 
est manufacturer of personal computers. 

The ZX81 represents the latest 
technology in microelectronics, and it 
picks up right where the ZX80 left off. 
Thousands are selling every week. 

We urge you to place your order 
for the new ZX81 today. The sooner you 
order, the sooner you can start enjoying 
your own computer. 

To order, simply call our toll free 
number, and use your MasterCard or VISA 
^-\ To order by mail, please use the 

/***^ \pupon. And send your check or money 
\ order. We regret that we cannot accept 
\ purchase orders or C.O.DIs. 

CALL 800-543-3000. Ask for op- 
erator #509. In Ohio call 800-582-1364 
In Canada call 513-729-4300 Ask for 
operator #509. Phones open 24 hours 
a day, 7 days a week. Have your Master- 
Card or VISA ready. 

These numbers are for orders 
only. For information, you must write to 
Sinclair Research Ltd., One Sinclair Plaza. 
Nashua. NH 03061. 



BONUS «T MBDDD 



The Experts Guide 
to Beating Asteroids, 

Battlezone, G3oloxion, 
IpOff. and Space Invaders. 



(BIB I ^BD ATAPI INC 



V^ up. I'm addicted. 
^ I spend my loose change 
and spare hours in the depths 
of depravity: coin-op video 
games. I play them, pound on 
them, and above all pour money into them. 
A roll of quarters and a game room are 
my idea of heaven. Sound familiar? 

These games were costing me so much, 
and beating me so quickly, that I couldn't 
play them as often as I wanted. So in self 
defense I decided I'd better get good at 
playing them. This article describes the 
techniques I've developed over time and 
several thousand quarters. It isn't written 
as an introduction to these games, just as 
articles on machine language aren't meant 
for beginning programmers. 

This article is meant for those of you 
who can't sleep without at least one game 
of Asteroids under your belt daily. It's for 
you with Space Invader's Wrist (you know, 
that ache after you've been holding your 

David and Sandy Small. 1 1314 Yucca Drive. Austin. 
TX 78750. 



hand that funny way for three hours). It's 
for those with Battlezone Tunnel Vision, 
which makes you drive strangely during 
rush hour. (How many people aim them- 
selves at cars in front of them and press 
the lights button, saying "Take that. Super- 
tank?") In short, it's for players who already 
know how to play the games, but need 
some tips on how to beat them. 

Don't expect any of these techniques 
I'll mention to be easy! 

Some of them require a great deal of 
practice, but the rewards are great. The 
first is stretching your roll of quarters 
considerably. The second is the feeling of 
intense satisfaction you get from beating 
a machine that was designed to be nearly 
unbeatable. The third, and perhaps most 
satisfying, is the looks on the faces of 
people walking through the arcades when 
they see your score. Finally, no one is 
more popular than a game master, since 
everyone would like to learn how to beat 
the machines. It's a great way to meet 
people. 



Let's start with Space Invaders, and 
find out how to achieve insanely high 
scores with it. 

Space Invaders 

Space Invaders, as everyone knows, took 
the world by storm. In Japan it became a 
craze of such magnitude that the mint 
had to triple production of the coin used 
in the machine. Things have cooled down 
a bit since then, but it's still a popular 
game, and a great way to improve your 
reflexes. 

The method used to beat it is twofold. 
The first part involves the beginning two 
or three "ranks," or complete screenfuls 
of invaders. The second is for ranks beyond 
this. 

At the start of the game, the enemy 
ships are well up there so there's little 
hurry. Move to the right side of the screen 
and pick them off one column at a time. 
(You may have to repeat fire a bit as 
enemy turps collide with yours, of course, 
but you want to finish a complete column 



18 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 















SYNC Magazine 

SYNC, a bi-monthly magazine for users and prospective 
users of the Sinclair ZX80 computer has expanded its 
coverage to include the ZX81 as well. 

Now entering its second year. SYNC has been providing 
nearly 10,000 Sinclair computer owners with information 
on how to make most effective use of their computers. 
"Resources." one of the most popular sections of the 
magazine, has listed over 100 second source vendors of 
software, peripherals and books as well as user groups. 

Each issue of the magazine carries complete application 
programs, tips and techniques for more effective program- 
ming, hardware modifications and in-depth evaluations of 
software, peripherals and books. 

Subscriptions to SYNC cost $10.00 per year (6 issues). 
SYNC. 39 E. Hanover Ave.. Morris Plains. NJ 07950. (201) 
540-0445. 



TheZX81 Companion 

The ZX81 Companion by Bob Maunder follows the 
same format as the popular ZX80 Companion. The book 
assists ZX81 users in four application areas: graphics. 
information retrieval, education and games. The book 
includes scores of fully documented listings of short routines 
as well as complete programs. For the serious user, the 
book also includes a disassembled listing of the ZX81 
ROM Monitor. 

MUSE reviewed the book and said. "Bob Maunder's 
ZX80 Companion was rightly recognized to be one of the 
best books published on progressive use of Sinclair's first 
micro. This is likely to gain a similar reputation. In its 130 
pages, his attempt to show meaningful uses of the machine 
is brilliantly successful." 

"The book has four sections with the author exploring 
in turn interactive graphics (gaming), information retrieval, 
educational computing, and the ZX81 monitor. In each 
case the exploration is thoughtfully written, detailed, and 
illustrated with meaningful programs. The educational 
section is the same -Bob Maunder is a teacher— and here 
we find sensible ideas tips, warnings and programs too." 

Softbound. 5 1/2 x 8". 132 pages. $8.95. 



The Gateway Guide 
to the ZX81 and ZX80 

The Gateway Guide to the ZX81 and ZX80 by Mark 
Charlton contains more than 70 fully documented and 
explained programs for the ZX81 (or 8K ZX80). The book 
is a "doing book," rather than a reading one and the 
author encourages the reader to try things out as he goes. 
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Expert's Guide, continued... 



* ** 



(Enemy wave moving -0 




Pick enemies off one column 
at a t i me . 



c 



[ 



I Tire from rightmost pos i t i ons . ! ♦ c!b *— ] 

Figure 1. 

There is a "gap" between the bottom of the 

invader and the spot where the missile is first 

plotted, and, more importantly, where collisions 

between the missile and your base are first 

checked for. 



at a time.) Try to destroy columns from 
the extreme right hand side of the screen 
working left, but if a column is out of 
range or hidden behind a barrier, take 
whoever is handiest. See Figure 1 . 

The key here is that the invaders must 
complete a full left-right or right-left sweep 
before advancing a row down. If you 
destroy a full column of them, it takes 
more time for them to complete a sweep 




and thus slows the advance. With enough 
time, you'll then be able to destroy them 
all. 

Note: The possibility of an invader firing 
at you is greatest if you are below him. 
You'll notice that enemy fire tends to 
concentrate on you; this is why. If you 
move a lot. this can be used to your 
advantage, as the only enemy fire you 
will have to worry about is random and of 
less heavy concentration. 

To zap the space ship as it goes over, 
left to right, move your base to the extreme 
right. Fire when he passes under the "O" 
of "Score" for Player 2. You'll hit him 
every time. You can figure something 
similar out for the other side. 

When there's only one invader left, he 
moves pretty quickly. More importantly, 
he's likely to be close. Every time he 
passes over your position, he'll fire at you 
and you'll have little time to react. So sit 
near a barrier and fire at him. then imme- 
diately start moving once you've fired 
and get under the barrier. Don't wait for 
his shot. 

It's after you've taken out two or three 
ranks that the fun really begins. There 
just isn't enough time to use the above 
techniques any more, so we have to rely 
on a bug in the Invaders program. 



This bug has to do with where an invader 
missile appears when first fired. Briefly, 
there's a "gap" between the bottom of the 
invader and the spot where the missile is 
first plotted, and. more importantly, where 
collisions between the missile and your 
base are first checked for. This is the way 
to get really amazing scores with Invaders— 
especially if you don't have superhuman 
reflexes. 

When the invaders get all the way down 
to the last row they can be on before 
winning on the final one. they are very 
close to your base. In fact, they're so 
close that the "missile gap" means they 
won't be able to hit you: it starts plotting 
below your position and misses. This is 
useful. See Figure 2. 

My technique is as follows: on each 
new rank past three, when things are really 
getting busy. I move one column in from 
the left side and blast a column completely 
through the invaders. I then expand it to 
two columns very carefully to the right 
side of the one just shot through. This 
gives a "safe area" in which to hide when 
the barriers are obliterated, which happens 
quickly on these ranks. Next. I try to do 
the same on the other side. This gives a 
hiding spot on either end. Remember you 
must leave at least one invader on the 
extreme ends to maintain the safe area at 
all times. See Figure 2. 

I then sit in the safe area taking potshots 
at the spaceships flying overhead. When 
the invaders reach the final row. it's time 




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Expert's Guide, continue 



Enemy ships will have "eaten through" barriers and be 
on bottom row before winning. Stay in "clear zones" 
until then. When they reach the bottom row, their 
shots will always miss; move from one side to the other, 
against the enemy's direction flow, and pick off the 
bottom zone. 



Clear 
Zone 



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35 35 

35 35 

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5 35 

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Clear 
Zone 



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An enemy missile won't appear until here 
vertically; hence, it'll miss you. 



Figure 2. 



to eliminate the bottom row. Moving 
against the flow of the invaders. 1 blow up 
the bottom row one at a time. There's no 
great hurry, so be careful; move right 
under them and make the shot count. 
You can't be shot as long as the bottom 
man exists. When you zap him. go to the 
next one quickly, as the invader above 
him will open up at close range, and it's 
best to be on your way. 

Work your way completely across. After 
destroying the invader on the far end. 
move into the other safe zone. Wait for 
them to move down another row. zap 
that row. etc. The last row gets a little 



hairy as the invaders really accelerate: 
for the last one. I'd recommend moving 
along with his horizontal motion to lessen 
the difference in speed between your 
ships. 

If you find they're moving too fast 
anyway, you'll need to destroy a few 
columns to increase the amount of time 
you have on the final row. 

After a bit of practice and fine tuning, 
you'll find yourself destroying endless ranks. 
You'll learn at what score the invaders 
flip over and you may even want to try 
counting your shots to increase the score 
for the space ships. 



Figure .?. 



o 




/ One minimum press of RIGHT 
control button's rotation 



X 



The asteroid cannot be hit from the present 
ship location; it lies between the minimum 
increments of the ship's rotation. 



Next, let's look at Asteroids, currently 
second in popularity only to Invaders. 

Asteroids 

Asteroids is not an easy game. It takes 
a great deal of practice to win even using 
the advice I'm about to give. You'll have 
to know such things as the speed of your 
missile nearly instinctively, so dig into 
your pocket and learn. 

Perhaps the neatest thing about Asteroids 
is that it is endlessly playable. There is no 
limit to the number of ships you can win. 
This means that if you get a score of a 
million, you'll have a hundred extra ships 
(you get one for each 10.000 points). You 
can play until your arms turn blue and 
fall off. This is a larity among videogames; 
usually only one extra ship can be won. 

Here are a few hints to note while 
learning. First, turning your ship is not a 
smooth motion. In other words, there is a 
limited number of positions in which your 
ship can appear while rotating, but there 
is a large difference in angle between 
minimum increments. The result is that 
from a non-moving position there are many 
places you can't hit. no matter how carefully 
you jockey your ship. What invariably 
kills the people who don't move is that an 
asteriod comes at them from an angle at 
which they can't fire. See Figure 3. 

The solution is to move! If you're mov- 
ing, you fire a spread of torpedoes which 
can sweep an area, versus just a straight 
line of them. Get used to moving around; 
you'll need to be good at it. Become 
especially familiar with going offscreen 
and note where you reappear on the other 
side of the screen. 

About firing torps: Only four torps can 
be used at any one time. They are a 
resource that must be conserved. Don't 
just hammer on the firing button and let 
the machine decide when you have a new 
torp available. Pick your shots. If you 
don't, you'll be killed when you don't have 
a torp available when you need it to kill 
something nearby. 

The enemy spaceships come in two sizes, 
stupid and nasty. The stupid (fat) one 
fires randomly and is a snap to hit. espe- 
cially with a spread of torps. The other 
one fires torps at you and is hard to hit; 
he's the size of a small asteroid. He fires 
at you from angles slightly different from 
yours, with rare shots directly at you. The 
effect is that he leads you if you're moving 
relative to him— a deadly trick. 

Now when Atari's engineers tested this 
game (most likely over a keg of beer— 
they've got pretty good working conditions 
there) they played it as they expected 
other people to, by going for asteroids. 
Sooner or later the field of view gets so 
cluttered you get blindsided no matter 
how good you are. The high score they 
got in testing was around 88,000. But here's 



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Expert's Guide, continued. 



Only possible intersect 
point with you. 



The odds of the enemy 
missile intersecting your 
position are very low. 



Enemy missi le 



Direction 
of travel 




Your m i ss i 1 es have a good 
chance of hitting the enemy 
if f i red i n a c 1 ose group . 
This increases the collision 
area. His have a very low 
chance of hitting you singly, 



Missi le 
Direction 



Intersection area 
with spaceships 



Figure 4. 



a technique they probably never thought 
of: ignore the asteroids and go for the 
small ships, each of which is worth 1000 
points. 

Blow away all the asteroids but one. It 
can be any size, but just have one left. 
Try to make it one that is moving more or 
less vertically; that will make your next 
task a bit easier. 

Next, pour on the power straight up or 
down. You may have to shift this a bit to 
avoid the asteroid as necessary. Try to 
stay in midscreen. Now when an enemy 
spaceship appears, turn quickly to the 
side, fire a very quick burst of four torps 
to intersect his path, and keep going. 

The strategy is as follows: His shots 
have a very low chance of hitting you. as 
they will be moving horizontally and you 
vertically. The chances of one colliding 
with your position in the brief time it's 
intersecting your vertical path are very 
small. But if you space you shots very 
closely, the odds of your shots hitting him 
are very high. Your firing speed will have 
to be very high (I use two fingers alternating 
on the button) and your shots should be 
spaced about one quarter inch apart; this 
will do the job well. You will frequently 
have to fire at the enemy using the wrap- 
around effect of the screen to catch him 
as early as possible. See Figure 4. 

If you should miss him until he reaches 
midscreen the chances of his shots colliding 
with you get much better. They intersect 
your path more often as he gets closer. 
Generally if I have missed him by this 
time. 1 give up and stay out of his way. 
You can do this by staying about half a 



screen away from him. Also, unless the 
game has been set up to be really nasty, 
he won't fire at "offscreen" positions, so 
you can use the wraparound effect to 
help you. 

Now eventually one of your shots or 
one of his will hit the sole remaining rock 
and nail it. If it's a large one, no problem; 
just select which asteroid you want to 
remain. If. however, it was the last one, 
you're about to become quite busy. Slow 
down quickly and center your position, a 
heap of rocks is about to appear, and you 
will have to whittle them down again. 
This may be the most dangerous part of 
the whole strategy. The advantage of 
keeping a large rock should now be clear: 
it extends the open season on the little 
space ships. 

Sure, you'll be killed eventually. But all 
you have to do to play forever is average 
a 1 : 10 kill ratio between you and the little 
ship, which isn't hard with practice using 
this technique. 

By the way. There is supposedly a bug 
in the older version of the Asteroid games 
which allows you to sit in the lower left 
corner and never be killed. I do know 
that Atari rushed out a new set of ROMS 
for their machines, so it may well be true. 

There's also a nastified version of 
Asteroids where the enemy ships do every- 
thing possible to kill you. including firing 
offscreen and such. Go easy on these 
machines. The less you play them, the 
fewer of them will be made. Finally, there 
is Asteroids Deluxe, in which the hyper 
control has been replaced by shields and 
in which certain asteroids break up into 



pieces which then attack and try to destroy 
you. Try it out; it's a new challenge and 
hard to beat. 

Next, let's look at Galaxian, or Advanced 
Invaders. 

Galaxian 

Galaxian is Space Invaders with a good 
bit of souping up. First, it's in color, which 
is neat (the colors do tend to dim on an 
old machine, though). The biggest differ 
ence is that the attackers peel off and 
come at you. I've found no "trick" to beat 
this game badly, just a set of tricks to 
stretch the ol' quarters. 

First, destroy the enemies one column 
at a time. You will have to practice and 
perfect the little sideways jig required to 
lead the sideways moving invaders (i.e., 
fire, jig, fire, and so forth). Leave the red 
and yellow fellers until later; they are 
worth significant numbers of points. Killing 
the attackers off a column at a time 
increases your killing efficiency, and thus 
your scores, by reducing the time between 
your kills. 

Interspersed with the above, you'll have 
to take out various attackers. Stay calm 
and pick your shots. You will soon find 
that a missed shot hurts badly because of 
the time wasted as your missile flies use- 
lessly by. You'll be amazed at how quickly 
you'll be able to predict the paths of 
invaders well enough to lead and hit them; 
the light blue ones always come for you 



26 




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Expert's Guide, continued. 



Destroy enemy as he carries fuel cell past 
your re-entry point. 



Any enemy attempting to carry off this canister 
can be immediately destroyed when you re-enter. 



A V A 



AAA 



Rema 1 n i ng f ue 1 
canisters (which 
1 nev i tab 1 y will be 
carried of f) . 



Figure 5. 



in a straight line, the purple ones have 
wild parabolic paths, and so on. One helpful 
trick is to keep your eye on the one ship 
at which you are aiming while you fire. 

Zap the triple group red ones first, then 
the yellow ones. You'll get 800 points for 
this order if you manage it. One important 
point about the yellow ones is that if you 
destroy an attacking yellow ship, all ships 
attacking stop firing at you. This can save 
you if you are pinned down by a large 
wave. 

Watch the purple ships! Their parabolas 
can be pretty radical— even to the point 
where they'll hit you from the side. The 
parabolas get wilder as the game progresses. 
All ships key on your position as of the 
moment they peel off to attack, and aim 
to intersect at that point. Use this to help 



you. For example, if you're in a corner 
when they peel off. you're likely to be 
trapped. 

At the end of each rank, when only two 
or three enemies are left, things get pretty 
tough. Try to pick off the attackers at the 
top of the screen, before they start dodging. 
One thing they do can be turned to your 
advantage: they follow your movement 
control, so if you dodge left, they will, 
too. Try wobbling your control back and 
forth, and the enemy will dance all over 
the screen. Remember that if you keep 
the control pegged to one side or another, 
you're giving the attacker unnecessary 
assistance. Should you be pinned on one 
side, with him coming across at you. center 
the control; that will help prevent him 
from getting far enough over to hit you. 



Battlezone. 




RipOff 

Never, never play RipOff alone. It is 
truly a rip off if you do. The machine's 
edge, as you will have figured out by now. 
is the time between your death and re- 
entry. With one player, you haven't got a 
chance. With two. your partner can cover 
for you while you get back in. 

You will always be killed in RipOff. 
There's really nothing you can do about 
it with the high speed enemy ships, since 
by the time you can see them you're dead. 
If you have a partner, however, and you 
stay split up. they can't usually get both 
of you at once. 

If an intruder should "drop" a fuel cell 
near your re-entry point, you have it made. 
Generally, they are not too co-operative 
about dropping it for you. so you will 
have to kill them there. Anytime you get 
killed, you will come back in a fine position 
to cover the fuel cell. Let an enemy go for 
a bit if it looks like he's headed that way. 
then kill him when his vertical position is 
the same as the entry point. I manage a 
Bonus +120 or so with little trouble when 
this happens. See Figure 5. 

Fire into corners and edges during the 
times between enemy attacks. You may 
catch the enemy as he enters the screen 
and take him out. and believe me, you 
need all the help you can get. Your partner 
should select another edge and fire at it. 

The best way to win this game is the 
firing technique. A good bet is "walking 
the rudders" while firing to spread out 
your shots from a straight line; this gives 
you a much larger collision area with the 
enemies. Once you have some practice 
you will be able to lay a one-inch wide 
spread easily, which is quite effective for 
killing enemy ships, one good hint for just 
before you die on a new fast enemy wave 
is to fire a spread into the fuel cells; 
generally some idiot enemy ship will fly 
right to the center, and be killed even as 
you die. 

I generally fly straight at the enemy, 
ensuring that I get him even if I miss him 
with my shots. One problem with RipOff 
reflexes, however, is that the rudder walking 
anil collision habits you build up are exactly 
what you don't need to win at Asteroids. 
Ah. well. 

Battlezone 

First, should you have a comment or 
suggestion about Battlezone, there's a guy 
you can send it to. He's not an official PR 
person, but rather the manager of the 
coin-op group that invented it: Ed Rotberg, 
Coin-Op Supervisor. Atari Inc.. 1196 
Borregas Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 

Tell him Dave sent you. (He'll probably 
never speak to me again for this, but 
maybe someone will send him some good 
ideas.) 

Here are a few very helpful hints for 
this addictive game. 



28 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



High-Resolution Color Graphics 
for the Apple and Atari 



Graphics 
Breakthrough 




How many programs have you written 
that would benefit from animated high- 
resolution graphics? Probably several. It is 
this kind of dramatic graphics that distinguish 
outstanding programs from ordinary ones. 
But if you've ever agonized for hours or 
days just to get one image perfected, you're 
probably not anxious to do it again. Now 
there's a better way. 

New Graphics Entry System 

Today there is a new graphics system 
available that is not only amazingly user- 
oriented but surprisingly economical. Called 
VersaWriter. it starts with an ingeniously 
simple entry board consisting of a 1 4" X 1 2" 
high impact plastic bed with a tough clear 
plastic overlay sheet. The original drawing 
or diagram is fastened with masking tape to 
the plastic bed and then covered with the 
clear sheet. Instead of using a light pen or 
complicated electronic X-Y head, the Versa- 
Writer uses a double jointed arm attached 
to the top of the entry board at one end and 
a magnifying lens with crosshairs at the 
other end. The VersaWriter resembles a 
draftsman's pantograph on a smaller scale. 

At each joint in the arm of the VersaWriter 
is a potentiometer. A cable from these 
pontentiometers connects to the paddle input 
of the computer. No special interface 
electronics or board is needed. Since the 
arm of the VersaWriter bends only in one 
direction, each point on the plotting head 
corresponds to a unique set of resistances 
on the potentiometers. All that's needed 
now is software to translate these resistances 
into usable screen coordinates. 

Exceptionally powerful software 

It is in the software where VersaWriter 
really stands out. VersaWriter comes with 
two full disks of user-oriented software. First 
it has sets of "low level'' commands for 
entering, creating and copying drawings 
and diagrams. Secondly, it has extensive 
sets of application routines for moving, 
enlarging, rotating, coloring or animating 
drawings that the user has created. 



Graphics Systems 

Versa Writer $249.00 

Kurta Graphics Tablet 695.00 

Summagraphics Digitizer 745.00 

Houston Instruments Hi Pad 795.00 

Apple Graphics Tablet 795.00 



Of course the basic commands let you enter 
a drawing freehand or by tracing it. Want a 
wider brush stroke? Six widths are available. 
Drawings can be independently scaled in 
both the vertical and horizontal directions. 
An enclosed shape may be filled in with 
any of 106 colors. No, that is not a misprint- 
By the same technique that a printing press 
can create hundreds of colors from the 
three primary ones, so can VersaWriter. 




Here a shape (the letter A) is being 
scanned. After putting it ina shape table 
it may be used in other programs. 




From the shape table, a shape (the letter 
A) may be enlarged, rotated, colored or 
moved about the screen. 

Create Animation for Other Programs 

The shapes you create with VersaWriter 
can be used and manipulated with ease in 
other programs. Up to 255 shapes can be 
entered into a shape table. These shapes 
may then be placed on the screen in any 
position or may be overlaid on a full or 
partial screen image. Animation is produced 
easily by moving about a portion of the 
image created by VersaWriter. For example. 
by alternating between two images of an 
airplane propeller it will appear to be spinning. 

Other VersaWriter software includes text- 
writer with which text can be added to 
graphics. Upper and lower case, choice of 
color, text size, direction and starting point 
all may be specified. 



The Area/Distance program lets you 
calculate distances (or perimeters) by enter- 
ing a scale and tracing a shape or map route 
with the drawing arm. Areas of figures, open 
and irregular, can be similarly calculated. 

The software also includes sets of elec- 
tronic and computer logic shapes. In addition, 
an entire disk of dramatic demonstration 
graphics is included. These twelve full-screen 
graphics run the gamut from a fully labeled 
cross section of a human skull to colored 
maps to animated cartoons to an electronic s 
schematic. 

Software Updates 

You may have read a review of VersaWriter 
that indicated that the color fill routine was 
slow. It was. But not any more. Several 
routines and improvements were added to 
the VersaWriter software since its intro- 
duction. An added feature, the Expansion 
Pac. is also now available. This third disk of 
software contains an area distance program, 
a microscope feature, and will save your 
graphics in the exact colors you prefer. It 
also includes shape tables for architecture, 
plumbing, electrical, circuit boards, land- 
scape, chemistry, games, and more; 350 
predefined shapes in all. 

At Peripherals Plus, we evaluated every 
graphics device. We wanted to handle the 
best one regardless of price. VersaWriter 
has the best performance bar none. Surpris- 
ingly, it also has the lowest price, just 
$299.00 for the Apple version. It requires 
an Apple II Applesoft in Rom (or an Apple 
II Plus), disk, and 48K memory. VersaWriter 
comes complete with two disks of software, 
a comprehensive instruction manual, and 
a 90-day limited warranty. The additional 
Expansion Pac is available for $39.95. 

The Atari version, which varies slightly 
from the Apple version in number and types 
of functions performed, is available for 
$299.00. As new updates are developed 
for the Atari, Peripherals Plus will furnish 
them free to all customers— just send us 
the disk and we'll supply the updated 
material. We make this unique offer because 
it is in our best interest to have you make 
the best use of your computer. We're also 
convinced that if other people see your 
VersaWriter in use they'll want one too. 

Try VersaWriter for 30 days. If you are not 
completely satisfied we'll give you a prompt 
and courteous refund of the full price plus 
shipping both ways. 

To order, specify Apple or Atari version, 
send payment plus $3.00 shipping and han- 
dling to Peripherals Plus, 39 East Hanover 
Ave., Morris Plains, NJ 07950. ( New Jersey 
residents please add 5% Sales tax.) Credit 
card customers should include card number 
and expiration date of Visa, MasterCard or 
American Express card. Credit card cus- 
tomers may also call toll-free 800-631-81 12 
(in NJ 201-540-0445). 

For spectacular graphics on your computer, 
order VersaWriter today. 

39 E. Hanover Ave., 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD . 



Expert's Guide, continued. 

Figure 6. 

The enemy can be 
brought to either 
d i agona 1 1 i ne 
by rotating 
with just one 
control 
forward. 




Rotate the enemy to 
this position. 



Old enemy pos i t i on 



Battlezone radar display 



Figure 7. 




1. Move enemy from his 
position on either 
diagonal 1 ine to a 
spot close to your 
pos i t i on . 



2. Move straight 
forward to bring him 
behind you. 



3. The enemy tank will 
now rotate to face your 
pos i t i on forward from 
him. 



Figure 8. 




Enemy's direction 



Now back up quickly. The enemy 
will be in your viewscreen, still 
pointing ahead. He'll begin to 
turn towards your new position, but 
you'll have plenty of time to kill 
him before he can finish turning. 



Enemy tanks never lead you. This means 
that yuu must keep moving'. If you have 
one handle forward, you're moving forward 
in a slow curve and are OK; if you have 
one forward and one back, you're sitting 
in one spot, and have little time to live. 
Never do this except just prior to zapping 
a tank. 

To kill a tank, reliably: 

1. Wait until the tank appears on the 
radar. If he appears right in front of you. 
try zapping him once carefully, then turn 
and move cause he'll start firing soon. 
Note his radar plot position. 

2. Move him. by moving one handle 
only, to twin diagonal lines on the radar 
display. If he's behind you. you can back 
up also. Be patient, and spin him around 
to one of the lines. See Figure 6. 

3. Bring him toward you down the line 
with a combination of forward and one 
handle forward. When he gets close, go 
straight forward, and continue until he's 
one quarter inch or so on the display 
behind you. See Figure 7. 

4. Back up quickly, right in front of 
him. He'll still be pointing forward, not 
back. Spin to his side (going up there and 
running into him is fun. too) and blow 
him away. See Figure 8. This works every 
time. What more could you ask? 

Minor Flourishes: If you should hit a 
barrier while backing up, or rotating, keep 
moving away from it. then go around. 

Super tanks are handled in the same 
way. Don't let them get directly behind 
you. or you're dead. Keep them in the 
forward area and expect them to try to 
run into you: they're designed to. Count 
on the collision and see what you can do 
to out-turn them. 

The Saucer always tries to maneuver 
you into the worst possible position. For 
example, it tries to line up a tank directly 
behind you by heading that way and 
encouraging you to turn in that direction. 
If this happens you haven't long to live. 
Sometimes, however, the enemy hits his 
own saucer! 

Buzzbombs 

I hate Buzzbombs. 

The first couple are simple. You can 
blow them away as they come at you. But 
then they begin to dodge back and forth 
until there's no clear shot at them, and 
they zap you from the side. I tried every- 
thing and spent a lot of money until I 
learned their secret. 

I reasoned it out as follows: The tank 
you are driving has no "depth" to the 
machine. Hence, I wondered, if you were 
right up against a barrier (which I had 
seen buzzbombs hop), would they hop 
you Uk>? The answer is yes. If you're 
snuggled up against a barrier in the way 
of a buzzbomb coming at you. it will hop 
the barrier and miss you every time. See 
Figure 9. 



30 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




This finger-pounding arcade gome require: 



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CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Expert's Guide, continued. 



Buzz bomb 



The buzzbomb 
hops the barrier 
Because it re- 
appears s 1 i ght 1 y 
beyond the barrier, 
it misses your tank, 
that doesn't have 
any "depth". 




Miss 
distance 



Tield of 
v i ew from 
your tank 

Tank ' s v i ewscreen 



| Path of buzzbomb 
after it hops barrier 



Figure 9. 



I can hear those of you who have experi- 
enced the Buzzbomb Certain Death saying. 
"Yeah? Neat!" 

Using the Battlezone barriers this way 
is a joy. See buzzbombs that would be 
deadly hop right over you. Learn the art 
of hanging back from the barrier a little, 
taking a potshot at the buzzer as it comes 
for you. then running for cover if you 
miss. Supertanks may also be clobbered 
this way; they will come straight for you, 
firing all the way. Interpose a barrier and 
they will hit it. Be on the other side, 
naturally, and back up a tad. He will back 
way up to one side. As soon as his tail end 
is visible, blast him. It's an excellent way 
to finish off a tough opponent. 

Conclusion 

I love video games. I'm looking forward 
to the next introduction of a new one. 
There's a new one with about three zillion 
controls called Defender that I'm starting 
to look over now, and I still have plenty 
of quarters ready. I hope the advice I've 
given will stretch your playing time and 
paycheck some, and increase your enjoy- 
ment of the games. 

Good luck! Oh, and if you should find 
any other good strategies, please feel free 
to drop me a line at the address listed in 
the beginning of this article. I'm always 
looking for new ideas! □ 




Ganjes ' 



Blister Ball/ 
Mad Bomber 

This completely original arcade game 
is only available on your Apple, not in the 
arcades Some mean but fun loving aliens 
have produced some bouncing bombs 
You have to move under them and zap 
them with your laser without getting hit 
They drop one at a time, then two. then 
three, then four, then five Next you have 
to contend with 5 bonus bombs, which 
do not bounce, but are worth five times 
as much You need nerves of steel and 
the reflexes of a tail gunner 



The disk also includes Mad Bomber 
You must destroy the bombs as the bomb 
racks are filled, for if you don t stay ahead 
of them, you don t have a chance Both 
games can be played solo or by two 
players, either against each other or as a 
team. Two games, on disk. (DOS 3 2). 
requiring 48K Apple with paddle controls. 
CS-4511 $24 95 

Torax 





The six highest scores are permanently 
stored on disk with your initials. This 
high-speed, real-time action arcade 
game requires a 32K Apple or Apple II 
Plus and game paddles. Diskette CS- 
4520, $24.95 

Order Today 

To order these software packages, 
send payment plus $2.00 postage and 
handling per order to the address 
below. Visa, MasterCard and American 
Express orders may be called in 
toll-free. 

Order today at no risk If you are not 
completely satisfied, your money will 
be promptly and courteously refunded. 



Defend your home planet against the 
invading Torids! Shoot down the in- 
vaders, but don't hit the nuclear fuel 
tanks that they are intent on stealing. 



creative 

computing 

software 



Morns Plains, 
N.J 07950 

Toll-free 
800-631-8112 

in N.J. 
201-540-0445 



J 



JANUARY 1982 



33 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Super Vaders and Space Intruders 



Invaders for the TRS-80 



Owen Linzmayer 




The software market has been saturated 
with versions of Space Invaders for the 
TRS-80; few great, some OK and many 
horrendous. Rather than criticizing the 
deplorable, this review is intended to praise 
two exemplary programs modeled after 
the famous arcade game. The programs 
are Super Vaders from Soft Sector Mar- 
keting and Space Intruders from Adventure 
International. 

Space Invaders is the grand-daddy of 
arcade games. In it, rows of aliens march 
left and right, criss-crossing the screen, 
launching lethal missiles at the lone 
defender below. When the army of invaders 
reaches either side of the screen, it drops 
down one step closer to the player's laser 
base. If the invaders manage to get down 
to the level of the cannon, the game is 
over and the Taito Corp. is twenty-five 
cents richer. 

As the number of intruders decreases, 
the speed of the remaining aliens increases. 
When the first screenful of invaders has 
been cleared, a second, faster group 
appears; only this time they start off a 
notch lower than the preceding wave. 

Even though there are four shelters to 
protect him. the player must constantly 
be on the alert as he glides across the 
bottom of the screen picking off any 
unfortunate invader that gets caught in 
his line of fire. Occasionally, a UFO will 
transverse the uppermost portion of the 
sky, daring the player to blow it away. 

Although these UFOs are worth big 
points, their objective is to draw your 
attention away, in the hopes that you 
won't notice an oncoming missile. The 
arcade version of Space Invaders is endless, 
if you can manage to keep one base intact 
you may play forever, racking up scores 
in excess of hundreds of thousands of 
points. 

Super Vaders 

Super Vaders is a machine language 
program written by Larry Ashmun of Soft 
Sector Marketing. It is a modified and 
greatly enhanced version of Invaders Plus. 



There are nine levels of play, not including 
the Blitz mode. Blitz is not for the timid; 
bombs are hurled towards you at dizzying 
speeds as the invaders whiz through the 
heavens. I'm told by the author that the 
number of boards/screens in the Blitz mode 
is infinite, but I have never gotten past 
the second set of insuperable invaders. 

If you are playing any level other than 
Blitz, you must destroy only four waves 
of invaders before the game is over. This 
is a slight drawback, but with nine levels 
of play, the game is challenging to novice 



The sound-effects 
are exceptional. 



and expert alike. At the beginning of each 
new onslaught, the number of laser bases 
is always four (these will disappear quicker 
than you think). 

Every time one of your bases is 
destroyed, the number of ships left is 
flashed momentarily where your last ship 
was hit. This is a novel feature that more 



creative computing 
SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Super Vaders 

Type: Arcade 

System: TRS-80 Model [/HI. 16K 

Format: Cassette or disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Top of the line Space 

Invader game for the 

TRS-80 

Price: $19.95 

Manufacturer: 

Soft Sector Marketing 
6250 Middlebelt 
Garden City, MI 48135 



34 



programs should use. In the old version 
of Invaders Plus, you could only do one 
thing at a time, move or shoot. In Super 
Vaders you can do both simultaneously, 
with rapid-fire shooting no less! 

The sound-effects are exceptional. Some- 
thing is always coming out the cassette 
port, from the zapping of an invader to 
the ever-increasing background tempo 
which intensifies the game. 

There are only two small complaints I 
have about this game. The first dealing 
with the scoring: your score is only shown 
after the game is completed. This is a 
minor problem but I can see why it was 
done this way. To have on-screen scoring, 
the top row would have to be set aside for 
the score section instead of being reserved 
for the UFO ship. 

My second complaint is that the two- 
player option is not really that at all. The 
second player doesn't get to man the 
controls until after his opponent has been 
annihilated four times and is finished with 
his game. 

Space Intruders 

Space Intruders, also a machine language 
program, is written by Doug Kennedy. It 
differs from Super Vaders in that it is 
modeled after Space Invaders Part II 
(commonly know as Deluxe Space Inva- 
ders). Intruders replicates every aspect of 
the arcade game, and very well. I might 

add. 

One of the first differences between 
the original and deluxe arcade games you 
will notice is that there are "splitting 
invaders." That is, if you hit one, it dupli- 
cates itself and a clone appears beside it. 
These two do not split again if hit. 

There are three different types of UFOs 
in Space Intruders; the regular ship, a 
flashing ship and a reinforcement ship. 
The flashing UFO blinks on and off as it 
flies across the screen. To destroy it. your 
laser blasts must hit it when it is "on." 
The reinforcement ship periodically comes 
by to drop extra aliens into the empty 
slots in the uppermost row. This can be 
nerve-wracking when you thought you 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THEY SAY THE JAPANESE 
ARE COMING AND WILL 
INMATE MICROCOMPUTING. 
THE INNOVATORS SAY WELCOME! 



• • 



In 1978 Exldy Introduced 
the Sorcerer " Microcomputer 
to the personal computer 
marketplace. 




It was clearly ahead 
of its time and the competition in price 
and performance The graphics were 
superior, upper/lower case characters 
were standard and numeric keyboard 
was included Printer, communication 
and dual cassette electronics were 
built-in. not options. Twice as much 
information was displayed on the screen 
The competition created their next 
generation to catch up. 



In 1980 Exidy introduced 
their Integrated desktop 
Computer System 80 for the very 
small business. It was an extension 
of the Sorcerer " computer 
not obsoletmg it but 
expanding its capacity 
from the home to 
the office 
Its price/performance 
outstripped the 
competition in desktop 
computers Dual disk drives 
with 1.2 million words of information, 
letter quality printer and office 
automation software a complete 
business computer breaking a new 
price barrier. 



In 1981 Exldy Systems 
Introduced Multi-Net 80, the first 





MP/M. CP/N 



multi-processor, multi-user, multi-tasking 
computer system with MP/M'" 
CP/NET'" and CP/NOS'" for the serious 
small business. Once again the 
Multi-Net is an extension of the same 
Sorcerer - Computer purchased in 1978 
or 1980 Your getting started' computer 
becomes your 'getting serious' computer 
in a multi-user, multi-task environment 
Networking becomes a reality with 
Exidy Systems, with our competition 
it's a twinkle in their eye. 

By adding Multi-Net 80 capacity 
to your stand alone computer system 
you add a minimum of 35 megabytes of 
Winchester storage and true 16 user 
capability because each user has their 
very own CP/M compatible Z80 
microcomputer That's true 
■■^/S upward compatibility in both 

C hardware and software from the 

company that delivers Innovation 
in Microcomputing'" 



What do we say 
about competition? 
We welcome it!!! 



INNOVATION IN MICROCOMPUTING 



CIRCLE 1 77 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Invaders, continued... 

were almost finished with a wave and 
suddenly more intruders are strewn in 
your path to victory. 

Space Intruders is so much like Deluxe 
Space Invaders that it even has two features 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Space Intruders 

Type: Arcade 

System: TRS Model I/III. 16K 

Format: Cassette or disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Excellent TRS-80 

rendition of Deluxe Space 
Invaders 

Price: Space Intruders $19.95 tape 
Model I and III. $20.95 disk 
Model I 

Manufacturer: 

Adventure International 
Box 3435 
Longwood. FL 32750 



many people don't even know exist in the 
arcade game. The first is "counting your 
shots." Contrary to popular belief, the 
UFO point values are not random, but 
rather follow a pattern depending on the 
number of shots you have fired. By counting 



0*y **»• w & p( itfy >#» 

<*? *7 •* «*? ■**. •*! 6R 
<ft W <fr cjk) 9* ^? <*? 




"Come now. Mary— what makes you think we're 
being allocked by invaders from outer space ' 

shots and hitting the UFO at the right 
time, you can consistently get the maximum 
point rating. 

The other feature, one that only a few 
people know about, is referred to as the 
"rainbow effect." If the last alien on the 
screen is one from the bottom row and 
you destroy it, you are awarded bonus 
points and treated to an interesting graphics 
display (the rainbow). 

There is a two-player option in this 
program in which players alternate turns 
after being destroyed, but the time allotted 
for changing positions is not sufficient. 



One extra ship is awarded at 2000 points; 
that's the only freebie you'll get. so use it 
well. Unlike Super Vaders. this program 
does have on-screen scoring and also lets 
the high-scorer input his name (eight letters 
maximum). On the lower left, the number 
of ships remaining is shown and at the 
right, the number corresponding to the 
wave you are presently battling. 

Both Super Vaders and Space Intruders 
use excellent sound routines and lightning- 
fast, smooth graphics. They are the top- 
of-the-line Space Invader games for the 
TRS-80. 1 don't recommend one over the 
other because they are modeled after 
different games. 



Contrary to popular 

belief, the UFO point 

values are not random. 



If you like the original Space Invaders 
then get Super Vaders. if you prefer the 
Deluxe arcade game, then by all means, 
get the Space Intruders program. Better 
yet, buy them both. Then you'll have all 
the invader games you'll ever need. Both 
games are virtual black-holes, capable of 
sucking up hours and hours of play time 
while improving your game. □ 



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CIRCLE 271 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The story behind the two best selling 
computer games books in the world. 

Computer 

Games 



by David H.Ahl 

Everybody likes games. Children like tic 
tac toe. Gamblers like blackjack. Trekkies 
like Star Trek. Almost everyone has a favor- 
ite game or two. 

It Started In 1971 

Ten years ago when I was at Digital 
Equipment Corp. (DEC), we wanted a pain- 
less way to show reluctant educators that 
computers weren't scary or difficult to use. 
Games and simulations seemed like a good 
method. 



So I put out a call to all our customers to 
send us their best computer games. The 
response was overwhelming. I got 21 ver- 
sions of blackjack, 15 of nim and 12 of 
battleship. 

From this enormous outpouring I se- 
lected the 90 best games and added 1 1 that 
I had written myself for a total of 101. I 
edited these into a book called 101 Basic 
Computer Games which was published by 
DEC. It still is. 

When I left DEC in 1974 I asked for the 
rights to print the book independently. 
They agreed as long as the name was 
changed. 







Introduction 


Hi-Lo 


Contents of Basic Computer Games (right) 


The Basic Language High l-Q 
Conversion to Other Hockey 


and More Basic Computer Games (below). 


Basics 


Horserace 






Acey Oucey 


Hurkle 






Amazing 


Kinema 






Animal 


King 






Awari 


Letter 


Artillery-3 


Life Expectancy 


Bagels 


Life 


Baccarat 


Lissaious 


Banner 


Life For Two 


Bible Quiz 


Magic Square 


Basketball 


Literature Quiz 


Big 6 


Man-Eating Rabbit 


Batnum 


Love 


Binary 


Maneuvers 


Battle 


Lunar LEM Rocket 


Blackbox 


Mastermind 


Blackjack 


Master Mind 


Bobstones 


Masterbagels 


Bombardment 


Math Dice 


Bocce 


Matpuzzle 


Bombs Away 


Mugwump 


Bogall 


Maze 


Bounce 


Name 


Bumbrun 


Millionaire 


Bowling 


Nicomachus 


Bridge-It 


Minotaur 


Boxing 


Nim 


Camel 


Motorcycle Jump 


Bug 


Number 


Chase 


Nomad 


Bullfight 


One Check 


Chuck-A-Luck 


Not One 


Bullae ye 


Orbit 


Close Encounters 


Obstacle 


Bunny 


Pizza 


Column 


Octrix 


Buzzword 


Poetry 


Concentration 


Pasart 


Calendar 


Poker 


Condot 


Pasart2 


Change 


Queen 


Convoy 


Pinball 


Checkers 


Reverse 


Corral 


Rabbit Chase 


Chemist 


Rock. Scissors. Paper 


Countdown 


Road race 


Chief 


Roulette 


Cup 


Rotate 


Chomp 


Russian Roulette 


Dealer's Choice 


Sate 


Civil War 


Salvo 


Oeepspace 


Scales 


Combat 


Sine Wave 


Defuse 


Schmoo 


Crape 


Slalom 


Dodgem 


Seabattle 


Cube 


Slots 


Doors 


Sea war 


Depth Charge 


Splat 


Drag 


Shoot 


Diamond 


Stars 


Dr. Z 


Smash 


Dice 


Stock Market 


Eliza 


Strike 9 


Digits 


Super Star Trek 


Father 


Tennis 


Even Wins 


Synonym 


Flip 


Tickertape 


Flip Flop 


Target 


Four In A Row 


TV Plot 


Football 


3-D Rot 


Geowar 


Twonky 


Fur Trader 


3-D Tic-Tac-Toe 


Grand Prix 


Two-to-Ten 


Golf 


Tic Tac toe 


Guess-It 


UFO 


Gomoko 


Tower 


ICBM 


Under & Over 


Guess 


Train 


Inkblot 


Van Gam 


Gunner 


Trap 


Joust 


Warfish 


Hammurabi 


23 Matches 


Jumping Balls 


Word Search Puzzle 


Hangman 


War 


Keno 


Wumpus 1 


Hello 


Weekday 


LGame 


Wumpus 2 


Hexapawn 


Word 



Converted to Microsoft Basic 

The games in the original book were in 
many different dialects of Basic. So Steve 
North and I converted all the games to 
standard Microsoft Basic, expanded the 
descriptions and published the book under 
the new name Basic Computer Games 

Over the next three years, people sent in 
improved versions of many of the games 
along with scores of new ones. So in 1979. 
we totally revised and corrected Basic 
Computer Games and published a com- 
pletely new companion volume of 84 ad- 
ditional games called More Basic Com- 
puter Games. This edition is available in 
both Microsoft Basic and TRS-80 Basic for 
owners of the TRS-80 computer. 

Today Basic Computer Games is in its 
fifth printing and More Basic Computer 
Games is in its second. Combined sales are 
over one half million copies making them 
the best selling pair of books in recrea- 
tional computing by a wide margin There 
are many imitators, but all offer a fraction of 
the number of games and cost far more. 

The games in these books include classic 
board games like checkers. They include 
challenging simulation games like Camel 
(get across the desert on your camel) and 
Super Star Trek. There are number games 
like Guess My Number, Stars and Battle of 
Numbers. You II find gambling games like 
blackjack, keno, and poker. All told there 
are 185 different games in these two 
books. 

Whether you re just getting started with 
computers or a proficient programmer, 
you'll find something of interest. You'll find 
15-line games and 400-line games and 
everything in between. 

The value offered by these books is out- 
standing. Every other publisher has raised 
the price of their books yet these sell for 
the same price as they did in 1974. 

Moneyback Guarantee 

Examine one or both of these books and 
key some games into your computer. If 
you're not completely satisfied well refund 
the full purchase price plus your return 
postage. 

Basic Computer Games costs only $7.50 
and More Basic Computer Games just 
$7.95 for either the Microsoft or TRS-80 
edition ( please specify your choice on your 
order). Both books together are $ 1 5. Send 
payment plus $2.00 shipping and handling 
to Creative Computing Press. Morris 
Plains. NJ 07950. Visa. MasterCard and 
American Express orders should include 
card number and expiration date. Charge 
card orders may also be called in toll-free to 
800-631-81 1 2 (in NJ 201-540-0445). 

Order today to turn your computer into 
the best game player on the block. 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







Imagine how excited I was when, after 
using the Apple in the Editorial department 
of Creative Computing for nothing but 
mundane record keeping, several new 
games appeared on my desk for review. I 
began to drool as my grubby little hands 
booted the games for the first time. One 
of them. Castle Wolfenstein from Muse, 
has made me an addict. 

After the almost endless list of tedious 
instructions for playing Castle Wolfenstein. 
an Allied prisoner shows up in the first 
room of a maze of adjoining rooms that is 
guarded by Nazi soldiers. The mission is 
to maneuver the Allied soldier past cruel 
Nazi guards and sadistic SS stormtroopers. 
recover the secret war plans, and escape 
the deadly confines of Castle Wolfenstein. 

Armed with a gun loaded with ten bullets. 
the Allied captive attempts to kill Nazi 
guards who scream with piercing shrillness 
when shot. After shooting a Nazi, the 
prisoner can search him for such goodies 
as bullets, grenades, and door keys by 
standing over the dead body and pressing 
the space bar. However, the prisonei can 
take bullets from a dead guard only if the 




creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Castle Wolfenstein 

Type: Action/ Ad venture game 

System: Apple II or II Plus with 48K. 
Applesoft ROM 

Formal: Disk 

Language: Machine Language 

Summary: Challenging and 
interesting game 
Price: $29.95 
Manufacturer: 

Muse Software. Inc. 

330 N. Charles St. 

Baltimore. MD 21201 



gaurd's clip contains more than the pris- 
oner's supply. Sometimes a gaurd will 
surrender to the prisoner when an empty 
gun is pointed at him from point-blank 
range. Then the prisoner can search the 
guard and shoot him with his own ammuni- 
tion. 

Once the pesky Nazis are eliminated 
from the tirst room, the prisoner can search 
the supply chests that are located in most 
of the rooms by pointing his gun at the 
chest and pressing the space bur. By 
pressing the *U' key, the prisoner obtains 
the contents of the chest. The contents of 
these chests enable the piisonci to replenish 
depleted supplies ol bullets and grenades; 
he may also find Nazi uniforms and 
bulletproof vests. Once the prisoner is 
wearing the uniform and vest. Ik can 
wander from room to room unnoticed by 
all Nazis except the SS men. I he SS 
stormtroopeis are particularly nasty 
because of their unrelenting and over 



whelming power. They are hard to destroy, 
and it usually takes a direct hit from a 
grenade to kill them. Often, a missed 
attempt at killing a stormtrooper spells a 
quick, sure end for the Allied prisoner. 

Once the prisoner has a full supply of 
ten bullets, three grenades, and is wearing 
the uniform and vest, all he needs to 
complete his escape are the war plans. 
But the road to escape is long and hard, 
and blocked by ruthless Nazis. 

There are many pitfalls to hinder the 
escape of the Allied prisoner. Depleted 
supplies of bullets and grenades, confusing 
paths of escape, and frequent encounters 
with the seemingly unconquerable SS 
stormtroopers all contribute to a very low 
success rate. 

Castle Wolfenstein is not without its 
annoying features. One of them is its 
irritating habit of disrupting the game's 
graphic layout when the Allied prisoner 
accidentally bumps into a wall. But the 
most frustrating feature is the length of 
time it takes to escape. This is due mainly 
to the time it takes to open the supply 
chests. Even more frustrating rs waiting a 




38 



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National Proficiency Series $1,299.00 

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Time Traveler 

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Sword of Zedek 

Fight to overthrow Ra. The Master of Evil. 
Treachery, deceit and witchcraft must be faced 
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32K $39.95 



Krell Software Corp. 

21 Millbrook Drive, Stony Brook, NY 1 1790 

(516) 751-5139 



I 



JANUARY 1982 



39 



CIRCLE 219 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Escape, continued... 

long time for a chest to open only to find 
that it contains something completely 
useless like sauerkraut, bratwurst. or 
schnapps. 

Shooting bullets at a chest cuts down 
the amount of time it takes to open it but 
also diminishes the supply of bullets. You 
quickly learn that patience is the most 
important virtue when playing Castle 
Wolfenstein. 

With a little luck and a lot of patience, 
you can escape from the castle. If you arc- 
lucky enough to escape with the war plans, 
you will definitely be promoted in rank; if 
you escape without the plans, you may or 
may not be promoted. With each escape, 
the layout of the castle changes and escape 
becomes more difficult. 

The graphics of the game are simple 
but effective. The three different soldiers— 
the Allied prisoner. Nazi soldiers, and SS 



men — are easily distinguished from each 
other by their clothing. The prisoner ( unless 
he is wearing a Nazi uniform or vest) has 
no distinctive markings; an ordinary Nazi 
soldier has a dark uniform with a stripe 
across it; and the powerful stormtroopers 
wear the ominous letters SS on their vest. 

Explosions are brightly flashed on the 
screen to signal the demise of the prisoner 
and the end of the game. Escaping from 
the castle is depicted by the escaped 
prisoner triumphantly standing out on an 
open drawbridge with the brightened sky 
overhead filled with birds. 

Castle Wolfenstein can be played with 
a joystick or paddle, or on a keyboard. 
The joystick allows for the easiest maneu- 
verability, while the keyboard is the most 
difficult of the three controls to direct 
movement. 

Castle Wolfenstein may be a little slow 
to play, but the thrill of the escape is 
worth the wait. Auf wiedersehn! □ 




IttflOL FEN STEIN 

^*^r* by Silas Warner 

For Apple- II Of Apple II Plus with48K 
$29 95 



MUSfc 



SOU WAKE ■ 



CIRCLE 226 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



330 N CHARLES STREET 
BAUIMORE. MD 21201 
,(301)65^ 7212 



LdZaron: 

The Man 
from Muse 

IrV.H. Earle 



It looks like a computer store. The 
offices behind it look like the offices of 
any other small software house, awash in 
disks, sales handouts, and documentation 
manuals. 

But to 39-year-old Ed Zaron. founder 
and president of Muse Software, his com- 
pany's offices are his recording studio, 
and his staff a support group comparable 
to the roadies and sound technicians a 
rock group employs when it's recording 
an album. 

And just as a rock musician's crew frees 
him from worrying about details so that 
he can concentrate on his instrument, so 
does the Muse staff free Zaron so that, as 
he explains with a laugh. "I can spend my 
time playing with the computer." 



A computer can be 
anything you want. 



"Playing with the computer" has taken 
up a major portion of Zaron's life since 
he first bought an Apple in February. 
I97S. The machine arrived just as a ten- 
year stint as a programmer/analyst with 
Commercial Credit was beginning to lose 
its appeal. The predictable result? Instead 
of spending his off-hours worrying about 
office problems. Zaron plunged into the 
task of mastering his new machine. "It 
got to be a routine where every single day 
I just came in the front door, turned the 
computer on. and went back to work- 
almost an obsession." 

It was not long after the onset of that 
obsession that friends began asking for 
copies of programs Zaron had written. 
Sensing the opportunity that such demands 
represented, he began haunting computer 



vn M Earle. 4 1 Springridgc Court. Baltimore. 
MO 21207. 



n, contin 




shows with shopping bags full of cassettes 
containing games produced either by Zaron 
or by his Commercial Credit (and now 
Muse Software) associate. Silas Warner. 

By the fall of 1978. that modest sales 
effort had left the first floor of Zaron's 
house littered with cassettes, duplicating 
gear, and shipping materials. By November 
it was time to hire a friend's wife to help 
duplicate tapes in newly rented offices 
and to leave Commercial Credit once and 
for all. 

Muse's progess has been uphill ever 
since then — the initial staff of one now 
numbers 13— but it was touch and go at 
first. "I started the company with about 
$17, and for the first six months we hardly 
had more than that." Sales in that first 
year were around $10,000. but "over every 
four or five month period, our sales have 
at least doubled"— a progression that could 
lead to somewhere between $2.5 million 
and $3 million in sales in 1981. 

That kind of financial action naturally 
involves management on Zaron's part, but 
he counts himself lucky that best friend 
Jim Black is able to handle most of the 
administrative work involved in managing 
a growing concern. That arrangement frees 
Zaron to spend most of his time— "day 
and night"— serving as the primary creative 
force behind Muse's growing list of highly 
regarded software products. 



I really love working with computers," 
says Zaron. "There's nothing I think about 
more than that. A computer can be any- 
thing you want. If you sit back and have a 
good idea, you can just go and do it on a 
computer. It's just the realization of any 
dream. It's tremendously creative." 



Computer artists are 
going to be recognized 
in the same way that 
rock stars are now. 



That creativity is in turn the explanation 
for the development of Muse's product 
line: "Creativity is first here, and marketing 
kind of follows it to help keep sales up so 
we can keep on being creative." Games, 
thus, came first because they offered the 
most obvious opportunity for Muse's "com- 
puter artists" to exercise their skills. Busi- 
ness and educational products appeared 
only in response to demand- and only 
after Zaron realized that the "elegance" 
he likes to cite as the hallmark of Muse 
software was yet another expression of 
the creative process. 



luse plans to continue its involvement 
with business and educational programs 
in the future, but games will continue to 
dominate the product line. 

The development of Muse will continue 
to be guided by Zaron's conception of 
himself, his staff programmers, and the 
freelancers whose work Muse occasionally 
markets. Their creative skills determine 
the products the company will produce, 
and that fact leads to the obvious parallel 
between the software and music businesses: 
each is dominated by its artists, and each 
is engaged in a constant search for an 
unending stream of hits. 

Eventually, says Zaron. "Computer artists 
are going to be recognized in the same 
way that rock stars are now. Everything 
they do is just so personal. What kind of 
experience can somebody take you 
through? They can take you through a 
music experience, or they can take you 
through an experience on your computer. 
Just as. if you listen to any John Lennon 
album, you hear his rhythm in there, I 
think if you look at any program by the 
same guy. you hear his rhythm in there." 

The analogy has its limits, of course: 
Zaron doesn't plan to start doing concerts 
on tour any time soon, and Creative 
Computing isn't ready to run a Top Ten 
just yet. 

But if you some day run across a diskette 
titled Muse's Golden Oldies, you'll know 
who's at the keyboard. □ 



Ed Zaron of MUSE Software 

Former Real World Programmer Makes Good 
in Computer Software Business 



Less-than-outstanding public relations photo from understaffed 
PR department who have more profitable things to worry about 



Wilting plants show effects 
of unsuccessful runs of 
"Three Mile Island." 



Sunglasses to shield eyes 
from glare of continuous play- 
ing Of Robotwar on CRT 
screen. 



Big smile resulting from big 
profits from "Castle Wolfen- 
stein." 



DieHard battery for instant 
computer power to The 
Voice" in case of brownout 




Panoramic view from pent- 
house suite of MUSE Soft- 
ware Building. 



Wrench and pliers in pencil 
cup for immediate repair of 
balky computer keyboards. 



White out" to make last- 
minute corrections on soft- 
ware manuals not produced 
by "Super-Text." 



Slightly rumpled, macho look 
makes it big in downtown 
Baltimore software industry. 



Vending machine coffee (and 
refill) to steady nerves after 
20-hour bout with ABM. 



JANUARY 1982 



41 




Five for the Vic20 



David Lubar 



In many cases, the first release of soft- 
ware for a new computer is of the "so 
what?" variety; there are hangmen aplenty, 
unlimited variations of nim. and rehashes 
of teletype-oriented games from ages ago. 
Let us pause and praise Commodore for 
knowing better. The first batch of VIC 
software is here, and it looks pretty good. 
They supplied us with four games and 
one personal utility. The games range from 
fair to very good, and the personal utility 
is useful if you need a quick graph of your 
biorhythms. Only two of the programs 
bear any hint of the early-release 
syndrome. 

$50 Deductible 

Modeled after a popular arcade game. 
Car Chase was the best game of the lot. 
The player moves through a course of 
concentric rectangles, attempting to drive 
over a series of dots while avoiding head- 
on collisions with a computer-controlled 
vehicle. There is an opening on each side 
of each rectangle, allowing the player's 
car (and the chase car) to change lanes. 
The chase car is endowed with unerring 
accuracy, and capitalizes on any mistake 
the player makes. Balancing this, the player 
has three chances per game. Four keys 
are used to control the car; "A" accelerates. 



"D" decelerates. "J" is used for moving 
inward, and "K" is used for moving out- 
ward. This arrangement works well once 
one gets used to it. 

If the player succeeds in clearing the 
screen of dots, he gets a new screen. This 
process continues until the third collision. 
At this point, the program displays the 
most recent score, and the highest score 
achieved by the player. A press of the 
space bar starts the game again. Car Chase 
is fun, challenging, and a good omen for 
the future of the VIC. 

For Goodness Snake 

Slither and Super Slither are two games 
on another VIC cassette. Slither puts the 
player in control of a snake with an appetite 
for numbered squares. The player guides 
the snake around the screen, using the 
"I," "J," "K." and "M" keys to move up, 
left, right, and down. The game lasts for 
sixty seconds. During this time, boxes 
appear at random locations on the screen. 
The object is for the snake to collide with 
the box. while avoiding any collision with 
the wall or his own body. Each box contains 
a number, from one to nine, representing 
a point value. Every time the snake scores 
points, it grows an extra segment, increasing 
the danger that the head will hit the body. 
Only one box appears on the screen at a 
time, and the boxes only last for a certain 
amount of time before disappearing. 
42 



Super Slither expands on the above 
game in two ways. First, up to three boxes 
can be on the screen at any one time. 
Second, instead of gaining one segment 
for every box, the snake gains a segment 
for every point. When the player's score 
reaches the forties or fifties, maneuvering 
can become a bit tricky. The only disad- 
vantage with this package is that the two 
games must be loaded separately. It would 
be nice if they had been combined, allowing 
the user to switch between games without 
stopping to load a program. Aside from 
this, the games are quite good, and will 
appeal especially to the younger members 
of the VIC community. 

Busted Again 

While Casino-Style Blackjack is a vestige 
of the early days of computer software, 
this VIC version is well done, incorporating 
all the features of the game except for 
insurance bets. Designed for one or two 
players, with the VIC as the house, the 
game is a good buy for the casino lover 
who lives far from Atlantic City or Las 
Vegas. 

Octopus Wanted 

Blue Meanies from Outer Space was 
the one weak game of the group. The 
player uses six lasers, controlled by six 
keys, to shoot at the Blue Meanies as they 
drop from the sky. If a Meanie hits the 
ground, he destroys a small square area. 
If enough of the ground is destroyed, the 
base is overrun and the player loses. The 
CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Dund can be repaired usinii a rob 
which is controlled with five mure keys. 
This combination leaves one in danger of 
permanently interlaced fingers 

If the player survives the first twenty 
Meanies. the attack begins anew with 
meaner Meanies. The player iv given I 
certain amount of energy. When this runs 
out, he can't shoot. Since the VIC, like 
the PFT. seems to buffer keyboard input, 
a kevpress while power is down can result 
in a shot from the laser when power is 
restored. This usually happens after the 
Meanie has moved past the laser, and can 
be a touch frustrating. While there is 
nothing reallv bad about the game lour 
summer campers loved it). Blue Meanies 
just doesn't compare well to the other 
releases 

In the Mood 

Riorhythm Compatibility draws a graph 
of a person's physical, emotional, and 
intellectual cycles, displays critical days. 
and can predict the compatibility of any 
two people whose birthdates are entered 
As with blackjack, the hiorhythm program 
is old stuff though well executed. While 
opinions varv as to the validity of bio- 
rhythms, the program is ideal for parties 
and other gatherings of humans in need 
of something to do. 

Summing It Up 

The early VIC line was obviously not 
rushed to market. The games are filled 
with error traps that won't allow bad input 
The first improvement Comrmxiore should 
make is better documentation. Fach game 
is accompanied with a single sheet which, 
though it explains the game, is more a 
summary than full instructions, leaving 
the user to discover the fine points through 
trial and error. Beyond this, the first release 
of VIC software is nothing but good news 
for VIC owners The tapes are available 
for a suggested retail price of SI4.9S each 
The five reviewed above, along with 
another program, are also available in a 
six pack retailing for $59.95. 

The Future 

A discussion with Comnnxlore revealed 
ambitious plans for further software 
releases. The next six pack of tapes will 
include programs for personal finance. 
home inventory, anil line-oriented word 
processing. For recreation, there will five 
cartridges with Scott Adams Adventures, 
and one with the popular Sargon chess 
program. In the arcade area, releases will 
include Vic Avenger, Super lander, and 
Super Alien. Planned utilities include VIC- 
MON with machine language aids and 
Programmer's Aid for Basic. Finally, to 
gladden the heart of old Trekkies. Com- 
modore has selected William Shatner to 
be their commercial spokesman for the 
VIC. 

Commodore Business Machines. Inc. 
is located at 950 Rittenhouse Rd.. Norris- 
town. Pa. 14403. □ 

JANUARY 1982 



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Eastern Front 




sof 



THE ATARI GOES TO 



+ 4 f «- 



~V* ' ' " »*■ 



±T- 



George Blank 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Eastern Front 

Type: War Game 

System: Atari 400 or NX) 

Format: Cassette. Disk. MicroNet 
download 

language: Machine 

Summary: Outstanding Computer 
War Game 

Price: $23.25 to $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Atari Program Exchange 
P.O. Box 427 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086 



Why would a multimillionaire ex-movie 
star seek a job as President of the United 
States with a salary of a mere $200,000 a 
year, or the head of a major corporation 
join the Cabinet with a salary even lower? 
The answer is that of all the success drives 
that captivate the human imagination, the 
strongest is the lust for power. Power is 
far headier than sex, wealth, or fame, and 
may make the others easier to obtain. 

No exercise of power can compare with 
the job of a commanding general in time 
of war. marshaling millions of soldiers 
and the industrial resources of many nations 



in an all-out drive for supremacy on a 
battlefield that covers a continent. One 
of the largest such campaigns in human 
history was Operation Barbarossa. the 
German invasion of Russia that began in 
the summer of 1941. During the course of 
this four year campaign, nearly 20 million 
human lives were lost. Eastern Front, one 
of the best microcomputer war games 
ever produced, allows the player to take 
on the role of the commander of the 



Nearly every aspect 

of the game Is a 

technical masterpiece. 



German army, and try to do better than 
the German forces actually did. 

In the past, among war games, board 
games have had a major advantage over 
computer games. War gamers like to oper- 
ate on a theatre level, with an overview 
of dozens or even hundreds of units scat- 
tered over a wide area. Until now the 
limitations of computer displays have made 
it difficult to get a satisfying situation 
map. 



Special Features 

In Eastern Front. Chris Crawford has 
produced the first really satisfactory solu- 
tion to the display problem by using the 
fast fine-scrolling ability of the Atari com- 
puter to produce a magnificent map of 
Eastern Russia that occupies ten display 
screens. 

Nearly every aspect of the game is a 
technical masterpiece. Eighteen colors are 
used on the screen at a time. Player missile 
graphics are used to move a cursor over 
the map to give instructions without dis- 
turbing the map underneath. Several dif- 
ferent redefined character sets permit the 
natural mixing of a colorful and detailed 
terrain with a text display. Display list 
interrupts are used to set the weather 
conditions, with ice gradually taking over 
the rivers in winter and receding in the 
spring, and making the player deal with 
mud and snow at different times in different 
areas. 

The program uses intricate artificial 
intelligence routines and multiprocessing 
to control the Russians and their allies. 
This means that the longer the German 
player takes to form his strategy, the better 
the Russian strategy will be. The Russian 
side can analyze its position, recognize 
danger and opportunity, avoid traffic jams, 
recognize the effects of terrain, and plan 
accordingly. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Air Traffic Controller 

In this popular, fast-moving simulation 
you must successfully control the flight paths 
of 27 aircraft as they take off. land and fly 
over your airspace. You give orders to 
change altitude, turn, maintain a holding 
pattern, approach and land at two airports. 
With five different airport configurations 
and variable skill levels, you won t easily 
tire of this absorbing and instructive 
simulation. Cassette CS-7004 $14 95 

Original Adventure 

Only the brave enter the Colossal Cave, 
and only the clever survive. The entire evil 
cast of this classic game, from deadly dragon 
to nasty dwarf, will try to stop your quest 
for treasures. Using English commands, 
you explore the cave, travel through more 
than 100 locations, gather treasures, and 
attempt to think your way out of dangerous 
situations. Every aspect of the game is 
faithfully reproduced from the Original Ad- 
venture born on large computer systems. 
For weary travelers, there is even a SAVE 
GAME feature. Add this classic to your 
software collection. Order CS-7504 for disk 
$24.95. CS-7009 for cassette $19.95. 



Dominoes 



Take on your computer at a game of 
draw dominoes. With options for repeating 
or alternating draw, Dominoes gives the 
game player a tough opponent who's always 
ready. From Thorn/EMI. Order cassette CS- 
7007. $11.95. 



Cribbage 



Can you be the first to peg twice around 
the board? Your computer will put up a 
tough fight in this head-to-head game of 
cribbage. A graphic display of board and 
cards highlight this game of skill. From 
Thorn/EMI. Order cassette CS-7008. 
$11.95. 

*Tilt 

A favorite craze for years, the familiar 
wood labyrinth that tilts in all directions 
has entered the computer age. One or two 
players attempt to navigate balls through a 
maze and into scoring holes. With nine 
skill levels and nine speeds. Tilt will provide 
hours of fun. And. since each player can 
use a different skill level. Tilt is ideal for 
family play. From Thorn/EMI. Order cassette 
CS-7013 $11.95. 



Pool 



Put a games room in your computer. Old 
pros and beginners alike will thrill to the 
challenge and realism of Pool. From the 
satisfying click of a tough combination shot 
to the acccuracy required for a three-cushion 
bank, Pool has it all. You control the angle 
and force of your stroke, then watch the 
object ball speed toward the pocket. It's so 
real you can almost feel the felt. 

There is a practice mode for one player, 
and 8-Ball and Tournament Pool for two. 
Take a break with Pool today. From 
Thorn/EMI. Order cassette CS-7010 
$14.95. 




Darts 

Enter the pub. grab a pint of lager and a 
handful of darts, then try for a bull's eye in 
this amazing graphic game. One or two 
players can go at it. testing their aim at ten 
skill levels. Whether you want to throw a 
few, or just show your friends what the 
Atari computer can do. Darts is an ideal 
addition to your software library. This is 
Britain's most popular Atari game from 
Thorn/EMI. Order cassette CS-701 1 $14.95. 



"Billiards 



Trucker 

This program simulates coast-to-coast 
trips by an independent trucker hauling 
various cargos. 

If all goes well, you can obey the speed 
limits, stop for eight hours of sleep each 
night and still meet the schedule. Bad 
weather, road construction or flat tires 
may put you behind schedule. You may try 
to increase your profit by skimping on 
sleep, driving fast or carrying an overweight 
load. Not available on cassette. 

Streets of the City 

During your tenure, you must construct 
streets and Interstate highways, repair 
existing streets, and improve traffic safety. 
For the Transit Authority you have to up- 
grade and replace a delapidated bus fleet, 
increase ridership, reduce maintenance 
downtime and improve on-schedule perfor- 
mance. Not available on cassette. 

Outdoor Games 

Fight a raging inferno in Forest Fire. User 
options allow for endless variety and skill 
levels. When the fire is out, relax with Fishing 
Trip, but watch out for sharks. The brave 
may wish to trek through the wilderness in 
Treasure Island I and II. Beware the senti- 
nels—they're after you. Order cassette CS- 
7002 $11.95. 

Haunted House 

You are trapped in a mansion, alone 
except for the spirits that haunt the place 
eternally. Can you find the'exit before 
midnight? This ever-changing game, com- 
plete with sound effects, is a perfect com- 
panion for dark evenings and rainy days. 
Order cassette CS-7003 $ 1 1 .95. 

Disk Packages 

Pool, Snooker Billiards CS-7509 $24.95 

Darts and Tilt CS-7506 $24.95 

Dominoes and Cribbage CS-7507 $19.95 

Outdoor Games and CS-7502 $19.95 

Haunted House 

Trucker and Streets CS-7707 $24.95 



* 



Order Today 



This captivating British game is played 
with three balls on a standard pool table. 
Each player attempts to score by sinking a 
shot or hitting two balls with his cueball. 
From Thorn/EMI. Order cassette CS-701 2 
$14.95. 

Snooker 

A tough British Game using 26 balls requir- 
ing the eye of sharpshooter and the strategy 
of a chess master. From Thorn/EMI. Not 
available on cassette. 



Atari is a registered trademark of Atari. 
Inc. 



To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus $2.00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing, 
Morris Rains. NJ 07950. Visa. MasterCard 
and American Express orders may be called 
in toll-free. 

Order today at no risk. If you are not 
completely satisfied, your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded. 



creative 

computing 

software 



Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 1 2 
(inNJ 201-540-0445) 



* Licensed from Thorn/EMI Video Programmes Ltd. Available in North America only. 










Figure I The ripening display of F.astorn Front shows the 
Baltic Sea. with two Finnish Infantry Units (German Allies) in 
Finland and three Russian infantry units This Mack and 
white picture does not distinguish between the units, hut the 
Russians are red and the Axis are white The city in the top 
center of the screen, directly below a Russian unit, is Lenin- 
grad. 



Figure ? German and Russian units face each other in Central 
Poland. This display shows mountains, rivers, forests, marshes, 
and the city of Kiev, along with Russian and German Infantry 
and Armor units. The cursor is over a Russian Unit. Pressing 
the button would cause the unit to disappear, identifying the 
terrain underneath, and also display information on the unit: 
in this case, the 4th Russian Tank Army, a weak unit with a 
muster level of 79 and a current strength of 77. 



The human engineering of the game is 
also a major accomplishment, with all 
information entered by the player using 
only the joystick, trigger button, start 
button, and space bar. This eliminates 
the drudgery of most war gaming. The 
multiprocessing even allows the German 
player to move the cursor around and 
view different sections of the map while 
the battles are taking place. Of course, 
since all battles and movement are real 
time, it is impossible to see everything 
that is happening. Fxcellent sound effects 
do indicate the extent of the overall 
action. 

The computer adds a great deal to 
wargaming. particularly by providing a 
dynamic environment in place of the static- 
nature of board games. Each turn, repre- 
senting one week of actual time, is broken 
down into 32 time periods in which units 
move and fight. Thus a player might pro- 
gram a particular unit to attack an adjacent 
enemy unit and move toward a city. During 
the course of a single turn, that unit might 
destroy the first enemy unit, move forward 
to engage a unit behind it. force the second 
enemy to retreat, turn toward the city, 
and engage in battle a third enemy unit 
that has come up from the reserves during 
the turn. Terrain affects both movement 
and combat, with rivers, forests, marshes, 
mountians. and cities to complicate 
strategy. 

Playing the Game 

At the beginning of the game the Ger- 
man commander has the advantages of 
concentrated force, short supply lines and 
superior mobility. However, the Russians 
have overwhelming numbers, vast territory, 
and the Russian winter on their side. The 



object of the game for the German com- 
mander is to push as large a force as 
possible as far Fast as possible and maintain 
them. Extra points are awarded for cap- 
turing key Russian cities. The Russians 
are trying to move their forces West, which 
also affects the German player's score. 
The score, which is calculated from week 
to week, can range from to 255 points. 



It is fairly easy to get a high score by early 
fall, but nearly impossible to hold that 
advantage over the winter. 

During the war, large concentrations 
of German troops were bogged down in 
the Pripet marshes between Minsk and 
Kiev, allowing the Russians to concentrate 
their forces. This is a recipe for disaster 
in the game, as it was also a German 




Figure X The instruction hook contains a map of the whole area covered by the game. 
Only one tenth of this area is displayed on the .screen at one time. 



46 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Eastern Front, continued... 

disaster in real life. My own best strategies 
have involved splitting up my forces to 
prevent the Russians from concentrating 
theirs, and avoiding combat with superior 
mobility unless I had overwhelming super- 
iority. Another possibility might be to crash 
through the Pripet marshes and break 
into open territory beyond, splitting forces 
at that time. Uncertain winter supply lines 
require that the German player draw back 
during that season. 

Regardless of my strategy, my success 
rate in my first ten games was abysmal. 
The game ends automatically after the 
week of March 29. 1942. and in nine of 
my games my score was on that date. In 
the one game where I held a score to the 
end. I seized the city of Leningrad (worth 
10 points) and defended it to practically 
my last man. My total score was 10 
points. 

After many hours of play. I found only 
a few real weaknesses. Giving all those 
instructions with the joystick can give you 
a sore palm and wrist. The lack of a clear- 
cut set of victory conditions is frustrating, 
as is the overwhelming advantage of the 



/ have no hesitation 

in calling this one of 

the very best war games 

available for a 

personal computer. 



Russians. I would also like an option to 
be able to see the whole theatre at once, 
however limited the detail might be at 
that time. The designer mentions in the 
instructions that test players became frus- 
trated with random logistics problems and 
traffic jams, but I lend to think these are 
realistically handled. 

Recommendation 

I have no hesitation in calling this one 
of the very best war games available for a 
personal computer. It is also a virtuoso 
demonstration of the awesome built-in 
capabilities of the Atari computer. This 
game literally could not be done on any 
other computer in as satisfactory an exe- 
cution. By all means, if you are at all 
interested in strategy games, buy it. 

If you are a serious war gamer, buy it 
even if you have to buy a computer in 
order to run it. Eastern Front comes on 
disk, requiring MK of RAM. for $29.95. 
It is also available on cassette, requiring 
I6K of RAM. for $26.95. The cassette 
version can be downloaded from Micro- 
Net at a price of $23.25. D 



Special editions for Apple, 
Atari and TRS-80 Computers. 




Hey kids, are the folks out of the room'' 
Good, cause Ive got a secret to tell you 
You know that computer they fuss over? 
Well. kid. between you and me. this whole 
programming thing is a lot simpler than 
they realize 

Whats that? Sure, you can learn Just 
get a copy of Computers For Kids. Its a 
super book, and it tells you everything you 
need to know Huh? You have an Apple? 
No problem There s a version just for the 
Apple One for the TRS-80 and one for the 
Atari too. with complete instructions for 
operating and programming 

The book will take you through every- 
thing programmers learn Its easy to 
understand and the large type makes it 
easy to read You II find out how to put 
together a flowchart, and how to get your 
computer to do what you want it to do. 
There s a lot to learn, but Computers For 
Kids has 12 chapters full of information 
You II even learn how to write your own 
games and draw pictures that move 

Just so the folks and your teachers won t 
feel left out there s a special section for 
them It gives detailed lesson ideas and 
tells them how to fix a lot of the small 
problems that might pop up Hey. this 
book is just right for you But you don t 



have to take my word on that Just listen to 
what these top educators have to say 
about it 

Donald T. Piele. Professor of Mathe- 
matics at the University of Wisconsin- 
Parkside says. Computers For Kids is the 
best material available for introducing stu- 
dents to their new computer It is a perfect 
tool for teachers who are learning about 
computers and programming with their 
students. Highly recommended 

Robert Taylor. Director of the Program 
in Computing and Education at Teachers 
College. Columbia University states, "it's a 
good idea to have a book tor chidren 

Not bad. huh? Okay, you can let the 
adults back in the room Don t forget to tell 
them Computers For Kids by Sally 
Greenwood Larsen cost only S3 95 And 
tell them you might share it with them, if 
they re good Specify edition on your 
order TRS-80 (12H); Apple (12G). Atari 
(12J) 

Your local computer shop should carry 
Computers For Kids If they dont ask 
them to get it or order by mail Send $3 95 
payment plus $2 00 for one. $3 00 for two 
or more for shipping and handling to 
Creative Computing Press. P O Box 789- 
M Mornstown. NJ 07960 



creative Gomputi n$ press 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1982 



47 



Exatron MM+ and LNW System Expansion 





native 

computing 
equipment 
eualuatian 



I 



Expanding Your TRS-80 Model I 



Alternatives to the Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Expansion Interface 



If you are considering memory expan- 
sion, floppy interface, serial I/O. etc. 
for your TRS-80 read on. 



Exatron MM+ 
Harley Dyk 



If you own a 16K Level II TRS-80 Model 
I, you own a very cost effective computer. 
This does not necessarily mean, however, 
that you are content with your computer. 
If you are a programmer you are aware 
that programs often grow to fill (or exceed) 
available memory. If you are a serious 
user of your system you probably long to 
add a disk drive or alternative, such as 
the Stringy Floppy or the Beta-80. In either 
case you may need more memory and/or 
a floppy controller. 

The MM+ (memory plus interface) by 
Exatron and the System Expansion by 
LNW Research provide quality alternatives 
to the Radio Shack Expansion Interface 
and either could save you some money 
depending on your needs. 

MM+ 

The MM+ has just been introduced by 
Exatron (the Stringy Floppy company). 
The unit comes assembled and is made to 
fit under the TRS-80 monitor. Standard 
features are: 32K of memory, built-in power 



supply, parallel printer port (Radio Shack/ 
Centronics compatible), serial printer port 
(RS-232C), light pen port, real-time clock, 
and general parallel port (IBM Model 50 
compatible). The unit was designed with 
Stringy Floppy owners in mind, and this 
accounts for the fact that a floppy controller 
was not included as a standard feature. 

The MM+ has room for an additional 
board and its power supplies run at or 
under 50% capacity. An additional 32K 
(bank 2) and floppy controller will be the 
first options available on the second board. 
Exatron is polling its Stringy Floppy owners 
to find what other options they would 
like to have available on the second board. 
The company plans to work on the options 
in order of preference indicated by their 
customers. Some of the other things under 
consideration are: color graphics, hard 
disk controller. RS-232C serial I/O. IBM 



Model 50 bidirectional interface (use type- 
writer keyboard), multi-port parallel I/O, 
A/D and D/A interface. TRIAC/SSR/ 
OPTO-Isolater control interface, port FF 
audio output circuit (for sound effects). 
IEEE-488 Interface, and a communications 
modem. 

A unique feature of the MM + is the 
light pen port. This port is designed for 
use with the "Photopoint" light pen made 
by MicroMatrix. The light pen can be 
used with a cassette recorder serving as 
an amplifier, but the light pen port makes 
the amplifier more convenient and leaves 
the recorder free. The port should work 
with any light pen that normally connects 
to the Radio Shack cassette recorder. 

The MM+ is guaranteed to run at double 
CPU speed (3.55 MHz). This makes the 
MM+ compatible with the TRS-80 speed- 
up kit offered by Exatron. 



Harley Dyk. 
49417. 



1644 Grant. Grand Haven. Ml 




The Memory + Inter- 
face (MM+) by Exa- 
tron. 



48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



DISK 111 

100% Compatible 



Model HI Disks 



Complete Business 
System includes: 
48K TRS-80™ Model 
III, Disk III™ 2 Drive 
System, TRSDOS 
and Manual. 



$1882 




DISK III Single 

drive assy $599.00 
DISK III Two 

drive assy 864.00 
DISK III Assy 

w/out drives 435.00 
TRSDOS™ & 

Manual 21.90 

External drives 

(3&4) 299.00 



DISK III single drive assembly includes one 40 track 
5' V double density drive, power supply, controller, 
mounting hardware, and applicable cables. 



IMMEDIATE DELIVERY - 

WINCHESTER HARD 

Integral Winchester 
Business system includes: 
48K Model III, LDOS 
Disk III™, 6.3 MEG 
HARD DISK SYSTEM. 



$4995 



COMPARE AND SAVE 

DISK MODEL III 

$2895 

6.3 MEGABYTE WINCHESTER 
HARD DISK SUBSYSTEM 
With chassis, PS, LDOS™. 
9.5 MEG $3395.00 



MOD III Options: 

9.5 MEG HD (internal) 
80tk1 side floppy 
80 tk 2 side floppy 



add $500.00 
add $120.00 
add $240.00 



Winchester Subsystem Options: 

2x6.3 Meg drives 4495.00 

2x9.5 Meg drives 5495.00 



Peripherals 

Epson MX-80 
Epson MX-80 FT 
Epson MX-1 00 
Centronics 739 
Starwriter25(P) 
RS-232 
Lexicon modem 



500.00 
615.00 
800.00 
700.00 
1395.00 
95.00 
105.00 



MODEL l/lll 
EXTERNAL DRIVE 
W/ PS & ENC 

Fully Compatible 
120 day warranty 
Easy installation 
80 tk or 2 sided 
80tk&2sided 



$275 



$419.00 
549.00 



IF YOU DON T SEE IT ADVERTISED CALL US AND ASK FOR IT. 

PUBLISHED PRICES REFLECT CASH DISCOUNT. 

ALL PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 

TRS-80 and TRSDOS are trademarks of Tandy Corp 

DISK III is a trademark of VR Data Corp Dealership available 

Phone toll free 800-345-8102 



OTHER PRODUCTS 

SUPERBRAIN 64K 
PARALLEL PORT — 

SUPERBRAIN 
DISK & MYSTERIES 
BASIC & MYSTERIES 
NEC Ribbons (min. 6) 
Epson Ribbons 
NEW— 
LDOS Operating 

System 
COMING SOON!! 
Internal MODEM for MOD III 



2990.00 

99.95 
22.50 
29.95 
5.95 
12.50 



149.00 



• in PA 215-461-5300 



Cable address "VRDATA" • TELEX 




VR Data Corporation 
777 Henderson Boulevard 



• Fol croft, PA 19032 



CIRCLE 340 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Expanding, continued.. 



Size 


MM + 

17" x 7" x r 


LNW 

10" x 12" x 3" 
(inLMB 101 23 chassis) 


Stale 


Assembled only 


Bare board only 


Cost 


$399 


$270-5300 including power 
supply and 32K 


Memory 


32K only 


16K or 32K 


Floppy Interface 


No (but an option soon) 


Add $50 plus cable 


Real-Time Clock 


Yes (can use with 
Level III Basic) 


Add $4 


Serial I/O 


Printer output only 
(300 and 600 baud ) 


Add $22 


Parallel printer port 


Yes 


Add $3 


Dual cassette port 


No 


Add $10 


Light pen port 


Yes 


No 


Bus extender 


Yes 


Yes 


On-board power 
supply 


Yes 


Yes (minus transformer) 


Dealers 


No. mail-order 
order through program 
chairman (active 
Stringy Floppy owner) 


None established, however 
some dealers may stock this 
board, otherwise mail-order 


Warranty 


Year/30-day money-back 


90 days (board only) 


Toll free number 


Yes 


No 


Contact 


Exatron 

181 Commercial St. 

Sunnyvale. CA 94086 

800-538-8559 


LNW Research 
8 Hollowglen St. 
Irvine. CA 92714 


Misc. 


Guaranteed to run 
at 3.55 MHz. has 
memory bank select 
circuit so can add 
another 32K. has on-board 
memory-mapped address 
decoding. TaNel 


Prices of options 
above are accurate only 
if built in the order 
listed. Any other order 
could change prices since 
parts are shared in many 
sections. 


Comparisons 

The key to selecting one of the two two units. Table 1 can also help you 
expansions lies in the answers to the compare the major features at a glance, 
following important questions. Do you Both units have performed well for many 
want to build your expansion unit? Do users. Both work well with disk alternatives 
you need a floppy interface immediately? such as the String Floppy and Beta-80. 
Do you need serial I/O now? (The MM + Both units are of top quality and are 
has output only at this time.) Do the produced by reputable companies. At a 
additional features being considered for minimum, either unit should fix your OM 
the MM+ interest you? These questions errors and provide many additional 
address the basic differences between the features. 



The LNW System 
Expansion 

Richard Zatarga 

This article addresses those computerists 
who are ambitious, industrious, and capable 
of reading a schematic diagram: possess a 
better than average ability to use a soldering 
iron; and have a desire to upgrade a TRS- 
80 Model I computer and save over $100 
in the process. 

The above mouthful may sound like 
science fiction, however, if I have just 
described you and you are willing to spend 
a few— well actually, quite a few— evenings 
with iron and solder in hand, you can 
have an Expansion Interface for two-thirds 
of Radio Shack's price, and with a serial 
RS-232C/20mA interface thrown in as a 
bonus. 

"Sounds too easy!" "What's the catch?" 
you ask. Well read on and I'll tell you 
how I did it. First, I parted with $69.95 
plus $3.00 for shipping and handling for 
the LNW Research System Expansion 
printed circuit board. Please note that 
this is a bare P.C. board. What you are 
paying over $70 for is a meticulously traced 
and silk screened epoxy circuit board and 
LNW's electronic expertise. 

Ten days after I placed my order for 
the P.C. board, UPS delivered the board 
and the assembly/user manual. After 
opening the box. I inspected the board 
for damage. The board was fine, but what 
I noticed during the inspection was the 
very tight and dense component layout. 
I've built a few electronic kits in my day 
from a simple speaker system to a complex 
color television, but I had never run across 
a you-build-it circuit as tightly packed as 
the System Expansion. This project is 
definitely not— I repeat, not — for the novice 
solder jockey or the sweat solder expert 
who works with copper tubing and a 
propane torch. Construction of this unit 
requires time, patience and precision. 

With the board inspected. I sat down in 
my favorite easy chair and began to read 
the manual. Quickly thumbing through 
its 67 typewritten pages. I was initially 
impressed. However, after reading it 
thoroughly from cover to cover. I found 
the manual to be a bit of a disappointment 
due to the lack of detail, especially in 
sections on assembly, testing and trouble- 
shooting. 

The next thing I did was to collect all 
of my electronic component catalogs and 
a few back issues of some computer 



Richard Zatarvn. HOI Towner Swamp Rd.. Guilford. 
CT 06437. 



50 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



MHZ, DOUBLE DENSITY.COLOR&B/ 
GRAPHICS . .THE LNW80 COMPUTER 




.then you've compared the features of an LNU80 Computer, you'll quickly 
understand why the LNU80 Is the ultimate TRS80 software compatible system. 
LNW RESEARCH offers the most complete microcomputer system at an outstand- 
ing low price. 

We back up our product with an unconvent1or-a1 6 Month warranty and a 10 
days full refund policy, less shipping charges. 

LNW80 Computer SI .450.00 

LNW80 Computer w/B&W Monitor a one 5" Drive Si, 914. 00 

All orders must be prepaid, CA residents please Include 6 sales tax. 
Contact us for shipping charges 



TRS80 
PMC 



Product of Tandy Corporation. 

Product of Personal Microcomputer, Inc. 



COMPARE THE 

FEATURES 


FEATURES AND PERFORMANCE 

LNW80 PMC-80" 


TRS-80* 
MOOEL III 


PROCESSOR 




MHZ 


1,8 HH7 


2.0 MHZ 


LEVEL II BASIC INTERP. 




YES 


YES 


LEVEL III 
BASIC 


TRS30 MODEL 1 LEVEL II COMPATIBLE 


YES 


YES 


■II 


4RK BYTES BAM 




YFS 


YES 


YES 


CASSETTE BAim RATI 




500/1000 


500 


500/ 1500 


F10PPY DISK CONTROLLER 




SINGLF/ 
DOUBLE 


SINGLE 


SINCLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SERIAL RS?3? PORT 




YES 


YES 


YES 


PRINTER PORT 




YES 


YES 


YES 


REAL TIME CLOCK 




YES 


YES 


YES 


24 X 80 CHARACTERS 




YES 


NO 


NO 


VIDEO MONITOR 




YES 


YES 


YES 


UPPER AND LOWER CASE 




YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


REVERSE VIDEO 




YES 


NO 


M 


KEYBOARD 




63 KEY 


53 KEY 


53 KEY 


NUMERIC KEY PAD 




YFS 


NO 


YES 


B/M CRAPHICS. 128 X 48 




YES 


YES 


YES 


HI -RESOLUTION B/U CRAPHICS. 


480 X 192 


YES 


NO 


NO 


HI -RESOLUTION COLOR CRAPHICS 
128 X 19? IN 8 COLORS 


(NTSC), 


YES 


NO 


NO 


HI-RESOLUTION COLOR CRAPHICS (RfiB). 
384 X 19? IN 8 COLORS 


OPTIONAL 


NO 


NO 


WARRANTY 




6 MONTHS 


90 DAYS 


90 DAYS 


TOTAL SYSTEM PRICE 




SI .914.00 


■1.00 


S2.187.00 


LESS MONITOR AND DISK DRIVE 




SI.4S0.00 


SI. 375.00 


... 



LNW80 

■ BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD a MANUAL 



SOT. 95 



The LNU80 - A high-speed color computer totally compatible with 
the TRS-80*. The LNW80 gives you the edge In satisfying your 
computation needs In business, scientific and personal computa- 
tion. With performance of 4 MHz, Z80A CPU, you'll achieve per- 
formance of over twice the processing speed of a TRS-80*. This 
means you'll get the performance that is comparable to the most 
expensive microcomputer with the compatibility to the world's 
most popular computer (TRS-80*) resulting In the widest soft- 
ware base. 



FEATURES: 



TRS-80 Model 1 Level II Software Compatible 

High Resolution Graphics 

. RGB Output - 384 x 192 In 8 Colors 

. NTSC Video or RF MOD - 128 x 192 In 8 Colors 

. Black and White - 480 x 192 

4 MHz CPU 

500/1000 Baud Cassette 

Upper and Lower Case 

16K Bytes RAM, 12K Bytes ROM 

Solder Masked and Sllkscreened 



LNW SYSTEM EXPANSION 

BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD 

AND MANUAL $69.95 

WITH GOLD CONNECTORS (84.95 



The System Expansion will allow you to expand your LNW80, TRS-80*. 
or PMC-80** to a complete computer svstem that Is still totally 
software compatible with the TRS-80* Model 1 Level II. 

FEATURES: 

. 32K Bytes Memory 

. 5" Floppy Controller 

. Serial RS232 20ma I/O 

Parallel Printer 

Real Time Clock 

Screen Printer Bus 

On Board Power Supply 
. Solder Masked and Sllkscreened 



LNW RESEARCH 



: OR PORA T ION 
2620 WALNUT 
TUSTIN CA. 92680 CIRCLE 278 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

ORDERS & I N F0. NO. 714 - 544 - 5744 
SERVICE NO 714-641 -8850 



LNDoubler&DOS PLUS 3.3D 

Assembled and Tested w/DOS PLUS 3. 3D $175.00 

Double-density disk sturage for the LNW Research's "System Expan- 
sion" or the Tandy's "Expansion Interface". The L.NDoubler™' is 
totally software compatible with any double density software 
generated for the Percom's Doubler***. The LNDoublerTM provides 
the following outstanding features. 

Store up to 350K bytes on a single 5" disk 
Single and double density data separation 
Precision write precompensation circuit 
Software switch between single and double density 
Easy plug In Installation requiring no etch cuts, jumpers 
or soldering 
. 35, 40, 77, 80 track 5" disk operation 
120 day parts and labor Warranty 

•** Doubler Is a product of Percom Data Cumpany, Inc. 

DOS PLUS 3. 3D 

Micro Systems software's double density disk operating system. 
This operating system contains all the outstanding features of 
a well developed DOS, with ease In useabiHty. 

KEYBOARD 

LNU80 KEYBOARD KIT $84.95 

The Keyboard Kit contains a 63 key plus a 10 key. P.C. board, and 
remaining components. 

CASE 



LNU30 CASE $84.95 

The streamline design of this metal case »111 house the LNW80. 
LUN System Expansion. LNH80 Keyboard, power supply and fan, 
LNDoublerTM, or LNW Data Separator. This kit Includes all the 
hardware to mount aM of the above. Add S'2.00 for shipping 

PARTS AVAILABLE FROM LNU RESERARCH 
4116 - 200ns RAM 

6 chip set $26.00 

8 chip set $33.50 

16 chip set $64.00 

24 chip set $94.00 

32 chip set $124.00 

LHW80 -Start up parts set" LNM80-1 $82.00 

LNU80 "Video parts set" LNW80-2 $31.00 

LNW80 Transformer LNW80-3 $18.00 

LNW80 Keyboard cable LNW80-4 $16.00 

40 Pin computer to expansion cable $15.00 

System Expansion Transformer $19.00 

Floppy Controller (F01771) and UART (TRI602) . . . $30.00 



VISA MASTER CHARGE 
ACCEPTED 



UNLESS NOTED 

ADO S3 FOR SHIPPING 



Expanding, continue 



magazines. Armed with the component 
checklists provided in the LNW assembly 
manual. I perused the catalogs and maga 
zine advertisements looking for the best 
buys on the various components I needed 
to construct the System Expansion. 

1 found that resistors were a bargain 
from one supplier, while integrated circuits 
were better purchased from another. 
Another vendor had great !C prices, but 
his capacitor prices were outrageous. The 
result:, were separate orders to six vendors 
in four states. With my orders for pan:, in 
the mail, I sat back and impatiently waited 
for the components to arrive 

A stroke of luck — the first oidei to 
nr. . . s consisted of some integrated circuits 
am. ..!! of the !C socket:, I needed for the 
interlace. Actual construction began with 
mounting and soldering a!! of the lockets 
on the PC board. Next, the resistor; and 
capacitors were added. Finally all the 
diodes were inserted and soldered in place. 
I worked on the interface a few evenings 
a week over a period of two months. 

It was just three days shy of the second 
month when my final parts order arrived. 
If all the components had been readily 
available, eight or nine evenings would 
have been all the time needed to complete 
the board and thoroughly check my handi- 
work. 

Testing 

The main power to the System Expan- 
sion is provided by a TRS-80 computer 
transformer. The LNW onboard power 
supply takes the raw transformer voltages 
and provides the regulated + 5V, -5V, 
+ 12V. and -12V needed to activate the 
rest of the board. These voltages are 
isolated from the main part of the System 
Expansion by five jumpers, and the LNW 
assembly manual has a procedure for 
testing them out before the jumpers are 
added and power is supplied to the rest of 
the board. 

When I first powered up the System 
Expansion, I expected something to 
happen, such as blowing both onboard 
fuses or at least a little puff of smoke. 
Nothing! I proceeded with LNW's test 
procedure taking voltage readings at 
designated test points with a DMM. Every- 
thing in the power supply section checked 
out fine. 

Next, I added the jumpers providing 
r to the rest of the board. Please 
note, ail of the IC sockets were empty at 
this time. I saw no reason to test a fully 
loaded beard and take the chance of 
incinerating some expensive integrated 
circuits. 

I proceeded with I NW's next test pro- 
cedure. All voltage supplies checked out 
except for one of the +5 volt sections. I 
traced the + 5 volt supply through the 
schematic and onto the board, and found 
a couple of terminating resistors bridged 



together with solder and loading down 
the + 5 volts to less than 3.2 volts. A light 
touch with the tip of a soldering iron 
rectified the problem and all voltages 
checked out. 

Verifying the power supply voltages is 
the extent of the testing procedures 
provided in LNW's manual. Still being 
cautious, I decided to test the rest of the 
System Expansion one section at a time. 
The first section I tested was the Dual 
Cassette Control. 

Using the parts list by section, I inserted 
the required IC chips into their proper 
sockets, and attached two cassette 
recorders to the DIN connectors. I powered 
up the System Expansion and the keyboard, 
and loaded blank tape into each recorder. 
I wrote a short Basic program and entered 
CSAVE#-1TEST'. The first recorder 
responded. I then entered CSAVE#- 
2'TEST' and the second recorder fired 
up. To complete the test of the Dual 
Cassette Control, I CLOADed the test 
program from each recorder and ran the 
program. Both recorders saved and loaded 
data perfectly. So far, so good. 

The next section I tested was the 32K 
memory. I tested this section in 16K 
increments. Why annihilate 16 RAM chips 
at once when I could do it in two easy 
steps. The first eight chips were inserted 
and power was applied to the system. I 
entered ?MEM from the keyboard and lo 
and behold a number greater than 15,572 
magically appeared on the screen. I ran a 
RAM test routine and all the memory 
checked out. I was feeling pretty good at 
this point and inserted the other eight 
RAM chips. 

PRINT MEM yielded 48,340 this time. 
The RAM test confirmed that all. including 
the new 32K memory addition, was func- 
tioning properly. Now my ego was really 
soaring. It must have been up to eleven 
points on a ten point scale. Confidence in 
my construction ability was at an all time 
high, so I decided to forge ahead, even 



though it was 1 :30 in the morning. 

Next on the list for testing was the 
parallel printer port. The relevant chips 
were inserted and a printer cable connected 
between the System Expansion and a 
borrowed printer. I powered up the entire 
system and CLOADed the test program 
mentioned earlier. I entered LLIST and 
Eureka the program listing was output to 
the printer. I modified the program by 
changing all the PRINT statements to 
LPRINT. RUN ENTER produced a nicely 
formatted report on the printer. Three 
sections tested and I was batting a thou- 
sand. I decided to check one more and 
call it a night. 

I inserted the integrated circuits required 
for the Floppy Disk Controller section. 
The 40-pin FD-1771 disk controller chip 
took some effort to get into its socket. 
There always seemed to be one or two 
pins that slipped out of alignment. Finally, 
the FD-1771 was properly inserted, and I 
connected a borrowed disk drive to the 
interface and applied power to the 
system— again. 

I inserted a diskette into the drive and 
pushed the reset button. Nothing happened! 
What was wrong? I checked the power 
switches. Everything was on. I checked 
the floppy cable and that looked fine. 

I read the DOS manual (When all else 
fails, read the instructions. Right!!) and 
discovered that DRIVE must be the 
terminal drive, i.e.. the last drive on the 
cable, and it must be the drive farthest 
away from the interface. Also, the con- 
nector nearest the interface must always 
be attached to a drive. My borrowed disk 
drive and cable came from a friend with a 
two drive system and he only lent me one 
drive. I moved the drive to the first 
connector on the cable, and this time 
when I pushed the reset button the drive 
activated, the CRT screen went blank for 
a second, and voilal DOS READY 
appeared on the screen. I ran the TEST2 
utility provided on the TRSDOS diskette 




The LNW Research 
System Expansion with 
power supply and 32K. 
Transformer not shown. 



52 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



to stress test the floppy controller. The 
test was successful and I decided to pack 
it in for the night. I'd test the RS-232C/ 
20mA interface in the morning. 

The last of the ICs was put on the 
board. The 40-pin UART went into its 
socket without a hitch. It's amazing what 
a little experience or a couple hours of 
sleep and four cups of coffee will do for 
one's manual dexterity. I entered a serial 
interface routine LNW provided in the 
appendix of their manual. The RS-232C/ 
20mA interface worked like a charm. 
Testing of the System Expansion was 
complete. All sections worked and I had 
an expansion interface equal to Radio 
Shack's with the added plus of an RS- 
232C/20mA serial interface. 

The Bottom Line 

Did I really save money by going the 
construction route to upgrade my Model 
I? My answer has to be a definite yes. 
Was the completed unit worth the time, 
effort and, on occasion, aggravation 
required to construct it? Again. I must 
answer in the affirmative. Permit me to 
elaborate. 

My total cost for the printed circuit 
board, sockets, resistors, capacitors, power 
pack, miscellaneous hardware, integrated 



circuits, including sixteen 4116 memory 
chips, was $310. I built a case for the 
completed board and two power packs- 
one for the System Expansion and one 
for the CPU— from some scrap lumber I 
had in my workshop. If you don't have 
access to any scrap lumber, another S10 
or so can be added to the overall cost. 

A substantial investment indeed, but 
still quite a bit under Radio Shack's price. 

Check the discount mail order advertise- 
ments in this magazine for the cost of a 
Radio Shack Expansion Interface. The 
cheapest one I found was $249. Check 
out the prices on 4116 memory chips. 
The best value I found was $40 for eight 
chips. That totals to $349— only $29 more 
then I invested and no construction 
required. But hold on for just one second, 
the System Expansion includes an RS- 
232C/20mA I/O section and my total cost 
includes the components required for this 
serial interface. 

Check the advertisements again, and 
you'll find that $89 is about the best buy 
you can find for Radio Shack's RS-232C 
option. Now your cost is up to $418. A 
$100 savings should be worth the time 
and effort required for anyone to build 
the unit. It was for me. 

An added advantage of constructing 



the LNW System Expansion is the ability 
to repair any problems that may develop 
with the unit. Armed with the schematic 
diagram, the sectionalizcd parts list and 
the circuit descriptions provided by LNW. 
a minimum of time and effort should be 
all that is needed to locate and fix most 
troubles. Please note that this last statement 
assumes some electronic and trouble- 
shooting ability. 

Conclusion 

Kve been using my System Expansion 
for the past four months. I have my own 
printer and disk drive attached to the 
unit. You can borrow hardware from 
friends for only so long before they start 
forcing lease with option to buy contracts 
on you. Well, the System Expansion has 
been performing very well. I haven't 
experienced any crashes or erratic opera- 
tion. Disk I/O has been impeccable. 
Everything has been functioning per- 
fectly. 

So, if you possess the skills I mentioned 
earlier, want to save some of your hard- 
earned money and want the satisfaction 
of building a sophisticated piece of com- 
puter equipment, then I recommend the 
LNW System Expansion. You won't be 
disappointed. n 



P 



if 



Power Tools 
for Programmers 



Shape Master 




image of any one of your shapes The edit commands 
allow you to edit shapes and shape tables, thus you can 
create load, merge and delete individual shapes from 
your shape table The illustrated, comprehensive manual 
includes tips on using shapes in your programs Four 
games and two graphics demos are included on the 
diskette to illustrate what you can do with this program 
This package was reviewed in Creative Computing June 
1981. page 44 

Requires 48K Apple II Plus or Applesoft in ROM Diskette 
CS-4805 J24 95 



Disk Doctor 



This powerful utility allows you to rapidly create, combine 
display, edit. save, and print out high resolution shapes 
tor use in your Apple programs Two separate, convenient 
entry methods on five user-selected grid sizes ranging 
from 13 by 23 to 39 by 69 allow for easy definition of 
many different shapes A built in character set in three 
different sizes makes it easy to mix text and graphics in 
your displays The smart printout routines allow you to 
make a hard copy of your shapes, even with a non- 
graphics printer A reverse command allows a quick mirror 



Read and modify Apple diskettes with this easy-to-use 
diskette track-and-sector editor, whether they were created 
by DOS 3 2. DOS 3 3. the Pascal system or Apple CP'M 
Simple editing commands allow you to display any sector 
and freely edit it on screen, entering changes either as 
hex or character data Special commands allow you to 
print a hard copy of the sector in either 40- or 80-column 
format Disk Doctor will also test your diskettes, verifying 
every sector, whether vacant or filled with data Vou can 
also format and verify a disk in one operation 

This powerful tool should be in your library Whether 
you need to verify the reliability of your diskettes, patch 
DOS. edit a data file in place, or repair a damaged sector, 
you can t afford to be without Disk Doctor 

32K or larger Apple II or Apple II Plus, diskette CS 
4806S19 95 



Order Today 



To order these software packages, send payment plus 
52 00 postage and handling (per order) to the address 
given Visa. MasterCard, and American Express orders 
may be called in toll free Order today at no risk If you 
are not completely satisfied, your money will be promptly 
and courteously refunded 



GPe.ative. 

computing 

software 




Creative Computing Sottware 
Morris Plains New Jersey 07950 
Toll-free 800 631 81 i 2 
InNJ 201-540 ( 



mjsiti , lujrgt 





CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1982 



53 




EPSON MX-80 



$ 4fi9 






ATARI 800 16K 



$ 749 



EAST COAST 

1 -BOO- 556-7586 



n 



WEST COAST 

1-800-255 5581 

PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
tV/O NOTICE. 



NEC Color Monitor 
JC 1201 $519 

INTERTEC SUPERBRAIN 64K RAM 

QDSUPERBRAIN 

NEC 5510 SPINWRITER (7710) 

NEC 5520 SPINWRITER (7720) 
NEC 5530 SPINWRITER (7730) 
NEC 12" MONITOR 
NEC COLOR 12" MONITOR 
NEC PC 8023 Printer 

100 CPS Tractor & Friction 
OKIDATA MICROLINE-80 
OKIDATA MICROLINE-82A 
OKIDATA MICROLINE-83A 
DIABLO 630 
APPLE II PLUS 48K 
APPLE DISK w/3.3 DOS Controller 
APPLE DISK w/o Controller 
EPSON MX-80 

Interfaces: 

IEEE $55, TRS-80 CABLE $35, 

APPLE INTERFACE & CABLE $90, 

RS-232 $70 
HAZELTINE 1420 
NORTHSTAR HORIZON II 32K QD 
ANADEX DP-9500/9501 
TELEVIDEO 91 2C 
TELEVIDEO 920C 
TELEVIDEO 950 



$2799 

$2999 
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WE CARRY THE COMPLETE LINE OF ATARI SOFTWARE, 
PERIPHERALS AND ACCESSORIES. 




I 



NEC Green 12 inch Monitor 

JB 1201 $179 

NEC friction Tractor Printer 
100 cps (Graphics, Bi-directional) $635 



CBM 8032 COMPUTER 
CBM 8050 DISK DRIVE 
CBM 4032 COMPUTER 
CBM 4040 DISK DRIVE 
CBM 4022 
CBM VIC-20 
LEEDEX/AMDEK 100 
LEEDEX/AMDEK 100G 
LEEDEX/AMDEK COLOR-1 

13" Color Monitor 
MICROTEK 16K RAM BOARD for Atari 
MICROTEK 32K 
ATARI 800 16K 
ATARI 400 16K 
ATARI 810 DISK DRIVE 
ATARI 820 40 Column Printer 
ATARI 822 40 Column Thermal Printer 
ATARI 825 80 Column Printer 



$1149 
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OKID 




— 



treatiue 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



Aurora Systems 
Videodisc Controller 



David H.Ahl 



For years, we have been enthusiastic 
about coupling a computer to a videodisc. 
Initial proponents predicted that the main 
function of the videodisc would be to 
carry programs and data in very large 
quantities, and serve principally as a local 
data base. After all. a disc can hold 10" 
bits of information which is a very great 
amount indeed. 

However, videodisc players first came 
into their own as industrial and educational 
learning devices and several commercial 
players for industrial use were introduced 
in 1978 and 1979. For use as a home 
entertainment device, further engineering 
and cost reductions were necessary, and 
players did not become commercially avail- 
able until late in 1980. Unfortunately, the 
first player (Magnavox) did not have pro- 
vision for external remote control. Thus, 
to build a computer-to-videodisc interface 
would have involved disassembling the 
player and messing about with wires, inte- 
grated circuits, and the like. Furthermore, 
this sort of messing around would have 
voided the guarantee of the player and 



consequently no one was anxious to intro- 
duce an interface for which there would 
be a small, if not non-existent, market. 

However, the Pioneer VP-1000 Videodisc 
Player, introduced in early 1981, is much 
more hospitable to an external interface. 
This is because it has a remote control 
unit which can either work by an infrared 
light signal from across the room or hard- 
wired with a long cable to a jack in the 
back of the player. 

Unlike many video cassette recorders 
in which the remote control unit provides 
only a few functions, the Pioneer RU- 
1000 remote control unit duplicates all of 
the videodisc player functions. Thus, it is 
a relatively straightforward job to produce 
a computer-to-videodisc interface which 
will duplicate the functions of the Pioneer 
remote control unit. 

In addition to sending a control signal 
to the player, a good interface must also 
accept the video signal from the player 
and marry it to the video signal from the 
computer. The designers of the Aurora 
Systems videodisc controller chose the 



APPLE COMPUTER HOUSING 



APPLE 
COMPUTER 



VIDEO 
OUT 



POWER 



SUP-R-MOD v '° EO 

RF 
MODULATOR video 

OUT 



AURORA 
CONTROLLER 



"DEO P'ONEER 
out VIDEODISC 
remote PLAYER 

CONTROL 

l N SOUND 
OUT 



TV 
SET 



AMPLIFIER 



Block Diagram Of Videodisc Controller Hookup. 



easy way to solve this problem. In partic- 
ular, the interface merely switches back 
and forth between the two video signals. 
In other words, the output from the com- 
puter or the output from the videodisc 
player may be displayed on the screen 
but not both at once. Some other interfaces 
permit mixing the computer and video 
signal, however, their price puts them out 
of the range of most home or educational 
systems. (Can you justify paying more for 
the interface than for the videodisc player 
itself?) 

Insofar as providing the control signals 
to the videodisc player, the Aurora con- 
troller does a very good job. 

The Hardware 

The hardware consists of one printed 
circuit board which is normally plugged 
into slot number 4 in the Apple. Both the 
video signals from the Apple and the 
videodisc player must be plugged into 
this board. A short cable is provided to 
plug into the output of the Apple video 
signal and plug into the board. Another 
cable is provided to connect the video 
out of the Pioneer VP-1000 player and 
the board. (This cable was missing from 
our interface kit.) The last video cable is 
an output from the video board; it provides 
a composite video signal which can be 
connected to a monitor. 

To use the controller with an ordinary 
television set (as opposed to a video mon- 
itor) it is necessary to connect the video 
output from the controller to the input of 
an RF modulator such as the Sup'R'Mod 
modulator. The manual admonishes one 
to "be sure to disconnect any other video 
inputs to the modulator (such as may be 
connected to pin #2 of the auxiliary video 
connector on the Apple II board). This 
may involve clipping of the video input 
wire or removing the »2 contact of the 
Molex KK 100 connector. If your modulator 
derives its power from the Apple you 
must leave the other three wires undis- 
turbed." 



56 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



I wasn't anxious to clip the wire because 
it might be one that I wanted to use again. 
However I found that a very small screw- 
driver would easily unfasten the contact 
from the Molex connector. The question 
then became: which is the number 2 con- 
tact? Trial and error revealed it was the 
second contact from the right of the con- 
nector as one faces the front of the 
Apple. 

One other cable had to be connected 
between the board and the remote control 
input on the videodisc player. The cable 
with the Pioneer remote control unit 
handled this job nicely. 

The Software 

The interface comes with a DOS 3.3 
disk of software. This disk includes all 
the necessary routines, both in Basic and 
machine language, to incorporate into user 
programs to allow control of the videodisc- 
player. The routines are located in page 
three of the Apple memory, so they do 
not interfere with normal programs. 

The manual gives a rather sketchy dis- 
cussion of how to use the software in user 
programs. However, we found that by 
listing the demonstration program on the 
disk it was quite easy to see how things 
were done and we had no trouble incor- 
porating the routines into our own pro- 
grams. Since these demonstration programs 
are rather lengthy and only a small portion 







Instrument Interfaces 




Videodisc Controller Code Table 


Character 


Function 


Hex 


Decimal 


V 


Screen Set 


$56 


86 


X 


Screen Flip 


S58 


88 


z 


Pause 


S5A 


90 


p 


Play 


550 


80 


N 


Fast Reverse 


Ml 


78 


M 


Fast Forward 


SAD 


77 


H 


Scan Reverse 


S48 


72 


J 


Scan Forward 


S4A 


74 


Y 


Slow Reverse 


S59 


89 


U 


Slow Forward 


$55 


85 


T 


Step Reverse 


$54 


84 


I 


Step Forward 


$49 


73 


L 


Left Audio 


S4C 


76 


1 


Right Audio 


S52 


82 


S 


Search 


S53 


83 


Q 


Reject 


S51 


81 


c 


Chapter 


S43 


67 


F 


Franc 


S46 


70 





Numbers 


$30 


48 


9 




$39 


57 



fits on the screen at one time, we found it 
very helpful to list the programs on a line 
printer and refer to the listings when writing 
our own programs. 

The videodisc control codes table in 
the manual had one nasty typo which 
caused us several minutes of consternation. 
One of the most frequently used commands 
is "step forward" because it is the one 
that freezes a video frame on the screen. 
Unfortunately, the manual lists the incor- 
rect hex and decimal code for this function. 



Indeed, the code listed sends the numeral 
2 to the player. The correct code is shown 
in the code table with this review. 

Nothing is Perfect 

As with every new technology, there 
are bound to be some bugs and glitches, 
particularly in early production models. 
Such was the case with our Pioneer VP- 
1000 player. We found that the "step 
reverse" function worked on some disks 
and not on others. And even when it was 
working, it was frequently intermittent 
and unreliable. Since, of course, "slow 
reverse" depends upon "step reverse" 
working, it did not work either. It did, 
however, work at "full speed." that is, 
with the slow motion control set on 100% 
(which is not slow motion at all) the slow 
reverse function would work. 

We also found that "scan reverse" would 
only work if held down for a second or 
two. This is normal and does not seem to 
be a player malfunction. Unfortunately, 
the videodisc interface has no good way 
of sending some commands for just a burst 
and others for a second or more. It is 
possible, but inconvenient, to get around 
this in the user software. 

Price of the interface is about $250. It 
is available from Aurora Systems Inc.. 
2040 East Washington Avenue. Madison. 
WI 53704. □ 



+ 



OMNISCAN 



The interface that provides the most revolution- 
ary means of information retrieval since the 
printing press by combining these important 
technologies: 

1) the Apple II computer, 

2) the Pioneer VP-1000 Laser Video Disc, 

3) and the Color Television. 

The OMNISCAN interface is used to control 
the Pioneer LaserDisc player in an interactive 
way, with software running on the Apple II 
computer. The system can display information 
with color, motion, and stereo or bilingual sound 
under program control. It can teach, review, test, 
and grade material while allowing for individual 
learning rates. The branching capability of the 
computer gives unlimited flexibility in program- 
ing a learning sequence. 

Documentation on the hardware and a tutorial 
on the software is provided. 

Price: $ 2S0 Dealer inquiries invited 

aurora systems, inc. 

2040 E. Washington Ave. 

Madison, WI 53704 

608 - 249 - 5875 

OMNISCAN is a trademark of Aurora Systems, Inc. 
Apple II is a trademark ol Apple Computers. Inc. VP 1000 is a trademark of Pioneer USA, Inc. 



APPLE 

OWNERS 



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The Best Ram Card on the Market 

'Plus 6% California Sales Tax 
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ROY HICKS. Owner 

566 Irelan, Bin CC 

Buellton. CA 93427 

(805) 688-2047 

SUPER FAN II 

FOR YOUR APPLE II COMPUTER* 

s 69 00 * 



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• DURABLE MOTOR 

• REPLACEABLE SWITCH 

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• AVAILABLE IN 120V OR 240V AND 50/60H2" 

• REDUCES HEAT CAUSED BY EXTRA PLUG IN CARDS 

• INCREASED RELIABILITY-SAVES DOWN TIME AND 
REPAIR CHARGES 

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YOUR COMPUTER AND SPECIAL FAN AND MOTOR 
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• EXTRA 120V OUTLET FOR MONITOR OR ACCESSORIES 
(NOT AVAILABLE ON 240V MODEL) 

• SOLD WORLD WIDE • UNIQUE 1 YEAR WARRANTY 

HOW TO HOOK IT UP: 1) Clip it on your APPLE. 2) Unplug your 120V cable 
(you won't need It) 3) Plug short 120V cable from Super Fan II to the back of your 
computer 4) Plug the supply cable from Super Fan II to your 120V power source 
5) Turn on the rocker switch and a built in. red. ready light comes on 6) Vou are 
all set to "COOL IT " This switch also turns your computer "off" and "on." 



CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

JANUARY 1982 



CIRCLE 326 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



57 



Adwar 

ARS 
I7DA 

puts 

Apple 

color 

graphics 

on the 
air. 




Standby for broadcastable 
color graphics generated by your 
Apple computer 

With the Adwar ARS 1 70A 
your Apple computer r 
be used to generate h; 
resolution color graphics suitable 
for broadcasting within NTSC 
standards 

What a great idea' 

And the nicest part about it is 
the price You get state-of-the-art 
capabilities at a fraction of the cost 
of larger computer/video graphics 
systems 

So if you want to put your 
ensp color graphics on the air and 
keep your costs on the ground 
look into the Adwar ARS 1 70A 

For detailed information on 
the ARS 1 70A and the many 
other video innovations from 
Adwar. mail in the coupon below 
o£calljoday_at (2_1 £)69 1_0_976__ 

Adwar Video Corp ATii AtiAU 
1 00 Fifth Ave ^Tss^S* ft 

NYC NY 100 NIUCO 

Name 
Address 

City/State/Zip 

Please send more information on 

7J Adwar ARS 1 70A 

□ Other Adwar video products 

CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

The Video Buyers Edge. 

CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



Adwar Video Proc Mod 



David H.Ahl 



Have you ever tried to make a video 
tape from your Apple? It SO, you may 
have noticed a loss of color, particularly 
if you have an older Apple computer. 
The reason for this is that the standard 
video signal from the Apple does not 
conform to standaid video tolerances. This 
is especially noticeable on certain home 
video cassette recordeis which are some- 
what unforgiving when presented with a 
non-standard signal. Newer Apple com 
puters are less prone to have this problem, 
as the video circuitry has been "cleaned 
up" somewhat. 

The Adwar Proc Mod is a circuit board 
which plugs into slot number 7 of the 
Apple and processes the sync information 
portion of the video signal. It brings the 
Apple signal closer to standard video 
tolerances so that video tape recorders 
and other equipment receive the expected 
synchronization level, phase, and width. 

The Proc Mod is simple to install. The 
board plugs into slot 7 and a wire with a 
hook connector on it is connected to the 
second pin from the tight on the Molex 
video connection in the back of the Apple. 
This connection does not disturb the RH 
modulator which is noimally plugged into 
this connector. 

The Proc Mod circuit board has a male 
BNC connector which becomes the new 
video output connector. Unfortunately, 
today most video equipment uses eittac i I 
or RCA phono connectors and the BNC 
connector is not something one would be 
likely to have kicking around. My Zenith 
videotape recorder, foi example, has an 
RCA phono plug for the video input. I 
looked far and wide and could find no 
cable supplier that stocked RCA male to 
BNC female cables. However, a $1.59 
connector and some soldi. i solved the 
problem and I was on my way to making 



58 



some of the cleanest, sharpest videotapes 
of my computer that I had ever seen. 

Incidentally, it is possible to use the 
Proc Mod in conjunction with the Aurora 
Systems Videodisc interlace (discussed 
elsewhere). I used the word "possible" 
loosely because by the time everything 
was hooked up. the inside of my Apple 
was an incredible jungle of cables and 
looked like a nest of worms. Nevertheless, 
it did work, and we have been showing 
the resulting tapes at several conventions 
and trade shows this fall. 

The Scanning Kate Problem 

I he Apple computer uses a non-standard 
scanning rate of 324 lines per frame. I his 
will prevent many time base correctors 
on professional video equipment from 
accepting the Apple signal. The Adwar 
Apple Proc Mod will not correct this 
because more sophisticated signal pro- 
cessing is required. Adwar Video makes 
such a product, the ARS-170A signal pro- 
cessor. It stoics in solid stale memory an 
entire Apple frame and reads it out at the 
proper scanning rate (525 lines per frame i 
loi NTSC video equipment It actually 

remembers two complete fiamc-s. storing 
one while reading out the previous frame. 
performing all this in real time (with one 
frame delay). 

This signal processor would generally 
not be needed for most home or commei 
cial equipment. Only if one contemplates 
senous professional studio woik would 
such a processor be required lor cost 
justified!). 

Price of the Adwar Apple Proc Mod is 
$300. Price of the AKS-170A is J1850. 
Both products are available from Adwar 
Video. 100 Fifth Ave.. New York. NY 
10001. □ 

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II you don't see it 
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KEY: 
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- Exprres 



Mdl ,to: DIGIBYTB SYSTEMS CORP. 

31 East 31st Street. New York. NY 10016 
OUTSIDE NEW YORK CALL TOLL FREE (800) 221-3144 

,____ IN NEW YORK CALL (212) 889-8975 

CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Adventure 



David Lubar 




Roll 
mputef 



FfHBC One: Editorial meetings, luck runs 
"?cf a sweep through the Aegean 
stables. 

With the right misuse of eye contact, 
it's possible to survive a meeting intact 
and leave witho"t any awesome assign- 
ments. The meeting in question was almost 
over when the words, *Tve been saving 
the best assignment for last." put a choke- 
hold on my spirit of survival. No doubt, 
the phrase was aimed in my direction. 
Realizing that the meaning of "best" varies 
ierably. depending on who is doing 
the besting. I tore my gaze from the toy 
robots on the bookshelf and waited to see 
what the boss had in mind. Since previous 
assignments had run the range from cover- 
ing conferences to reviewing printers, there 
was no way to predict what might conic. 
The suspense was short lived. 

Photos are courtesy of Six Flags Over 
Texas. Arlington. TX and Six Flags Magic 
Mountain. Valencia. CA. The roller coast- 
ers pictured are 'The Colossus ' and 'The 
American Revolution. ' 



"I want you to write a videodisc adven- 
ture." the boss said in the casual manner 
usually associated with phrases such as 
"please pass the butter." 

"Need it by tomorrow?" 1 asked. 

"For January." End of topic. 

Could be fun. I thought, though I had 
never written an adventure or toyed with 
the fringes of video technology. This project 
would require three-part harmony between 
an Apple computer, a Pioneer Laserdisc- 
player, and an Aurora Systems Interface. 
A vague suspicion that I was in over my 
head prompted a stroll down to the soft- 
ware department. After trying all available 
personnel, it was obvious that no one 
there could be talked into whitewashing 
the fence. Looked like the job was mine. 
Since the November issue was still under 
construction. I put the video project on 
temporary hold, hoping the subconscious 
would start the work. 

Frame Two: Dissected disc, death of pro- 
crastination, and the birth of a frame- 
work. 



November doesn't last forever. The 
harbinger of flying time came in the form 
of a memo. While I had been blithely 
trying to forget the project, the boss had 
been busy. He had taken side one of the 
movie Rollercoaster and compiled two 
pages of notes listing the frame numbers 
for every scene. At this point, it dawned 
on me that he really wanted the program. 
I got down to work, keeping an eye open 
for an easy way out. 

The first problem was figuring a way to 
write the program in Basic while avoiding 
the long delays associated with that lan- 
guage. Taking a shot at modular pro- 
gramming. I started by writing units that 
would handle essential tasks, such as gather- 
ing and parsing input, in an efficient 
manner. Since actual work with the disc 
player and interface would require a trip 
to the boss's house. 1 wanted to finish as 
much of the programming as possible 
before taking the act up to the Fortress of 
Solitude. This situation, coupled with the 
eternal search for the easy way out. gave 
birth to the adventure framework which 



60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Educational Excellence 



Excellent educational software is the 
exception rather than the rule. 

Excellence in educational software Its not easily 
achieved. 

Many targe publishers have entered the co.~putor 
software business Many have flopped Why? Because 
producing good software is not the same as producing 
a textbook. 

These disks are protected in 3 2 DOS. no copying or muff ining can be doic 



Tough Criteria 

Good educational software must meet 
specific objects in the teaching/learning 
process It must motivate and hold the 
attention of the students It must not bore 
the gifted students nor be over the heads of 
slower students. It must be "user friendly 
to both the teacher and student- And it must 
be accompanied by clear support material. 
worksheets and all the material necessary 
to use it effectively. 

A tall order. 

But one which MECC has met 

The Minnesota Educational Computer 
Consortium (MECC) was founded in 1973 
with the goal of extending the benefits of 
computers to every school in the state Over 
the years. MECC has developed procedures 
for finding and perfecting programs from 
contributors throughout the state 
Few Programs Quality 

Beforea program is accepted for the MECC 
library it is ludged on specific criteria For 
example: 

1) Accuracy Is all spelling and grammer 
correct? Does each question provide for a 
correct and appropriate response? 

2) Audience Is the intended audience 
(grade level and subject) served by the 
degree of d ittculty and scope of the program'' 
Is the reading level ol the text material suit- 
able? 

31 Clarity Are explanations and instruc- 
tions sufficient, clear and straight forward? 
Is the presentation well-formatted? 

'(Graphics Are the graphics appropriate 
and sufficient in quantity? 

Other criteria include documentation, 
function, programming, and the like Similar 
criteria are applied to the documentation 
This insures that the reading level is appro- 
priate, that objectives are well-stated and 
that associated materials are available. 

What this all means is that the educational 
software packages from MECC are among 
the best available anywhere. They are 
pedigogcalfy sound, throroughly tested and 
well documented 

Now the MECC software library is available 
to both schools and individuals through 
Creative Computing Software. 

MECC software is currently available only 
on disk for the Apple II All disks run under 
DOS 3 2 and require a minimum of 32K 
memory and Applesoft in ROM or an Apple 
II Plus 

Software using a printer uses the Apple 
serial, parallel or communications card. 

Order Today 

Order in confidence at no risk All MECC 
software is covered by an unconditional 
30-day money-back guarantee from Creative 
Computing Software 

To order any MECC software package, 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling to the address below. To charge 
an order to Visa. MasterCard or American 
Express include card number and expiration 
date Charge orders may also be called in to 
our toll-tree number. School purchase orders 
should add an additional $2 00 billing fee 

Order MECC software today for the highest 
quality and best value in educational software 
available anywhere 



Apple Demonstration Diskette 
MECC-701.$19 95 

A sample of the different kinds of applica- 
tions available on the MECC diskettes is 
shown The software demonstrates applica- 
tions in drill and practice, tutorial, simulation, 
problem solving, and worksheet generation 
Samples from music, science, social studies, 
industrial arts, reading and mathematics are 
provided. 

Elementary -Volume 1 (Mathematics) 
MECC- 702. $24 05 

The first elementary diskette contains 
programs to be used in the elementary 
mathematics classroom Games of logic such 
as BAGELS. TAXMAN, and NUMBER, drill 
and practice programs, such as SPEED 
DRILL. ROUND, and CHANGE, and pro- 
grams about the metric system such as 
METRIC ESTIMATE. METRIC LENGTH and 
METRIC 21 are included on the diskette 

Elementary- Volume 2 (Language Arts) 
MECC-703. $24 95 

The teacher can enter lists of spelling 
words in the computer and have them used 
by the program SPELL, which drills students 
on the spelling. MIXUP which presents the 
word in mixed up order, or WORD FIND, 
which will create a word find puzzle tor the 
teacher to duplicate If words and definitions 
are entered, a CROSS WORD puzzle can 
be generated or a WORD GAME can be 
played Two other programs included on 
this diskette are TALK, a program designed 
to introduce students to the computer or 
AMAZING when pnnts out worksheet mazes 
Several programs on this diskette use a 
printer. 

Elementary- Volume 3 (Social Studies) 
MECC- 704. $24 95 

The sell series. SELL APPLES. SELL 
PLANTS. SELL LEMONADE, and SELL 
BICYCLES which appears on the ELEMEN- 
TARY VOLUME 3 diskette can be used to 
teach elementary economics to students in 
grades 3-6 CIVIL will reinact battles of the 
CIVIL war while STATES and STATES2 
provide drill and practice on the location of 
states in the US. and their capitals 

Elementary -Volume 4 (Mathematics And 

Science) 

MECC-705. $24.95 

Two mathematics programs ESTIMATE 
and MATHGAME provide reinforcement on 
estimating and basic facts Food chains in 
fish can be studied through COELL LAKE 
while OOELL WOODS deals with food chains 
in animals SOLAR DISTANCE teaches the 
concepts or distances in space and URSA 
provides a tutorial on constellations 

Elementary-Volume 5 (Language Arts) 
MECC-719. $24 94 

ELEMENTARY-VOLUME 5 deals with 
trie reading concept of prefixes The diskette 
contains five lessons which both teach the 
prefixes of UN. RE. DIS. PRE. and IN Two 
review drils. DRAGON FIRE and PRE-APP 
II. are also contained on the diskette 



Elementary -Volume S 
MECC-725, $24 95 

Historical simulations OREGON 
VOYAGEUR and FURS are included in tho 
ELEMENTARY- VOLUME 6diskettc Alooo. 
with these programs are NOMAD which 
teaches map reading and SUMER 

Special Needs-Volume 1 (Spelling) 
MECC-727. $24.95 

This diskette is designed to drill handi- 
capped students on frequently misspelled 
primary and intermediate words Students 
answer problems by either using the ga-nc 
buttons, the game paddles or any key on 
the keyboard 

Science-Volume 2 (Senior High) 
MECC-709. $24 95 

Many of the programs on this diskette 
were developed by Minnesota M 
PEST, wheh deals with the use of pesticides, 
and CELL MEMBRANE which the user takes 
the part of a cell membrane, can be used in 
biology classes SNELL plots light refraction 
demonstrating SNELL s law while COLLIDE 
simulates the collision between two bodies 
DIFFUSION deals with the diffusion rates 
of various gasses. NUCLEAR SIMULATION 
shows radioactive decay of nine different 
radioisotopes. ICBM and RADAR teach 
angles and projections on a coord mate sys- 
tem 

Science -Volume 3 (Middle School) 
MECC-707. $24 95 

The FISH program through the use of 
low resolution graphics show the circulatory 
system of a fish Simulations like ODELL 
LAKE which is used to explore food chains. 
URSA which teaches about constellations, 
and QUAKES which simulates earthquakes 
are on the diskette MINERALScan be used 
in the area of earth science to identity 29 
minerals by having students perform simple 
tests 

Mathematics-Volume 1 (Senior High) 
MECC-706. $24 95 

BAGELS. SNARK. ICBM. and RADAR will 
teach students logic while reinforcing the 
concepts of plotting prints or angle measure- 
ments ALEGBRA provides a dnll and practice 
in solving equations. Three programs on 
the diskette can be used in plotting equations 
on a grid: SLOPE which is designed for use 
in ninth grade with linear functions. POLY- 
GRAPH which will plot any equation on a 
rectangular coordinate system, and POLAR 
which graphs functions on polar coordi- 
nates 

Aestheometry- Volume 1 

MECC-716. $24 95 

Aestheometry teaches the topic ol cur -es 
by viewing curves from two perspectives 
The first method demonstrates the sc?~e 
concepts" of elliptical, parabolic and hype 
bolic curves. Curve sketching design: ana 
developed to provide an aesthetic view of 
geometric shapes The second method uses 
a matnematcal approach and defines a curve 
as the intersection of planes with a cone 
The support booklet provides worksheets 
and classroom ideas 



Teashe- Ulllltes -Volume 1 
MECC 715. $24 95 

The TEACHER UTILITIES diskette is 
designed to aid the teacher and would not 
bo used by the student unless the topche' 
tv-ntcs questions using the REVIEW pro- 
gram This program allows the teacher to 
sot up a list of questions which can be u;od 
nithc- by the REVIEW program or the TEST 
GENERATOR program The teachor can 
also -nako CROSS WORD puzzles WORD 
r:ND puzzles BLOCK LETTER bon->c-! and 
POSTERS using the rrograrp FREQUENCY 
?"d PERCENT car be used to cnlcuhtc 
grades ^->d to do statistical analysis A r»in'or 
if needed tor some of itro programs on this 



- 'ogranmcr's Aid— Volume 1 

wr;cc-'20. 532 05 

^ i AID disk- 

Ipfortha pioQi t w m i o i r>onr»mr*o 

be -b'-> to UPLOAD snd DOWNLOAD to 

the '.'.ZCC system, p'ogrr-^r tret oerk with 

TCSXJ PVIDOV 

EDITCr 3;QU2N' r 'Ai.i:niTOR..-r^TErT 

1 t-n?ry 

r ii.r 'Nro binary file 
re FParo included Twoprogrofns "WDLriS 
and MZ~GC Mom Urn 1 asr locrease. cfanoo 
ard ~ arga ^^i 1 - fc :"npr for use, -n z 
pr „„ — fhe' o".\c: wilt tell the amount 
of ?r~ r - -- " llOOEN 

CHARAC"r:r!C -v." locoto contol character. 
SlARTCn v.;" put r'ar';-^ routines. SUCrl 
:!crs or 
i«p (J t ,-•- - user's n« h hi hJtl 

bene ---ate* or "» , rr3dyor~'»!'-d. 

MiCAC VC • 

MECC 721 $32.98 

Accou- 

132 cr MICAC 

corrr-jV Nd ! >rcv'C*cc 

lutomatod 

ace?'.'- L -„„„„„-,._ 

ma (i)goner'' 
(2|acccurts rci'sita (3)ecoounf. ronehofeto. 
and (4) In ve n t o ry n?r:ro! 

Shape Tib 1 ;- -Vc ' 

MECC 724 52*9: 

The SHAFE TABLES diskette includes 
12 filer of 1 87 shapes that cen bo incorpor- 
ated ir • im. Also 'ncNjded ore 

aids needed : 



creative 

compa ting 

software 



Attn: Failh 
Morris Plains NJ 07950 
Toll-free S00-631 -81 12 

dr. NJ 201-540-04451 









Rollercoaster, continued... 

Listing 1. Video Adventure. Note that the 
odd spacing in some of the print statements 
is for screen formatting. To play without 
a video interface, change line 40000 to 
RETURN and change 22000 and 31000 to 
REM. 

To view the video scenes, load Side 1 of 
the videodisc, Rollercoaster (MCA Video- 
disc). The listing was formatted using a 
program by Kerry Shetline. 



is described and annotated in the accom- 
panying sidebar. Since the idea is fairly 
simple, and has most likely been developed 
more than once in the past, I make no 
claims of great originality here. 

The framework handles all the pro- 
cedures that are common to most adven- 
tures. It is, in essence, a gofer, keeping 
track of a player's moves and the location 
of objects, and handling common com- 
mands such as "GET" and "DROP." By 
plugging in a couple buckets full of 
variables, any adventurous realm could 
be defined. The task of creating a specific 
adventure now seemed less monstrous (and 
next year, when they invent the neutrino 
disc. I'll be able to write a neutrino adven- 
ture in record time). 



The project requires 

three-part harmony 

between an Apple 

computer, Pioneer 

Laserdisc player and 

Aurora interface. 



Frame Three: Onward to Olympus, 
empathy for hermits, and getting down to 
the hard stuff. 

I hit the mansion on the hill early one 
Monday morning, ready to wrestle with 
technology. The boss flipped a handful of 
switches, powering up computer, disc 
player, television, and stereo, while dim- 
ming lights throughout the neighborhood. 
After showing me how to use the interface 
and disc player, the boss left for the office, 
and I was on my own. Being alone in 
someone else's house is a rather strange 
experience which I will not dwell on here. 
It should suffice to say that I trod gently 
so as not to risk breaking the carpet. 

The first, and easiest task, was watching 
the movie. This not only helped pass the 
time, but gave me a glimpse of scenes 
that could be used in the adventure. Roller- 
coaster, for those of you who missed the 
movie, concerns an extortionist who plants 
bombs on rollercoaster tracks, merry-go- 
rounds, and other fun places. The movie 
occupies five sides of three discs. The 
side used for the adventure contains good 



i gosub 30006 

2 QOSUB 34000 

3 GOSUB 22000 
10 GOSUB 1000 



REM INITIALIZE 
REM INSTRUCTIONS 
REM DISPLAY 1ST ROOM 
REM INPUT ROUTINE 
THEN 



30 IF NOT SPACE 

V*=A* 
40 IF A*»" " THEN 10 
45 PRINT: PRINT 
50 IF ASC<V*>»32 AND LEN<V*>>1 THEN 

V*=PIGHT*<V*,LEN<V«>-1>: A*«RIGHT*<A*.LEN<A*>-1 ): GOTO 50 
60 IF LEN(V*)=LEN<A*> THEN 

NFLAG-0: GOTO 90 
78 N*=PIGHT*<A*,LEN<A*>-LEN<V*>> 
80 IF ASC<N*>=32 AND LEN<N$>>1 THEN 

N*=RIGHT*(N#,LEN<N*>-1>: GOTO 86 
85 IF N*»" " THEN 

NFLAG=0 
90 A-ASC<V»>-64 

100 IF A<1 OR A>26 THEN 10 

110 ON A GOSUB 10100,10200,10300.10400,10500,10600.10700.10800,10900,11000, 
1 1 100, 1 12O0. 1 1 300, 1 1400, 1 1500, 1 1600, 1 1760, 1 1800, 1 1900, 12000, 12100, 12200, 
12300, 12400, 12500, 12600 
120 IF NOT KUI THEN 

PRINT "I DON'T KNOU HOUI TO DO THAT": KW»1 
125 T-T+l: 

IF T>150 THEN _ 

INVERSE: PRINT "I THINK TIME JUST RAN OUT": NORMAL: T-0: VC*» 
"S16000SXP": 60SUB 40600: GOTO 50000 
130 PRINT: GOTO 18 
1060 AM" ": SPACE-6: N*»" ": M»«" ": NFLAG=1 
1010 GET Bf: 

IF ASC<B»>=13 THEN 
RETURN 
1626 IF ASC<B*>«8 AND SPACE AND RIGHT«A*. 1>»" " THEN 

SPACE-6 
1025 IF LEN<A*>=1 AND B*-" " THEN 1616 
1636 IF ASC<B#>=8 AND LEN<A*>>1 THEN 

A#=LEFT*<A*.LEN<A*>-1): PRINT B*> " ":B*:: GOTO 1616 
1040 IF B»«" " AND NOT SPACE THEN 

V#-A»: SPACE-l: GOTO 1060 
1056 IF ASC<B*><65 OR ASC<B*>>91 THEN 1010 
1060 PRINT B*; 
1070 A»=A*+B* 

1086 GOTO 1010 _ „ 

9999 REM FOLLOWING ROUTINES ACT ON THE INPUT. KU IS KEYWORD FLAG 
10106 KU=0: RETURN 
10260 IF A*=" BREAK BOX" THEN 53000 
10210 IF A»="BREAK DOOR" THEN 

PRINT "TOO SOLID TO EVEN TRY": RETURN 
10299 KU=6: RETURN 
18366 KU-0: RETURN 

10400 IF V*-"DR0P" AND NFLAG THEN 26060 
10499 KU«6: RETURN 
10566 IF A*«"E" THEN 

D'2: GOTO 26606 
18561 IF V*="EXAMINE" AND NFLAG THEN 27600 
16599 KU-0: RETURN 



1060U 

16618 

16699 
16700 
16710 
10720 
10799 
18886 



16899 
18900 
16999 

11000 

11699 
11166 

11199 
11266 
11218 
11299 

11300 

11399 
11400 

11499 
11500 



11599 
llbOe 
11610 
11620 
11636 
11699 
11760 



IF A*«"FIND BATTERIES" THEN 

PRINT "TRY THE BEAR": RETURN 
IF V*«"FIND" THEN 

PRINT "I CAN'T HELP YOU": RETURN 
KU=0: RETURN 
IF V*="G0" THEN 19000 
IF A*-"GIVE COINS" AND L=5 THEN 43000 
IF A»="GIVE TICKET" AND L*16 THEN 48000 
KW-0: RETURN 
IF V*»"HELP" THEN 

PRINT 

"JUST KEEP MOVING AND EXAMINING THINGS, AND AVOID DANGEROUS PLACES. "I 

RETURN 
KW»0: RETURN 

IF A*»"I" OR A*-"INV" OR A*»" INVENTORY" THEN 24000 
KU=0: RETURN 
IF V««"JAM" THEN 54000 
KU»0: RETURN 
IF V*-"KILL" THEN 

PRINT "THAT IS BEYOND MY POUER. ": RETURN 
KU»6: RETURN 
IF A*="L00K" THEN 22066 
IF V*«"L00K" AND NFLAG THEN 27000 
KU-6: RETURN 

IF A*»"MAKE JAMMER" THEN 55000 
KU=0: RETURN 
IF A»="N" THEN 

D=l: GOTO 28680 
KU=0: RETURN 
IF A*«"0PEN BEAR" THEN 

PRINT "TWO BATTERIES JUST FELL »l PRINT "OUT OF THE BACK.": PRINT 

"THEY'RE ON THE GROUND": 0B<11)=L: RETURN 
KU<0: RETURN 

IF <V»-"PUT" OR V*="PLACE") AND NFLAG THEN 28000 
IF V*-"PLAY" AND L=6 THEN 43666 
IF V*-"PLAY" AND L=16 THEN 48660 

IF <A*»"PUSH BUTTON" OR A*="PRESS BUTTON") AND L=2 THEN 53000 
KU«0: RETURN 
IF A#="QUIT" THEN 



END 



62 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





MTU Introduces 

The Complete Desktop 

Computer 



The MTU-130 computer is THE COMPLETE 6502 system. 
This desktop system is designed for people who need to max- 
imize their computing and minimize their learning time. It gives 
you the features you need to perform your applications. 

A desktop computer should have clean expansion beyond the 
standard system. The MTU-1 30 is designed with an 1 8 bit ad- 
dress bus for up to 256K memory (80K standard) and includes 
an internal card cage for expansion boards or your own custom 
boards when needed . Of course , the power supply and fan have 
sufficient capacity for expansion. We even have provided rear 
panel cutouts for custom connectors if you need them for that 
special task you have to perform . 

The human interface features of this system include: a 96 key 
keyboard with programmable function keys and displayed soft 
legends, a bit mapped display with 480 x 256 pixel resolution 
graphics, 80 column text(gray scale also), an8bit audio portfor 
speech, music and sounds, and a high speed (60 points/sec) 
fiber optic light pen. Other standard I/O includes 2 parallel ports 
with handshaking and a serial port with software selectable 
50- 1 9.2K baud-rates. Of course connectors are provided on the 
rear panel 

You interact with the MTU-1 30 through our field proven Chan- 
nel Oriented Disk Operating System (CODOS) which permits 
youtoeasilycustomizeyoursystem. UsingCODOS , anyfile 
is transferred from disk to anywhere in memory at a sustained 
speed of 19.6K bytes/second (not burst speeds!). Files are 
handled automatically, freeing you to perform at your peak 
Auto-execution of ' jobs" when power is turned on can turn the 
MTU-1 30 into a dedicated-function system. A monitor with 32 
commands and 1 9 utilities is standard . Text or data can be easily 
transferred to or from other systems on IBM orCP/M' (or others) 
format disks with our optional DISKEX program 

Our standard full screen EDITOR allows you to edit text or pro- 
gram files with rapid positioning anywhere in the file It edits any 
file size that fits on the disk (not just in memory) and will edit a file 
in place or save a backup copy The concept "what you 
see on the display is what exists in the file" has 
been employed which significantly reduces 
your learning and interacting time. This is a 
very powerful tool usable by anyone. 



'Micro Technology Unlimited 
rPO Box 12106 

uorougn Si 
• NC USA 27605 
(919) 833 1458 



If your needs include software development, you will find our op- 
tional MOS Technology compatible ASSEMBLER and 
DISASSEMBLER extremely fast, significantly reducing your 
development time. For example, a 21 OK byte source program 
with 6300 lines and 800 symbols can be assembled in less than 
4 minutes This includes generating the object file and the listing 
with sorted symbol table and cross reference map on disk. This 
can be accomplished on a standard 1 -drive MTU-1 30-1 S. 
If you prefer to program in high level languages, keep in mind 
that the MTU-1 30 is RAM-based, not ROM-based, giving you the 
maximum memory possible for the use with any language. Our 
version of MICROSOFT BASIC is standard with MTU-130 
systems It allows libraries of commands to be added when 
needed such as our Virtual (floating point) Graphics. PASCAL 
and FORTH are planned 

The base standard MTU-1 30- 1 S system comes with one single- 
sided, double-density 8" floppy disk, a 12" green phosphor 
CRT, and MTU-BASIC for $3995. The 3 other models contain 1 
or 2 single or double sided drives priced up to $4995 for 2 
Megabytes of storage . You can choose an MTU- 1 30 without disk 
drives, languages or CRT for $2640. 4 Megabyte systems 
available on request . 

We obviously cannot describe fully all of the details of the 
MTU- 1 30 in this advertisement. If you want to know more about 
this complete desktop computer, call or write for our complete 
28 page descriptive literature. International requests include 
$5 00 US 

COME TO MTU - for excellence in microcomputing systems 

■ CP.'M is a trademark ol Digital Research 




CIRCLE 224 ON HEADER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1982 




Rollercoaster, continued... 

scenes of carnival rides and explosions, 
making it highly suitable for an action 
adventure. 

Having checked out the scenery, I started 
getting acquainted with the interface. The 
software included a short machine-language 
driver that could be called from Basic. 
Instructions went from computer to inter- 
face via the USR command. As the video- 
disc obeyed my commands, I felt like 
Archimedes lunging from the tub. This 
was POWER. I was the demigod of the 
disc, making it fulfill my every whim. It 
all seemed too easy. I could search for 
frames, play sequences, switch from com- 
puter to video display, do almost anything 
except make it roll over and beg. 

As is the way in life, there was rain on 
this parade. Since the precipitation 
occurred later that day, I won't go into it 
now. With spirits still undampened, I started 
mapping the adventure, trying to create a 
scenario that could best exploit the avail- 
able video. Thanks to the framework, the 
rooms and objects were plugged in fairly 



The fusion of computer 

and videodisc will 

produce spectacular 

results. 



quickly. While the game wouldn't have 
the magnitude of Crowther and Wood's 
colossal cave, it would have enough loca- 
tions to allow the player to get lost once 
or twice before catching on. 

Frame Four: The problem with adventures, 
an emergency guide to dairy substitutes, 
and the coming of the rain. 

The problem with the average adventure 
is that it is linear, frustrating and. ultimately, 
boring. The first one is fun. the second 
entertaining, but after that the novelty 
wears thin. I realized I could either put a 
lot of hard work behind my feelings on 
the subject and produce a different sort 
of adventure, or rely on the novelty of 
the video to save the day. Following the 
sage advice of Occam's Razor and other 
convenient laws of laziness. 1 took the 
easy way out and stuck with the standard 
adventure format. 

This sort of work definitely called for 
vast quantities of coffee, which led to the 
following discovery. If you are ever out 
of milk and sugar, but have peppermint 
stick ice cream in the freezer, try some in 
the coffee. It's not bad. 

Having mapped the adventure. I was 
ready 'to add some video. As a start. I 



11799 KW=0: RETURN 

11808 IF <A*="READ BOOK"> AND <OB<4>=0 OR 06<4>*L> THEN 

PRINT "YOU NOW KNOW HOW TO MAKE A": PRINT "JAMMER FROM A RADIO" 

RETURN 
IF A*«"READ TICKET" THEN 

A*="LOOK TICKET": 60T0 27608 
KW=0: RETURN 
IF A*="S" THEN 

D«3: GOTO 20800 
IF Vf=" SHOOT" THEN 43888 
IF A*«"SHOW TICKET" ANC L=16 THEN 48888 
KW=0: RETURN 

IF V*="TAKE" ANO NFLAG THEN 25088 

IF <A*="TURN KNOB" OR A*»"TURN DIAL") AND L-2 THEN 53000 
KW=0: RETURN 

IF A*="USE JAMMER" THEN 54000 
KU-0: RETURN 
IF A*«"VISIT DANCER" THEN 

PRINT "SHE DOESN'T WANT TO SEE YOU": RETURN 
KW=0: RETURN 



BK=l: 



11810 

11899 
11988 

11918 
11928 
11999 
12888 
12810 
12099 
12100 
12199 
12200 

12299 

12380 IF A*="UI" THEN 

D=4: GOTO 20000 
12318 IF <A*""yBW UNIFORM",' AND <OB<9>«0 OR 0B<9>=L> THEN 

VC*="S5890SX"i GOSUB 40000: 

FOP 1 = 1 TO 1000: 

me::t I i 

YC*""X*l GOSUB 40000: PRINT "IT FITS WELL AND MAKES A GOOD'": PRINT 
"DIS8UISE"! KW= 1 : RETURN 

12399 KW-81 RETURN 

12400 KW-81 RETURN 
12688 H.J=0: RETURN 

12688 POP: STOP: REM DEBUGGING AID. INPUT OF 2 STOPS PROGRAM. 
19000 REM PAR.-.EP FOP DIRECTION 

1901O D=ASC'Nf ■: D=' D=78'' + ' D=69,'*2-KD-83>*3*('D=87)*4i 
IF NOT D THEN 

PRINT "I NEED A DIRECTION. ": RETURN 
2000O REM MOVE R0UTINE:D=DIRECTI0N:R=R00M MOVED INT0:L=PRESENT LOCATION 
20060 P=hSC ' MID*' R*<L).D, 1 > >-64 
20070 IF NOT R THEN 

PRINT "YOU CAN'T GO THAT WAY": RETURN 
20080 L=P 

22000 IF RND<1>>. 6 AND A*="L00K" THEN 
VC*="S2550SX"« 
FOR 1=1 TO LEIKVC*>: 

A=USP ( ASC < M I D* < VC *. 1 . 1 > > > I 
FOR J=l TO 400: 
NEXT J: 
NEXT II 

FOR 1=1 TO 40OO: 
NEXT II 

A=USRtASC<"X">> 
22081 IF V*(L><>"" THEN 

VC*«V*<L>: GOSUB 40000: 
FOP 1 = 1 »T0 4000: 
NEXT II 

V»<L>="": VC*="XZ": 60SUB 40888 
22005 PRINT "YOU ARE IN "I 

22810 PRINT RM»<L>: PRINT RD*(L>: PRINT "THIS LOCATION CONTAINS ":: F1»0 
22828 FOR 1=1 TO NO 
22838 IF 0B<I)=L THEN 

PRINT 0B*<I>: Fl=l 
2204O NEXT II 

IF NOT Fl THEN 
PRINT "NOTHING" 
22850 PRINT "VISIBLE EXITS: ": 
22060 FOR 1 = 1 TO .4 

22070 IF MID*(R*<L>, I. 1 ><>"*" THEN 
PRINT DIR*<I> :: Fl = l 

22080 NEXT II 

IF NOT Fl THEN 

PRINT "DON'T EXIST" 

22081 PRINT: 

IF L=5 THEN 41888 

22882 IF L=8 THEN 47000 

22083 IF L»15 THEN 47100 

22084 IF L=18 THEN 

PRINT 

"YOU FOLLOW A WINDING PATH, FINALLY RETURNING TO FAMILIAR GROUND" 
L=l: GOTO 22880 
22885 IF L«9 THEN 49800 

22090 RETURN 

24000 Fl=8: PRINT "YOU ARE CARRYING": 

FOR 1=1 TO NO 
24010 IF OB<I>«0 THEN 

PRINT 0B*<I>: Fl»l 
24020 NEXT I: 

IF NOT Fl THEN 
PRINT "NOTHING" 
24030 RETURN 
25000 F1=0: F2=0: 

FOR 1 = 1 TO NO 
25085 IF NS=OB*k1> AND OB(I>=0 THEN 

PRINT "YOU ALREADY HAVE THE ":N*: RETURN 
25010 IF (N*=0B*<I) OR N*-"ALL" OR N*="EVEPYTHING" ■ AND < 0B< I >=' L> > THEN 

OB<I>=0: PRINT 0B*U>;" TAKEN": Fl«l 
25020 IF N»=0B*(I' THEN 
F2=l 



64 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CLEAR. QUICK. QUIET. 
ALL THREE,ONLY $1,095.' 



You get sharp, easy-to-read printouts. You get them fast, 
over 150 characters per second, from a printer that's loaded 
with convenience features. 

The Heath/Zenith 25 Printer is a heavy-duty, high-speed, 
dot matrix printer. It produces up to 300 lines per minute with 
whisper-quiet smoothness. The entire 95-character ASCII 
set prints in upper case and lower case with descenders, in 
a 9 x 9 matrix. All functions and timing are microprocessor- 
controlled. 

The features described below tell only part of the story. You 
have to see it in action to know how good it really is. 



See your telephone white pages for the store nearest you. 
And stop in today for a demonstration of the Heath/Zenith 
25 Printer. If you can't get to a store, send $1 .00 for the new 
Zenith Data Systems Catalog of assembled commercial 
computers and also receive free the latest Heathkit Catalog. 
Write Heath Co., Dept. 355-854, Benton Harbor. Ml 49022. 

HEATH/ZENITH 



Your strong partner 






Adjustable tractor-feed 
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Character pitch is hard- 
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able at 10. 12, 13.2 and 
16.5 characters per 
inch, for a maximum of 
222 characters per line. 
That gives you great 
flexibility in setting 
up forms. 



Standard RS-232C 
interfacing for compati- 
bility with most systems. 
Also 20mA current loop 
serial interface. 



Uses standard edge- 
punched papers in 
single or multiple forms 
or fanfold. 



Software- or hardware- 
selectable baud rates 
at 110, 150, 300. 600, 
1200. 4800 and 9600 




Character set includes 
33 block graphic 
characters for charts 
and graphs. 



Heavy-duty construc- 
tion for reliable opera- 
tion and long life under 
daily use. 



Convenient cartridge 
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Completely enclosed 
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Special detectors tell 
you when you're out 
of paper or when paper 
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'In kit lorm. FOB. Benton Harbor. Ml. Also available completely assembled and 
tested at $1,595 Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice 



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TITLE "THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER^" 



Enables ANYONE to write complete running debugged BASIC LANGUAGE Pro 
grams in 35 to 40 minutes with NO PRIOR PROGRAMMING KNOWLEDGE OR 
ABILITY 

IF you are one of the many who bought a microcomputer m the belie* that with 
just a little studying you could write your own programs you now know that you 
can t 

IF you. as a busmesman. thought you could have stock software modified at a 
reasonable cost with reasonable results you know that s not possible either 

IF you are a hobbyist getting tired ot the untold hours it takes to write a program 
only to (md it takes more hours to debug than to write 

IF you are a skilled programmer you don t have to be reminded of the repetitious 
lime spent on each new application 

IF you have left your micro computer sitting somewhere gathering dust meet 
THE PROGRAM WRiTER'REPORTER' 

THE PROGRAM WRITER REPORTER' is not just another data base generator 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' at your direction, makes complete run 
nmg programs that are thoroughly documented, easy to modify at any time by YOU 1 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER" cuts programming time up to90"c for a 
skilled programmer 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' will make anyone a skilled programmer in 
30 to 35 minutes' 

THE PROGRAM WRlTER'REPORTER' does the work 1 You can answer the simple 
direct questions and THE PROGRAM WRlTER'REPORTER- CREATES AND ALL 
IN BASIC LANGUAGE 

O After THE PROGRAM WRlTER'REPORTER' has produced a program can it be 
modified 9 

A Yes. the resulting program is modular fully documented and readily accessible 
tor alterations or deletions 

O Does the program created use so much disc space that there is very iittie space 
left tor the record storage 9 

A No. the code produced is extremely compact despite complete documentation 
It requested THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' will even pack or compress 
information You may even delete the remarks making it even more space 
efficient 

Q Must I be expert or even conversant with Basic Language 9 
A No. an questions to and answers from the operator require no computer 
language knowledge, simple every day English will do 
O What about math ability 9 
t A it you can count your fingers and toes, you ii have no problems 
• Q Will the programs which I produce with THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' 
•• be bulky, slow or amateurish 9 

^iliililiiinliiiijiiliiliiiiiiiiilillliiilii 



A No the resulting programs aim be sophisticated and extremely fast operating 

For example should you create a mailing list or inventory program the time tor any 

record to be retrieved and displayed from a tull disc would take a maximum ot 

1 second 

O Must the programs produced conlorm to a pre determined tormat and tile 

length'' 

A No. you determine tormat and tile sue to tit your requirements 

O Can I develop my own business programs 7 

A yes 

O What are the limitations'' What programs can I produce with THE PROGRAM 

WRITER-REPORTER' 7 

A Your own ingenuity and hardware limitations 100 s ot different programs 

TECHNICAL ASPECTS 

The Reporter Package makes reports your way 

Record access by a hashing algorithm guaranteeing fast record retrieval 

Duplicate keys permitted 

Record deletion automatically supported 

Record access and tile maintenance is user transparent 

Minimal disc overhead since there is no special assembly language routine can 
ed No Basic overhead 

Programs produced can be transported between 6800 6502 8080 Z80 8085 8086 
and Z8000 based systems 

Can be used with Micro Soil Basic and CP'M systems 

Complete file maintenance including up-date ot any record in any field, delete 
and add new records even with duplicate key 



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AND N*<>"EVERYTHING" 
RETURN 



THEN 



EVERYTHING") AND <OB< I )=<0>> 



RETURN 



Rollercoaster, continued... 

25025 NEXT I 

25030 IF Fl-0 AND F2«0 AND N*<>"ALL" 
PRINT "I CAN'T TAKE THE ";N* 
25035 IF F1=0 AND F2=0 THEN 

PRINT "THERE IS NOTHING HERE I CAN TAKE 
25040 IF F1=0 AND F2=l THEN 

PRINT "I DON'T SEE IT HERE. " 
25060 RETURN 
26600 F1=0: 

FOR 1-1 TO NO 
26010 IF <0B*(O=N* OR N*="ALL" OR N* 

THEN 06<I>*L: Fl-1 
26020 NEXT I 
26030 IF NOT Fl THEN 

PRINT "YOU CAN'T DROP WHAT YOU AREN'T CARRYING" 
26040 PRINT "OK": RETURN 
27000 F1=0: 

FOR 1-1 TO NO 
27010 IF <OB(I>«0 OR OB(I)»L> AND <06*<I>»N*> THEN 
Fl-ll PRINT OD*(I>: 
IF OD*<I>="" THEN 

PRINT "I SEE NOTHING IMPORTANT.": RETURN 
27820 IF <FL<I>»<L> OR FLCI>»0> AND <FR*(I>=N*;' THEN 
Fl»ll PRINT FD*<I)i 
IF FD*<I>«"" THEN 

PRINT "NOTHING EXTRAORDINARY HERE": RETURN 
27030 IF Fl THEN 

RETURN 
27040 NEXT I 

27050 PRINT "I CAN'T DESCRIBE THAT" 
27060 RETURN 
28000 FOR 1 = 1 TO NO 

28010 IF N*OOB«<I> OR OB<I)<>0 THEN 
NEXT II 

PRINT "YOU AREN'T CARRYING THE "!N»: RETURN 
28090 PRINT "WHERE?" 
28095 T*=N* 
28100 GOSUB 1000 
28102 N*-T* 

28105 PRINT 

28106 IF A*=" DOWN" THEN 26000 
28110 IF V*<>" IN" AND V*<>" ON" THEN 

PRINT "I CAN'T DO THAT": RETURN 

28115 T*=RIGHT*(A*,LEN<A*>-LEN<V»:>> 

28116 IF LEFT*cT*.n = " " AND LEN<T*>>1 THEN 

T«=PIGHT*<T*,LEN' ,TD-1 > 

28117 IF T*="FLOOR" OR T*«"TA6LE" THEN 26000 
28120 FOR 1=1 TO HO 

28130 IF r*O0B*U) OR <OB<IX>L AND OB(I)<>0) THEN 
NEXT II 

PRINT "THE "ST»S" ISN'T HERE": RETURN 
28140 PRINT "Of ": 

IF <T*="RADIO" OR T*=" JAMMER" > AND N*="BATTERIES" THEN 
8=1 
28200 RETURN 

30008 DIM 08<12>.0B*<12).RM*(18>,RD*(18).R*(18),0D*<12),FR*(12),FL<12),FD*(12). 
u#< 18> 

30001 RM»(1> = "THE MIDWAY": RM*'.2> = "THE FIRST AID STATION": RMf<3) = "THE MIDWAY": 
RM*v4)="THE MIDWAY": RM*C5>-"A RESTAURANT": RM*(6)="A SHOOTING GALLERY" 

30002 RM*(7>="A MAIHTAINANCE ROOM": RM*<8>="THE BELLY DANCER'S TENT": RM*<9>» 
"THE TOP OF THE ROLLER COASTER": RM#a0) = "A CLOSET" 

30OG3 RM*U1> = "AH ALLEY" I PM*a2)»"THE OBSERVATION TOWER": RM*<13>» 

"A CRmWLWhY": RM*<14>="A STORAGE ROOM": RM*(15)="A SMALL SHACK": RM*<16)= 
"A GAME BOOTH": RM*a7>«"A NARROW TUNNEL": RM*<18)« 
"A DARK, TWISTING PATH" 

30010 R*a> = "EDKC": R*< 2 ■ = "9JC*": R*<3)="BAFG": R$(4)="*PHA": R*(5)="»SiASi": 
R*C6) = "Csi»S(": R*<7>="MCQ4>": R*<8) = "DS«N®": R*<9)="»«M*" 

30011 R*(10)«"®8«>B": R*(ll>="A«i09": R*<12)="Q«a«": R*t 13)="ISGffl": R*(14>= 
"•••R": R»<lS>="K»»«i": R*(16)""©«lD": R*<17>="G»L9": Rt<ie)="9999" 

30020 L=l: N0=12 

30030 0B#<:i) = "COINS": OB*(2) = "T0OLKIT": 0B*<3)="TICKET": 0B*':4)«"BCOK": 0B*(5)= 
"LAMP": 0B*(6>="T0WELS": 0B*<7 >="POSTER": 0B*(8)-"BEAR" 

30031 0B*<9)="UNIF0RM": OB*(10>="RADIO": 0B*(1 1)="BATTERIES": 0B»<12>=" JAMMER" 
30040 0B(1>»4: 0B<2>=7: 0B<3)«14: 0BC4,i»15: 08<5>=-l: 0B<6>=-1: 0B';7>=-1: 

0B<8>=-1 
30045 OB<9) = 10: OB<10>— l: 0B<11)— l: 0B<12>— 1 
300S8 DIR*<1>-"N0RTH": DIR#<3>»"S0UTH": DIR#<2>-"EAST"« DIR*<4>-"UEST" 

30060 RD*(1>= 

"WHICH STRETCHES TO THE EAST AND WEST. A RESTAURANT IS TO THE NORTH" 

30061 RD*<2>= 

"CONTAINING STRANGE EQUIPMENT. LIGHTS FLASH FROM AN ELECTRONIC BOX" 

30062 RD*(3)« 

"AN AID STATION IS TO THE NORTH. THE SOUND OF GUNFIRE COMES FROM A SH 
OOTING GALLERY TO THE SOUTH. " 

30063 RD*(4)«"FR0M A TENT TO THE SOUTH YOU HEAR EXOTICMUSIC" 

30064 RD*(5)-"THE ROOM IS CROWDED BUT YOU SEE AN EMPTYTABLE IN THE CORNER" 

30065 RD*(6)="A SIGN READS '3 SHOTS FOR 25 CENTS'" 

30066 RD*<7>» 

"THERE ARE DOORS TO THE NORTH AND SOUTH. THE NORTHERN DOOR IS OPEN. YOU C 
AN HEAR THE ROLLER COASTER. " 

30067 RD*<8>-"SHE STOPS AND LOOKS AT YOU" 

30068 RD*<9)-"A DANGEROUS PLACE TO BE. " 

30069 RD*(10)»"": RD*(11)« 

"THERE IS A DOOR LEADING TO A SMALL ROOM TO THE SOUTH" 

30070 RD*<12>« 

"BELOW, YOU CAN SEE THE WHOLE CARNIVAL. THE TOP OF THE ROLLER COASTER IS 
IN SIGHT. " 



1LJ2 






-* 



decided to display a still frame or sequence 
for each location. 1 wrote a short parser 
that would take strings of command codes 
and send them to the interface. The routine 
can be found starting at line 40000 in the 
main program. (If the code at 40000 is 
replaced with a RETURN, the game can 
be played without a videodisc, though 
lack of visuals makes it as exciting as 
watching salt dissolve.) 

Once the visuals were defined, I tried a 
test run. After giving instructions, the game 
displayed a scene of the carnival midway. 
So far, so good. I went east. The disc 
player whirred. The wrong picture came 
up. A few tests produced the following 
realization: the computer is a lot faster 
than the disc player. If you send commands 
to search for frame 12345, you might get 
frame 135. To compensate for this, I added 
delays to the video parser. Now that the 
disk had time to digest the whole command, 
another problem appeared. Commands 
are not buffered by the interface; they 
are executed immediately. Sinking into 
the mind of the disc player, the process 
goes something like this: Hey. I gotta 
search for frame 20123. O.K.. I'm on my 
way. Half-way there. Getting closer. Almost 
there. Hey, a PLA Y command. Here goes. 
Thus Mr. Disc doesn't care if the search 
is finished. The PLAY command fakes 
priority, giving whatever scene was under 
the beam at that moment. Enter more 



JANUARY 1982 



67 



lercoaster, continue 

delay loops. End result: no matter how 
quickly the main code executes, there 
are inevitable delays associated with calling 
frames from the videodisc. 

Frame Five: Meat on the bones, shooting 
ducks, and an end to modularity. 

With the rooms mapped out and the 
video stuffed in. the next task was to add 
all those conditional actions that turn an 
adventure from a Sunday drive into a real 
game. In the real world, most problems 
have more than one solution. In an ideal 
adventure, any intelligent input should be 
greeted with an intelligent response. Any 
attempt to introduce such reality into a 
program would probably lead to either 
insanity or an OUT OF MEMORY error. 
Keeping this in mind, I first added routines 
to check for any commands that were 
required for the player to win. Any such 
input caused the program to jump to the 
appropriate subroutine. Had all this been 
planned out beforehand, these subroutines 
would be neatly organized into meaningful 
groups. Since I was creating as I went 



To add spice to the 

game, I tossed in some 

more video sequences 

to go along with 

special actions. 



along, the structure of the program suffered 
somewhat. 

To add a bit of spice to the game. I 
tossed in some more video scenes to go 
along with special actions. If the player 
tries his hand at the shooting gallery, he 
sees metal ducks being flattened. If he 
tampers with a certain box. he is rewarded 
with a view of the rollercoaster being 
blown off the tracks. 

By the end of the second day. the game 
was approaching finished form. All correct 
moves were recognized, and some incorrect 
moves produced special responses. So 
much for the easy part. 

Frame Six: Error checks, custom changes, 
and the true meaning ofdeja vu. 

While the programmer in the role of 
game creator must try to anticipate various 
inputs, the programmer in the role of 
debugger has to create all possible situa- 
tions. This can be a rather tedious process. 
Seeing the same scenes over and over is 
rather akin to drowning. Eventually, self 
preservation overcame perfectionism, and 
I decided that all the bugs were eliminated. 



30071 RD*<13>« 
"THE PASSAGE LEADS NORTH TO THE TOP OF THE ROLLER COASTER. THE NOISE IS 

QUITE LOUD" 

30072 RD*<14>» 

"THE DOOR IS LOCKED BEHIND YOU, BUT THEREIS A WINDOW TO THE WEST" 

30073 RD»<15>» 

"THE ROOM IS LITTERED WITH FRAGMENTS OF ELECTRONIC PARTS, BUT NONE OF IT 
IS SALVAGEABLE. A GUARD BLOCKS YOUR PATH" 

30074 RD*<16>«"A SIGN SAYS, '50 CENTS A BALL. WINNER'S CHOICE. '" 

30075 RD*<17>-"THE PASSAGE LEADS SOUTH TO THE TOP OF THE OBSERVATION TOWER" 

30100 0D*(l)»"TWO DIMES AND A NICKEL": 0D*<2>» 

"IT CONTAINS EVERYTHING NEEDED FOR SMALL ELECTRONIC REPAIRS" 

30101 0D*<4>-"THE TITLE IS 'RADIO FREQUENCY JAMMING TECHNIQUES": 0D*<5>« 
"IT IS VERY GAUDY": 0D*<6>="HICE AND FLUFFY": 0D*<7>« 

"WHOOPIE— IT'S THE DALLAS CHEERLEADERS": 0D*<8>= 

"WHEN YOU PUSH THE BUTTON ON ITS BACK, ITSAYS 'I WUV YOU'" 

30102 0D*<3>« «*...- 
"IT SAYS. 'GOOD FOR 1 FREE GAME AT THE BALL TOSS, COURTESY OF CREATIVE 

COMPUTING, THE »1 MAGAZINE OF SOFTWARE AND APPLICATIONS.'" 

30200 FR*<1)-"B0X": FD*<1>« 

"IT IS FIRMLY ATTACHED TO THE TABLE. THERE ARE KNOBS AND A BUTTON ON IT": 
FL<1>=<2> 

30201 FR*(2>»"RIFLE": FL<2>«6: FD*<2>-"IT IS CHAIHED TO THE COUNTER" 

30202 FR*<3>»"GUN": FL<3>=6: FD*(3)="IT IS CHAINED TO THE COUNTER" 

30300 V*<1>«"S3970SPX": V*<2)»"S21130SX": V*<3)»"S4500SX": V*<4>="S47S0SX" 
30310 V*<5>»"S23100SX": V*<6>="S11000SX"i V$<7>="S14038SPXA"I V*<8)« 

"S11790SPX": V*C9>«"S15360SXP" 
30328 V*<10)-"": V*U2>»"S8300SPX": V*<13>«"S14718SPX": V*<14>""S33900SX": 

V*<1S>»"S27892SX": V*<16>-"S7399SX" 
30330 V*<17>»"": V»<18)«"" 
30400 KW-1 
31000 IF PEEK<3*2S6X>32 THEN 

PRINT "D'BLOAD VIDEO. CODE": POKE 10,76: POKE 11,9: POKE 12,3 
32000 RETURN 

34000 VC*-"S6367S": GOSUB 40000: TEXT: HOME: REM GET TO FIRST VIDEO FRAME AHEAD 

OF TIME. PLAYER SHOULD BE ON BEFORE RUNNING PROGRAM 

34001 PRINT "WHAT IS YOUR FIRST NAME?": GOSUB 1000: NA*=A* 

34010 PRINT: PRINT "YOU HAVE JUST RECEIVED AN ANONYMOUS": PRINT 

"TIP THAT A BOMB HAS BEEN PLANTED": PRINT "ON A ROLLER COASTER. ": 
FOR 1*1 TO 1060: 
NEXT I 

34011 VC*="S6367S": GOSUB 40000: 
FOR 1-1 TO 2000: 

NEXT II 

VC*-"PX": GOSUB 40000: 
FOR 1-1 TO 1S200: 
NEXT I 

34012 VC*="XZ n : GOSUB 40000 

34015 PRINT: PRINT "YOU ARE CALLED TO INVESTIGATE AND FLY": PRINT 
"OFF TO STOP THE SABOTEUR. "I 

FOR 1-1 TO 1000: 
NEXT I 

34016 VCS'"S30030S": GOSUB 40000: 
FOR 1-1 TO 6000: 

NEXT If 

VC*«"PX": GOSUB 40000: 
FOR 1=1 TO 90001 
NEXT I 

34017 VC»-"XZ": GOSUB 40000 

34018 PRINT 

34020 PRINT "ON HIS SIDE, HE HAS THE BRILLIANCE OF": PRINT 

"AN INSANE MIND, AND THE AID OF ALLIES": PRINT 

"WHO ARE DETERMINED TO SEE THAT YOU FAIL" 
34030 PRINT: PRINT "ON YOUR SIDE, YOU HAVE CUNNING, ": PRINT 

"TRAINING, AND DEDICATION" 

34055 PRINT: PRINT "YOU HAVE INFILTRATED THE PARK WITH": PRINT 

"THE KNOWLEDGE THAT THE SABOTEUR": PRINT "WILL STRIKE SOMETIME TONIGHT": 
PRINT: PRINT "ALL YOU NEED DO IS STOP HIM. " 

34056 PRINT: INVERSE: PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE"?: GET A*: NORMAL: HOME 
34060 PRINT "BY GIVING THE RIGHT COMMAND, YOU CAN ": PRINT 

"MOVE, EXAMINE OBJECTS, AND PERFORM "I PRINT "OTHER ACTIONS" 
34070 PRINT "I UNDERSTAND TWO-WORD COMMANDS SUCH AS": PRINT 
"'DROP BOOK' OR 'TAKE KNIFE'.": PRINT 

"TO MOVE, YOU CAN SIMPLY ENTER 'N' FOR": PRINT "NORTH, ETC." 
34080 PRINT: PRINT "AT TIMES, I WILL AWAIT YOUR COMMAND": PRINT 
"IN OTHER SITUATIONS, I WILL PRESENT YOU": PRINT 

"WITH H CHOICE OF ACTIONS": PRINT "BUT SUCCESS OR FAILURE IS UP TO YOU. " 
34090 PRINT: INVERSE: PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO BEGIN. MAY LUCK BE": PRINT 

"WITH YOU, ";NA*;: GET A*: NORMAL: PRINT: RETURN 
40000 FOR 1-1 TO LEN<VC*>: 

A=USR<ASC(MID*<VC*,I.1>>> 
40010 IF MID*<VC*,I,1>="S" AND I>1 THEN 
FOR J«l TO 6500: 
NEXT J 
40020 FOR J-l TO 400: 
NEXT J: 
NEXT Ii 
RETURN 
41000 PRINTl PRINT "A WAITER APPROACHES AND ASKS IF YOU"! PRINT 

"WOULD LIKE A SEAT": PRINT: PRINT "SINCE YOU MISSED LUNCH TODAY, YOU": 
PRINT "ARE HUNGRY" 
41010 PRINT: PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO EAT?": GOSUB 1000 
41020 IF A*<>" NO" AND A*<>" YES" THEN 

PRINT "PLEASE ANSWER YES OR NO": GOTO 41010 
41025 PRINT 
41030 IF A*=" NO" THEN 

PRINT "THE WAITER CALLED YOU A STIFF": PRINT "AND THREW YOU OUT": L«3: 
GOTO 22000 



68 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






Professional Software Introduces 
POWER 

by Brad Templeton 







*]* 



POWER TO YOUR S 8«- 96 
COMMODORE COMPUTER 



POWER produces a dramatic improvement in the 
ease of editing BASIC on Commodore's computers. 
POWER is a programmer's utility package (in a 4K 
ROM) that contains a series of new commands and 
utilities which are added to the Screen Editor and the 
BASIC Interpreter. Designed for the CBM BASIC 
user, POWER contains special editing, programming, 
and software debugging tools not found in any other 
microcomputer BASIC. POWER is easy to use and is 
sold complete with a full operator's manual written by 
Jim Butterfield. 

POWER'S special keyboard 'instant action' features 
and additional commands make up for, and go beyond 
the limitations of CBM BASIC. The added features 
include auto line numbering, tracing, single stepping 
through programs, line renumbering, and definition 
of keys as BASIC keywords. POWER even includes 

JANUARY 1982 



new "stick-on" keycap labels. The cursor movement 
keys are enhanced by the addition of auto-repeat and 
text searching functions are added to help ease pro- 
gram modification. Cursor UP and cursor DOWN 
produce previous and next lines of source code. 
COMPLETE BASIC program listings in memory can 
be displayed on the screen and scrolled in either direc- 
tion. POWER is a must for every serious CBM user. 

Call us today, for the name of the Professional 
Software dealer nearest you. 

Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Road 

Needham, MA 02194 

Tel: (617) 444-5224 Telex #951579 



69 



tollercoaster, continued.. 



Though this is never true, the thought 
can be comforting. Leaving the message. 
"Play me," on the diskette sleeve, I packed 
it in for the day. 

I was eager to learn the boss's reaction 
to the program. "Not bad," he told me the 
next day, "though I do have a few changes 
to suggest." 

I looked at the three pages of notes, 
feeling some empathy for the ancient 
mariner. Sisyphus, and other bearers of 
long sentences. A close inspection revealed 
that most of the changes would not be 
difficult. "I'll take a shot at it," I told him. 
trying not to give signs of relief. 

Back at the fortress. I plugged in the 
changes and started another round of error 
checks. By the end of the afternoon. I 
could close my eyes and see rollercoasters. 
But the program was finished. In an odd 
way. the project had almost been fun. 

Frame Seven: Conclusions, the future of 
video, and the meaning of it all. 

Naturally, there is a post-natal pleasure 
associated with the completion of any 
programming task. After the glow dims, 
some questions remain. Was the project 
worth doing? Did it accomplish the desired 
functions? The main goal was to try an 
experiment with a fairly new technology. 
Here I feel partial failure. The new medium 
was used in an old way. Beyond the video 
scenes, the program is just another adven- 
ture. It was as if I had been given Vulcan's 
forge and used it to produce a souped-up 
Ford Pinto. Despite the racing stripes and 
whitewall.s. it's still a compact car. But 
the exercise has convinced me of the 
potential power of the video-computer 
connection. The fusion of these two devices 
will produce some spectacular results. 
Rather than add to existing concepts, 
people will create applications that open 
new areas, merging computers and video 
rather than just tacking picture to a pro- 
gram. The rollercoaster ride has just 
begun. D 



"S194SSSPX"! 







W 




! PRINT 

"I RETURN 

PRINT "UP THE GUN" 



0B<1>— 1 



41040 PRINT: PRINT "YOU ARE SERVED A DELICIOUS MEAL": PRINT 

"UNFORTUNATELY, THE SERVICE IS": PRINT "RATHER SLOW": VC*» 

GOSUB 40000: 

FOR 1 = 1 TO 12000: 

NEXT II 

VC»="XZ": GOSUB 40000 
41045 PRINT 
410S0 PRINT "THE BOMB WENT OFF AND THE BOMBER ESCAPED": 

FOR 1=1 TO 3000: 

NEXT II 

GOTO 50000 
43000 IF OB(1)<>0 THEN 

PRINT "THE MAN BEHIND THE COUNTER TELLS" 
"YOU, ' IF YOU WANNA FLAY YOU GOTTA PAY. 
43010 PRINT "YOU HAND OVER THE COINS AND PICK" 
43020 VC*="S11024SXP": GOSUB' 400601 

FOR 1=1 TO 3000: 

NEXT II 

VC*="XZ": 60SUB 40060 
4303O PRINT "GOOD SHOOTING": PRINT "HE HANDS YOU A TEDDY BEAR": OBC8>=0 
43035 PRINT "A PASSERBY LOOKS AT THE BEAR AND": PRINT 

"SAYS, 'MODERN NONSENSE. WHAT EVER HAPPENED TO SIMPLE STUFFED ANIMA 

LS?'": PRINT "HE SHAKES HIS HEAD AND LEAVES. " 
43040 RETURN 
47060 PRINT: 

IF OB<8><>0 THEN 

PRINT "SHE SAYS YOU CAN'T COME IN UNLESS YOU HAVE A PRESENT FOR HER" I 
PRINT "SHE PUSHES YOU OUT. "I L-4: GOTO 22600 

47005 IF 0BC8>="-2 THEN 
PRINT 

"SHE SAYS, 'YOU THINK ONE PRESENT ENTITLES YOU TO COME IN HERE ANY TIME 
YOU WANT?'": PRINT "SHE TURNS HER BACK AND IGNORES YOU.": RETURN 
47010 PRINT "SHE LETS YOU IN AND EYES THE BEAR. ": PRINT 

"DO YOU WANT TO GIVE IT TO HER? ": GOSUB 1000 
47020 PRINT: 

IF A*<>" Y" AND A*<>" YES" THEN 

PRINT "SHE THROWS YOU OUT": L=4: GOTO 22000 
47030 0BC8)«-2: PRINT "SHE UNLOCKS THE DOOR TO THE SOUTH" 
47040 RETURN 
47100 IF OB<9><>0 THEN 

PRINT "HE SAYS, 'EMPLOYEES ONLY' AND THROWS YOU OUT": L-li: GOTO 22000 
47110 PRINT "HE SEES YOUR UNIFORM AND LETS YOU IN" 
47120 RETURN 
48000 IF OB(3><>0 THEN 

PRINT "YOU CAN'T AFFORD THE GAME": RETURN 
48010 PRINT "YOU HAND OVER THE TICKET AND THROW THE BALL. ": PRINT "G^G^O^": 

PRINT "IT'S A WINNER.": PRINT "YOU HAVE A CHOICE OF FOUR PRIZES:" 
48020 PRINT "A LAMP, TOWELS, RADIO, OR POSTER. " 
48030 PRINT "WHICH DO YOU WANT?": GOSUB 1006 
48646 A»=RI6HT»<A*,LEN<A*>-1>: 

FOR 1=5 TO 16 
48056 IF OB*<I>»A* THEN 

OB<I>=0: PRINT: PRINT "IT'S YOURS": 
IF A*="RADIO" THEN 

VC*="S1234SX": GOSUB 40000: 
FOR I>1 TO 1606: 
NEXT II 

VC*-"X": GOSUB 40000: RETURN 
48060 NEXT I: 

PRINT: PRINT "PLEASE ANSWER WITH LAMP, RADIO OR TOWEL.": GOTO 48030 
49000 INVERSE: SPEED=200: PRINT "IF YOU LOOK BACK, YOU'LL NOTICE": PRINT 

"A CAR SPEEDING TOWARD YOU": VC*="S16000SXPAAXZ" 
49010 NORMAL: SPEED=255: GOSUB 40000: GOTO 50000 
50000 HOME: VTAB 10: PRINT "IT IS ONE YEAR LATER": PRINT 
"THE ROLLER COASTER HAS BEEN REBUILT": PRINT 
"THE SABOTEUR PLANS TO DESTROY IT AGAIN": PRINT 
"WOULD YOU LIKE TO TRY TO SAVE IT?" 
50010 GOSUB 1060: PRINT 
50020 IF A*=" YES" OR A$=" Y" THEN 

GOSUB 30O01: GOTO 22006 
50030 IF A*<>" N" AND A*<>" NO" THEN 

PRINT "YES OR NO":: GOSUB 1600: PRINT: GOTO 50020 
50640 END 

53000 PRINT "UH OH, I THINK THAT WAS A MISTAKE": VC*="S18722S2SXPAAAAXZ" : GOSUB 
40000: PRINT "YOU SET OFF THE BOMB": 
FOR 1=1 TO 2000: 
NEXT I: 
GOTO 50000 
54000 IF L<>12 THEN 

PRINT "YOU AREN'T IN LINE OF SIGHT WITH": PRINT "THE ROLLER COASTER": 
RETURN 
54010 IF OB<12> THEN 

PRINT "YOU DON'T HAVE A JAMMER": RETURN 
54020 IF NOT B THEN 

PRINT "IT DOESN'T WORK. MAYBE IT NEEDS BATTERIES": RETURN 
54030 VC*«"S12190SPX": GOSUB 40000: 
FOR I«l TO 8600: 
NEXT I I 

VC*="X2": GOSUB 40000 
54040 HOME: VTAB 10: HTAB 12: INVERSE: SPEED«100: PRINT "CONGRATULATIONS": 

NORMHL: PRINT: HTAB 6: PRINT "YOU SAVED THE ROLLER COASTER": SPEED=2SS: 
END 
55000 IF NOT BK THEN 

PRINT "YOU DON'T KNOW HOW": RETURN 
55010 IF OB<10><>0 THEN 

PRINT "SOMETHING VITAL IS MISSING": RETURN 
55020 IF OB<2><>0 THEN 

PRINT "YOU DON'T HAVE THE REQUIRED TOOLS": RETURN 
55630 PRINT "CONGRATULATIONS, YOU NOW HAVE A ": PRINT "JAMMER": 0B<16>=-1: 

OB<12>=0: RETURN CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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COPYRIGHT INFORMATION All software mentioned in this advertisement are copyrighted products o! Sinus 
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All products are designed for use with Apple II computers 



CIRCLE 238 ON Hi At>t H ' ARD 



Are you ready to step into the world of 




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Apple is the registered trademark of APPLE COMPUTER. INC. 



CIRCLE 332 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



An 

Adventure 

Framework 

There are two key parts to the 
framework; the input routine and the 
partial parser. Rather than use an 
INPUT statement, each character is 
obtained with GET. This has several 
advantages. First, each character can 
be checked on entry. Second, commas 
won't cause an EXTRA IGNORED 
error message. Finally, there is plenty 
of time between each character to 
process the preceding one. With 
INPUT, the program receives the whole 
phrase at once and any processing has 
to be done after the user has hit return. 
To separate a two-word phrase, the 
program would have to search through 
the input string for a space, adding to 
the delay time. On the other hand the 
GET routine can immediately identify 
a space and define anything prior to it 
as the first word of input. The rest of 
the routine just traps illegal characters 
and checks for controls such as the 
back arrow or return. For back arrows, 
the routine erases characters as the 
cursor crosses them. 

The input routine accepts one or 
two words, but no more. In its present 
form, it accepts only letters. It could 
be easily modified to recognize other 
characters if required. Upon returning 
from the input routine, there is a horren- 
dous ON A GOSUB command with 
twenty-six parameters for the variable 
A. This causes the program to branch 
to different lines depending on the first 
letter of the command. While such a 
solution might be considered inelegant, 
it cuts down the delay considerably. 
Once the branch has been made, the 
program has just a few possible key- 
words for which to check. 

Next, I took the basic concepts 
encountered in an adventure (moving, 
picking up and dropping objects. 



Listing 2. Adventure Framework. This is 
not a playable game as is. It is a framework 
handling common Adventure features. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

10 

30 

40 
45 
50 

60 

70 
80 

85 

90 
100 
110 



120 
130 

1060 

1010 



1020 

1025 
1030 

1040 

1050 
1060 
1070 
1080 

10100 

10200 

10300 
10400 

10499 
10500 

10501 
10599 
10600 
10700 
10799 
10800 
10900 
10999 
11000 
11100 
11200 
11210 
11299 
11300 

11400 

11499 

11500 

11688 

11700 

11300 
11900 

11999 
1 2000 

12099 
12100 
12200 
12300 

12399 

12400 

12500 
12600 
19000 
19010 



20000 
20060 

-'0070 

20080 
22000 
22005 
22010 
22020 
22030 



GOSUB 30000: REM INITIALIZE 

TEXT: HOME 

GOSUB 22000 

HTAB 1 

GOSUB 1000 

IF NOT SPACE THEN 

V*«A* 
IF A*-" " THEN 10 
PRINT: PRINT 
IF ASC<V*>»32 AND LEN<V*>>1 THEN 

V*=RIGHT*<V*,LEN<V»>-1>: A*=RIGHT*<A*,LEN<A*>-1 >: GOTO 50 
IF LEN<V*>=LEN<A*> THEN 

NFLA6=0: GOTO 90 
N*«RIGHT*CA*,LEN<A»)-LEN<V*>> 
IF ASC(N*>«32 AND LEN(N*)>1 THEN 

N*«RI6HT«<N*,LEN<N*>-1>: GOTO 80 
IF N*=" " THEN 

NFLAG=0 
A»ASC<V*>-64 
IF A<1 OR A>26 THEN 10 

ON A GOSUO 10100,10200,10300,10400,10500,10600,10700.10800.10900,11000, 
11100,11200,11300,11400,11500,11600,11700,11800,11900,12000,12100,12200, 
12300, 12400, 12500, 12600 
PRIHT 

PRINT: GOTO 10 

A*»" ": SPACE=0: NM" ": V*»" ••: NFLAG-1 
6ET B«: 
IF ASC<B*>»13 THEN 

RETURN 
IF ASC<B*>=8 AND SPACE AND RIGHT*(A», 1)=" " THEN 

SPACE=0 
IF LEN<A*>=1 AND B*=" " THEH 1010 
IF ASC(B»)=8 AND LEN<A*>>1 THEN 

A»=LEFT*<A*,LEN<A*>-l)l PRINT B* ;B»;: GOTO 1010 

IF B*«" " AND NOT SPACE THEN 

V*=A»: SPACE=l: GOTO 1060 
IF ASC(B*><65 OR ASC(B*>>91 THEN 1010 
PRINT B»; 
A*=A*+B* 
GOTO 1010 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 

IF V*«"DR0P" AND NFLAG THEN 26000 
RETURN 
IF A*»"E" THEN 

D=2: GOTO 2OO00 
IF V*«"EXAMINE" AND NFLAG THEN 27000 
RETURN 
RETURN 

IF V*="G0" THEN 19000 
RETURN 
RETURN 
IF A»="I" 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 



OR A*="INV" OR A*»" INVENTORY" THEN 24000 



"LOOK" 
"LOOK" 



THEN 22000 

AND NFLAG THEN 27000 



"H" THEN 
GOTO 200OO 



"S" THEN 
GOTO 20000 



IF *{ = 
IF V*» 
RETURN 
RETURN 
IF A»= 

D=l: 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
IF A*« 

D«3: 
RETURN 
IF V*» 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
IF A»- 

D»4: 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 

POP I STOP: REM DEBU6GING AID 
REM PARSER FOR GO DIRECTION 
D-ASC < H* > : D- < D-78 > ♦ < D"69 > *2+ < D-83 ) *3* < D«87 > *4 : 
■IF NOT D THEN 

PRINT "I NEED A DIRECTION. "I RETURN 
REM MOVE R0UTINE:D«DIRECTI0N:R»R00M MOVED INTO:L"PRESENT LOCATION 
R-ASC(MID*<R*(L),D, l>>-64 
IF NOT R THEN 

PRINT "YOU CAN'T GO THAT WAY": RETURN 
L-R 

REM LOOK ROUTINE 
PRINT "YOU ARE IN "I 

PRINT RM*(L): PRINT RD«<L>: PRINT "THE ROOM CONTAINS ",": Fl-0 
FOR 1-1 TO NO 

IF 0B<I)«L THEN 
PRINT 0B*<I>: Fl»l 



"TAKE" AND NFLAG THEN 25000 



"Ul" THEN 
GOTO 20000 




INPUT OF 2 STOPS PROGRAM 



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r ramework, continued. 



examining objects, and looking at a 
location), and designed the framework 
in such a way that objects and rooms 
could be changed with little effort. For 
movement, I limited the program to 
four directions; adding up and down 
would be easy if required later. The 
rooms were given two identifiers, a 
number from 1 to 26 and the cor- 
responding letter of the alphabet. For 
each room, there is a string containing 
the rooms that can be reached by going 
north, east, south, and west. Disallowed 
directions are marked by a null char- 
acter. This information, stored in an 
array called RS, serves not only to 
determine where a person would end 
up, but also for printing visible exits. 

There are two other string arrays 
associated with rooms. The RMS array 
contains a brief description of each 
room. RDS contains a complete descrip- 
tion. By separating them, it is possible 
to print a full description the first time 
a person enters a room, and a short 
description if he returns. (I ended up 
printing the full description each time 
since most weren't that long.) 

Objects are also held in an array, 
OBS. and another array OB. contains 
the location of each object. OB holds 
either a room number, a zero if the 
person has the object, or a negative 
number if the object is out of play. 
This is the same sort of technique used 
in most Basic adventures. 

One further concept was the use of 
variables for what I consider "furniture." 
This would cover objects that can't be 
taken but can be examined. Furniture 
is contained in the array FRS, its descrip- 
tion is in FDS, and FL contains its 
location. If the value of FL is zero, 
that furniture can occur in any location. 
For example, if all rooms have walls. 
FRS would be WALL, FDS might be 
"IT IS MADE OF STONE AND CON- 
TAINS NO CRACKS OR MARK- 
INGS" and FL would be 0. Since the 
routines for LOOK and TAKE check 
through both objects and furniture, 
these two sets of arrays must have the 
same value, even if the higher numbers 
of one set aren't used. 

The rest is reasonably straightforward. 
Once rooms and objects have been 
taken care of, routines need only be 
added to handle special situations. Note 
that the LOOK routine checks to see 
whether an object is either in the player's 
possession or in the same room as he. 
This avoids the frustration encountered 
when a player wants to examine some- 
thing and is told he isn't carrying it. 
The general framework, with dummy 
room and object definitions, is given 
in Listing 2 or those who might want 
to construct their own adventures. 

-DL 



22040 NEXT II 

IF NOT Fl THEN 
PRINT "NOTHING" 
22950 PRINT "VISIBLE EXITS: "I 
22060 FOR 1=1 TO 4 
22070 IF MID*<R*<L>. I, !><>"•" THEN 

PRINT DIRfdX" 'H Fl-1 
22088 NEXT I: 

IF NOT Fl THEN 

PRINT "DON'T EXIST" 
22090 RETURN 
24000 Fl-0: PRINT "YOU ARE CARRYING": 

FOR 1=1 TO NO 
24010 IF OB<I>-0 THEN 

PRINT 0B#<I>! Fl-1 
24020 NEXT II 

IF NOT Fl THEN 
PRINT "N0THIN6" 
24030 RETURN 
25000 Fl-0: F2-0: 

FOR I«l TO NO 
25005 IF N*-0B*<I> AND OB(I>-0 THEN 

PRINT "YOU ALREADY HAVE THE ":N«: RETURN 
25010 IF <N*»0B«(I> OR N*="ALL" OR N*»"EVERYTHING"> AND <0B<I>=<L)> THEN 

OB(I>-0: PRINT 0B*<I>!" TAKEN": Fl-1 
25020 IF N*«08*a> THEN 

F2-1 
25025 NEXT I 
25030 IF Fl-0 AND F2-0 AND N*<>"ALL" AND N*<>"EVERYTHING" THEN 

PRINT "I CAN'T TAKE THE "SN«: RETURN 
25035 IF Fl-0 AND F2-0 THEN 

PRINT "THERE IS NOTHING HERE I CAN TAKE. " 
25040 IF Fl-0 AND F2-1 THEN 

PRINT "I DON'T SEE IT HERE. " 
25060 RETURN 
26000 Fl-0: 

FOR 1-1 TO NO 
26010 IF <0B*(I)-N* OR N*="ALL" OR N*="EVERYTHING"> AND <OB<I>=<0>> THEN 

0B<I>-L: Fl-1 
26020 NEXT I 
26030 IF NOT Fl THEN 

PRINT "YOU CAN'T DROP WHAT YOU AREN'T CARRYING": RETURN 
26040 PRINT "OK": RETURN 
27000 Fl-0: 

FOR 1-1 TO NO 
27010 IF <OBCI>»0 OR 0B<I>=L> AND <0B*<I>»N*> THEN 
Fl-U PRINT 0D*<I>: 
IF 0D*<I>«"" THEN 

PRINT "I SEE NOTHING IMPORTANT.": RETURN 
27020 IF <FL<I>-<L> OR FL<I>»0) AND <FR#<I)»N*> THEN 
Fl-ll PRINT FD*(I>: 
IF FD*<I>-"" THEN 

PRINT "NOTHING EXTRAORDINARY HERE": RETURN 
27030 IF Fl THEN 

RETURN 
27040 NEXT I 

27050 PRINT "I CAN'T DESCRIBE WHAT ISN'T HERE" 
27060 RETURN 

30000 DIM 0e<26),0B*C26).RM»(26>,RD»(26),R*(26),0D*<26).FR*<26),FL(26>.FD*<26) 

30001 RM*(1)-"A DIMLY LIT HALL": RM*<2)-"A DARK HALL": RM*<3>- 
"A VERY DARK HALL": RM*<4)-"M0NTY HALL": RM«<5>» 

"THE DARKEST HALL OF ALL": RM*<6)«"A PITCH BLACK HALL" 

30002 RM»<7)-"THE CELLAR": RM*<8)="THE ATTIC": RM*<9>-"THE BEDROOM": RM*<10)» 
"THE LIVING ROOM": RM*<11>-"THE CELLAR STAIRS": RM*(12>="A TUNNEL": 
RM#<13>»"THE PARLOR" 

30003 RM*<14)="A BATHROOM": RM*<1S>="THE WINE CELLAR": RM*<16>= 

"THE BILLIARDS ROOM": RM»<17>="A THRONE ROOM": RM*a8> = "A HALLWAY" 

30004 RM*<19)-"A BALCONY": RM»<28>="THE PORCH": RM*<21>""THE LIBRARY": RM*<22 '« 
"THE BLUE ROOM": RM*<23>="THE GREEN ROOM": RM*<24)-"THE PINK ROOM": 
RM*<25>»"THE YELLOW ROOM": RM*<26>-"THE ROSE ROOM" 

30010 R*<1>="BCGF": R*<2>»"»EA«": R*<3>="EDHA": R*<4>="«8IC": R*C5)="PSCB": 
R*<6>»"»A»»": R*<7)«"AHW: R*(8)-"CI«G": R*(9>-"D*JH" 

30011 R»<.10)'"19K9"> R*<11>-"J»LN": R*<12>«"K«MT: R*( 13)="0N«©": R»<14>« 
"KK»M": R*<1S)«"G*M«": R*<16>-"Q«E«": R*<17>-"R»P8" 

30012 R*<18>»"«SQ»": R*(19)-"kT©R": R*<20>="98US": R$<21)="T»V»": R*v22>- 
"UWTO": R*<23>="SXYV": R«<24>-"93ZW": R$<2S>»"WZ»»": R$<26)»"XSp«Y" 

30020 L-l: NO=26 

30030 08*<1>-"BATTERIES": 08*<2>-"KNIFE": OB*<3>-"DET0NATOR": 0B*C4)-"WATCH" : 
0e*(5)-"WALLET": 0B*(6)»"C0INS" 

30031 0B*<7)-"HAT": 08»<8>«"6ALL": 0B*(9)="CAR": 0B*(10)="GLASS": 06*01)- 
"RUG": C€*<12>="CARPET": OB*(13)="LETTER": 0B*(14)="KNIFE": 0B*<15>« 
"GUN" 

30032 0B*<16>»"AXE": OB*a7>-"DAGGER": 0B»(18)="PAINT": 0B*< 19) -"HAMMER": 
OB*<20>="SAW": 0B*<21>="B0X": OB* < 22) -"RAZOR": 0B*<23)-"PIN": 0B*<23>» 
"CARTON": 08*<24)="PLUG": 06*<2S)= "MALLET": OB*<26>="CHAIN" 

30040 FOR 1-1 TO NO: 
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NEXT I 
30050 DIR*<1>="N0RTH": DIR*<3>="S0UTH": DIR*<2)-"EAST": DIR*<:4)-"WEST" 
30060 RD*<1)-"A SMALL WATERFALL TRICKLES TO THE FLOOR, WETTING EVERYTHING": 

RD*<2)="THERE IS AN ODOR OF DEATH HERE" 
30100 00*(1)-"PLAIN DURACELLS": OD*<2>-"IT IS RUSTY": 0D*<3>= 

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30200 FR*<1>-" WATERFALL": FD*(1)="IT IS COLD AND WET": FL(1>=1: FR*<2)-"WALL": 
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CIRCLE 245 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









V? 



11 * &!n*l 









David H. Ahl 



ia,V», 



a 



Aw : --■■ 



The 

Rollercoaster 
Game Dissected 



"Over my dead body you will!" This 
was the response I got from David Lubar 
when I suggested running a map of the 
Rollercoaster game with the information 
as to what is found in each spot. 

His reasoning was that the game could 
be played by someone whether they had 
a videodisc player or not. The only differ- 
ence is that a person with a videodisc 
player and interface would be able to see 
the motion sequences where other players 
would merely have them described by the 
computer program. 

My reasoning was that this is the first 
computer/videodisc game ever published 
and that if it is going to be part of the 
entertainment wave of the future, we ought 
to share as much information about it as 
possible. 

My reasoning prevailed and. thus, you 
are reading this article. Mr. Lubar was 
last heard saying, "Mutter, mutter. You're 
the publisher." 

Flash Back 

Ever since I saw an experimental video- 
disc player from Phillips/MCA in 1975 
and published three articles about video- 
discs in March of 1976. 1 have been enthu- 
siastic about the medium. More recently, 



I have gotten very excited about the possi- 
bilities for computer programs which take 
advantage of the videodisc. Many educators 
and people involved in industrial training 
are working in similar directions. However, 
my thoughts were more in the area of 
home entertainment. 

In particular, I imagined an adventure- 
type game based on the movie Jaws. I 
haven't quite worked out the entire scen- 
ario, however, I envision a scene where a 
shark is about to attack and is swimming 
toward you with his jaws wide open when 
the screen goes blank and you are asked 
for a decision. Make the right decision, 
and the shark would back off, probably in 
reverse slow motion and you would see it 
recede into the ocean. Make the wrong 
decision and, of course, you get eaten 
and lose the game. Or, you might invoke 
magic which would transform you to an 
entirely different time and place. If you 
did this, you might or might not lose some 
of the objects you have gained and you 
might be posed with an entirely different 
set of problems based on your new loca- 
tion. 

I envisioned using portions of the sound- 
track with only the computer output visible 
on the screen. I also saw opportunities 



for the player to put in his own search 
coordinates (a frame number) not knowing, 
of course, what was there beforehand. 
Based on what he finds in a particular 
location, he must continue the game from 
that point. Thus, I envisioned a very open- 
ended type of game as opposed to the 
completely structured adventures and other 
games that exist today. 

Can it all be done? I think so. We are, 
of course, starting in a much more struc- 
tured way. However, I believe that this 
game will give you some idea of what the 
capabilities are of marrying the computer 
with the videodisc. 

How the Game Works 

After showing the appropriate title graph- 
ics, the player is told that a madman has 
planted a bomb on a rollercoaster. At this 
point a 10-second scene of the bomb being 
planted is shown. A message flashes back 
that you, the player, are being sent to 
stop the saboteur. At this point a 10- 
second sequence of a plane landing is 
shown followed by some additional intro- 
ductory messages. 

After this, you find yourself in a central 
area of the midway. (See diagram.) Some 
of the video sequences (both still frames 



80 



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tollercoaster, continued 






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and motion sequences) are activated by 
going to a new place in the game-playing 
area. Other video sequences are activated 
by picking up an object or giving some 
other command. For example, the com- 
mand "Wear Uniform" triggers a still frame 
of the groundskeeper in a uniform. 

Still other video sequences are triggered 
as part of a sequence of events over which 
a player has no control. For example, if 
you crawl too far out on the coaster track, 
you are shown a scene of the empty track 
followed by a computer message that says 
"The sound of the coaster is getting very 
loud." This is immediately followed by a 
scene of the coaster passing by after knock- 
ing you unconcious. This triggers one of 



the alternate end-of-game routines and 
you are given the opportunity to play 
again. 

Possible Extensions 

The mind boggles with the possible 
extensions to a videodisc/computer game. 
For example, the way the game is written 
now, the bomb explodes if the player 
tampers with the electronic device in the 
Aid Station. A possible alternative: by 
turning the knob on the device you discover 
that it is an alien time warp machine and 
that it reverses time for ten seconds. You 
might see the rollercoaster going backwards 
or people walking backwards on the mid- 



way for the next ten seconds. Used in the 
adventure, you might have to find a deton- 
ator, take it to the Aid Station and explode 
the bomb, make time go backwards and 
un-explode the bomb in order to find out 
on what frequency the detonator works 
so that you are able to construct a 
jammer. 

Of course, there are many, many possible 
extensions. One side of the videodisc has 
over 50,000 individual frames on it and 
the disc of Rollercoaster which we are 
using for this adventure has over 120 
separate motion sequences on the first 
side. Thus, it should be apparent that we 
are just scratching the surface with the 
game as it currently exists. □ 



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JANUARY 1982 



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83 






'> -*■•:- 




of the 







KPutu? 










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^ 



Tim Onosko 



m ' 



The scene is your living room. You're 
watching a television program — let's say 
it's a cop show. A policeman is questioning 
a man suspected of committing a crime. 
The suspect answers in a barely audible 
tone, and his words come slowly. The 
policeman finishes his interrogation, then 
turns to the camera and asks com a ques- 
tion: Should we believe him? 

On a hand-held remote control, you 
press a button indicating that you doubt 
the suspect's story. The cop consults you 
again, this time offering three possi- 
bilities. 

Do you think the suspect was: 

a) lying? 

b) concealing important facts? 

c) in shock and unable to communicate 
accurately? 

What's going on here? It's just one of 
the scenarios that has been proposed for 
the new medium of interactive video- 
discs. 

An interactive videodisc is one which 
allows the viewer to determine the order 
in which it is watched, or is otherwise 
organized so that it isn't necessarily viewed 
in a linear, beginning-to-end way. Inter- 
active videodiscs can be powerful teaching 
tools, new dramatic experiences, or exotic 
toys. 

The idea of a television program you 
can use rather than only watch isn't new. 
Two-way cable television offers audiences 
the opportunity to respond to what they're 



Tim Onosko. 
5370.1. 



I.VW Rutlediie St.. Madison. Wl 



watching, but these systems usually poll 
an audience, so a viewer who responds to 
the show becomes part of a group decision. 
No personal decisions can be made in an 
interactive cable system, since everyone 
watching the program must see the same 
one. 

Other interactive television programs 
have been (and continue to be) designed 
and produced for videotape; reels of tape 
are shuttled back and forth, from segment 
to segment, to locate the information the 



All videodiscs are 
not alike. 



viewer wants or needs. But videotape is a 
linear, "ribbon" medium, and the process 
of locating an appropriate program segment 
can take minutes. 

Videodisc, because it is a "radial" 
medium which can be scanned quickly to 
locate any segment, is the ideal choice 
for interactive video programs and pro- 
jects. 

First, though, it is important to under- 
stand that all videodiscs are not alike. 
Presently, three, incompatible videodisc 
systems have been developed and are either 
in use. or soon will be. 

Three Formats 

The first videodisc system to be intro- 
duced was the laser-optical disc system. 



84 



developed jointly by Philips of the Nether- 
lands, the giant electronics company, and 
by MCA. the American entertainment 
conglomerate. Aimed squarely at both 
the industrial/institutional and consumer 
markets, the laser-optical disc has been 
supported by the entries of IBM. Pioneer 
and Sony of Japan. Since its introduction, 
the laser-optical videodisc system has 
acquired the generic name of Laser- 
Vision. 

In the spring of 1981, the capacitance 
videodisc, nicknamed CED (for Capaci- 
tance Electronic Disc) joined the laser- 
optical disc in the consumer marketplace. 
The CED disc is a product of RCA re- 
search. Zenith, the American electronics 
manufacturer, and several Japanese com- 
panies, including Hitachi and Toshiba, 
have fallen in line behind the CED 
system. 

A third videodisc system is called VHD. 
for Video //igh Density, and is scheduled 
to appear in the U.S. either late this year, 
or during 1982. VHD was developed by 
Matsushita of Japan. Matsushita has had 
great success popularizing home video- 
cassette recorders ( VHS formal) worldwide, 
and is hoping to duplicate this success 
with videodiscs. 

All three videodisc formats perform one 
basic task identically. All play back pre- 
recorded video programming with good 
picture reproduction and crisp sound. 
Beyond that, however, there are major 
differences among the systems. 

The grooveless LaserVision discs, as 
their name indicates, are read by focusing 

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Visions, continued. 




The OmniScan interface from Aurora Systems. 



a tiny, flea-powered laser beam into the 
core of a reflective disc, where information 
is stored in the form of microscopic "pits" 
arranged in a spiral. (The length of each 
pit, as well as the distance between one 
pit and the next, actually conveys the 
information.) Since nothing physically 
comes in contact with the disc, LaserVision 
discs can be played, sped-up, slowed-down, 
scanned rapidly, played backwards, or held 
on any particular still frame, practically 
indefinitely, without wear. 

One side of a LaserVision disc can store 
one half hour of video programming, or 
up to 54,000 individual frames of visual 
material. (Each rotation of the disc, which 
spins at 1800 RPM, is the equivalent of 
one television frame.) Another method of 
coding information, an "extended play" 
mode yields one hour of video program- 
ming per side, but many of the features of 
the system, including still frame and slow 
motion, are sacrificed by this information- 
packing arrangement. 

Like a LaserVision extended play disc, 
the CED disc system is limited in its 
capabilities, chiefly because CED discs 
are grooved, like conventional phonograph 
records. When a CED disc is played, a 
stylus (actually a microelectronic sensor) 
tracks the disc, and detects minor changes 
in the electrical value of capacitance, 
caused by tiny "hash marks" at the bottom 
of the groove. 

When developing the CED disc system. 
RCA aimed to make it as inexpensive as 
possible. The grooves in the discs elimi- 
nated the need for a sophisticated tracking 
system, but also made CED less capable, 
by design. Because of the grooves, and 
because each rotation of a CED disc is 
equal to four television frames, CED cannot 
produce a still picture. (Theoretically, this 
can be done, but it would probably require 



circuitry to digitize a television picture, 
and enough solid-state memory to hold 
and display it.) 

This makes CED cheap. Players retail 
at about $500, as compared to the $750 
investment required by LaserVision 
players. 

The VHD disc system combines some 
of the best elements of each system. They 
are grooveless. and a sensor floating just 
above the disk surface again measures 
variances in capacitance. But. while the 
VHD system is basically as capable as 



There have been two 

generations of 

consumer players. 



LaserVision. it was designed to compete 
with the economy of CED. and players 
will have few more functions than a CED 
player, without the addition of a VHD 
"trick box." to be sold at an additional 
cost. 

Comparison of Formats 

While no real videodisc "standard" has 
emerged, it seems apparent that, using 
capability as a basis for judgment, the 
LaserVision system is best suited to meet 
growing information needs in the coming 
years. When its capabilities are considered 
and "built into" programs. LaserVision 
shows distinct advantages, and especially 
lends itself to interactive applications. 

For example: 

• LaserVision players can be computer- 
controlled. Visual material can be inter- 




Video-Microcomputer Interface 
by Allen Communication. 



mixed with computer-generated characters 
and graphics, and can operate under soft- 
ware control. 

• Because the LaserVision system incor- 
porates two separate audio channels, these 
can be used for either stereo sound, bi- 
lingual commentary, or alternative infor- 
mation which can be switched from track 
to track, under either manual or software 
control. 

• Still frame capability gives LaserVision 
the ability to use large numbers of single 
frames as a kind of visual database. One 
side of an optical disc can store 54.000 
single character-generated frames, the 
rough equivalent of 3000 to 4000 typeset 
magazine pages such as the one you're 
reading now. Photographs and diagrams, 
of course, can be intermixed with text. 
(Consider that 10.000 single frames— a 
staggering amount of visual information- 
can be included on a disc, leaving 24 
minutes for real time video.) 

• LaserVision discs can be subdivided 
into "chapters," which are arbitrary divi- 
sions of program material. Using chapter 
divisions, it's possible to organize infor- 
mation by category, or mix diverse program 
segments on the same disc. Short films or 
various activity segments can be "menu" 
selected by the viewer. 

• While the most obvious application 
of slow motion viewing is to analyze motion, 
this feature can also be used to compress 
action, so as to save valuable information 
space on a disc. Teaching almost any 
procedure can be reduced to a series of a 
few dozen still frames that can be "walked 
through" (with the disc player in slow 
motion), yielding relatively fluid action, 
but consuming just a few seconds, rather 
than minutes, of real time video. 

• Most LaserVision disc players can 
randomly access any frame or chapter. 



86 



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CIRCLE 294 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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TRS-80 MOD I HARDWARE 



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ROMPLUS W/KEYBOARD FILTER 1 79 00 
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S-100 BOARDS 

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2065C 64K DYNAMIC RAM 499.00 
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271 8 2 SERIAL/2 PARALLEL I/O 269.00 

2720 FOUR PARALLEL I/O 199 00 

2810Z-80CPU 249 00 

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771 0A Asynchronous Ser. Interface 139.00 
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APPLE 80 Tk. Drive A80 (326K Bytes) 549.00 
APPLE 160TkDr.A160(652K Bytes) 799.00 
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APPLE 8 Inch Disk Drive Controller 549 00 



MICROSOFT BASIC-80 299 00 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER 319 00 

MICROSOFT FORTRAN-80 369 00 

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MAGIC WAND(Requires CP/M" ) 275 00 
WORDSTAR(Requires CPIK' 325 00 

MAILMERGE(Requires WORDSTAR) 1 10.00 
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CP/M is a registered trademark ol Digital Research 



MODEMS 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC MODEM 145.00 
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UDS1 03 JLP AUTO ANSWER 209 00 

D.C.HAYES MICROMODEM ll(Apple)299 00 
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D.C.HAYES Smart Modem(RS 232) 249 00 
LEXICON LX-1 1 MODEM 109 00 



SUPPLIES 

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DISCUS M1 0(10 Megabytes) 3099 00 

DISCUS M26 (26 Megabytes) 3949.00 



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LISP 



for the Apple II 



Pegasys Systems' new P-LISP interpreter is a full im- 
plementation of the well-known Artificial Intelli- 
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• Over 55 functions implemented 

• Extensive 45-page User Manual 

• Full function trace 

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• Function editor and pretty-printer 

• Break mode for function debugging 

• PROG construct, EXPRs. and FEXPRs 

• ELIZA and other sample programs included 

P-LISP is supplied on disk with User Manual for 
$99.95. The manual is available separately for 
$10.00. Please specify DOS 3.2 or 3.3. 

PEGASYS SYSTEMS, INC. 

4005 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19104 

Orders only: 800-523-0725 

PA residents and inquiries: (215) 387-1500 

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Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer. In* 

Good software is no longer a myth. 

CIRCLE 292 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



jeGASy. 




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APPLE DISK & MEMORY UTILITY 



THE INSPECTOR 

These utilities enable the user to examine data 
both in the Apple's memory and on disks Simple 
commands allow scanning through RAM and 
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changing data on disk 

Read and rewrite sections of Random Access files 
Reconstruct a blown VTOC Weed out unwanted 
control characters in CATAI OG listings 
UnDEXETE deleted files or programs Repair files 
that have erroneous data All without being under 
program control and more 

You may transfer sectors between disks This 
allows you to transfer DOS from one disk to 
another thereby saving a blown disk when all that's 
blown is DOS itself, or to restore a portion of a 
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Its unique NIBBLE read routine provides a Hi Res 
graphical representation of the data on any track 
allowing you to immediately ascertain whether 
your disk is 13 sector or 16 sector Get an 1 O 
error is it because you have the wrong DOS up? 
is it because of a bad address field 7 or a bad data 
field? or because a track was erased' This will 
allow you to tell in an instant without blowing away 
any program in memory 



• Repairs Blown Disks 

• Reads Nibbles 

• Maps Disk Space 

• Searches Disks 



The INSPECTOR even lets you search through 
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appearance of a stnng Now you can easily add 
lower case to your programs (with LCA) 

Do you want to add so called illegal line numbers 
into your program? or have several of the same line 
numbers in a program (like the professional 
programmers do)? or input unavailable commands 
(like HIMEM to Integer Basic)? or put quotation 
marks into PRINT statements? Here's the easy 
way to do them all! 

AND MORE 
The INSPECTOR provides a USER exit that will 
interface your own subroutines with those of the 
INSPECTOR itself For example, just put a 
screen dump routine (sample included in 
documentation) at HEX 0300 and press CTRL Z 
The contents of the screen page will print to your 
printer 

ROM RESIDENT ROUTINES 

The INSPECTOR utilities come on an easily 
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and run a program 

FULLY DOCUMENTED 

Unlike other software of its kind. The 
INSPECTOR comes with an EASY to 
understand manual and reference card Examples 
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power of these utilities. And furthermore, we offer 
the kind of personal service which you have never 
experienced from a software vendor before 
CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



• Searches Memory 

• Edits Disk Sectors 

• Outputs Screen to Printer 

• Displays Memory In HEX/ ASCII 



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800*35-2246 Kansas residents call 1-800 
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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 

All Apple II configurations that haw access to Integer Banc 
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INTBASIC 



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INSPECTOR hrrausr we are nuking availahle 16k RAM 
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222 S. Riverside Plaza. Chicago. IL 60606 
Phone (312) 648-1944 



' 1981 Omega Software Products. Inc 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc 



Visions, continued 






The Disco Vision 7820. 



The Pioneer VP-1000. 



This is achieved by the viewer keying the 
number of the frame or chapter into the 
player, either on its console, or via a 
remote control keypad. Even though the 
time required to access a particular pro- 
gram segment can range from two or three 
seconds to twenty seconds, a smooth, 
uninterrupted flow of information can be 
obtained either by using two disc players 
(with identical discs on each player), or 
by carefully designing a disc so that a 
minimum amount of physical space must 
be traversed when going from segment to 
segment. In either case, disc access time 
is distinctly preferable to tape spooling 
time. 

Interactivity 

How interactive should an interactive 
videodisc be? 

The best answer might be the three 
levels of interactivity that have been defined 
by a major, publicly-funded disc project, 
the Nebraska Design/Production Group 
in Lincoln. NE. Part of Nebraska's educa- 
tional television system, this group began 
in 1978 with a grant from the Corporation 
for Public Broadcasting to investigate the 
new videodisc medium. It produces experi- 
mental interactive discs, is fully-equipped 
for post-production assembly of discs, 
consults to producers entering the medium, 
and acts as a clearing house for technical 
and design information. 

These are their definitions: 

Level One videodiscs are discs designed 
to be used on a consumer videodisc player 
with the basic functions (still frame, slow, 
fast, scan, two audio channels, frame and 
chapter number search) used manually. 
This allows for menu selection, simple 
viewer options and branching, analytical 
sequences, single frame storage, etc. An 
important function of a Level One disc is 
that it can be coded so that these consumer 
players can be told to stop on a single 
frame to offer the viewer options or further 
instructions. (The two presently-available 
disc players, manufactured by Magnavox 



and Pioneer, as well as almost all industrial 
disc players, will respond to these hidden 
codes.) 

Level One interactivity is the type of 
interactive disc which will probably be 
the most widely available to the general 
public, since no additional hardware is 
required to use the discs. 

Level Two videodiscs are discs which 
are designed to be used with "industrial" 
videodisc players. These discs have all of 
the features of Level One. but are also 



Several off-the-shelf 

interfaces between 

videodisc players and 

the Apple II 
microcomputer are 
currently available. 



encoded with short, prerecorded computer 
programs. These programs are dumped 
off the videodisc and into a rudimentary 
computer inside an industrial player. This 
type of player is offered by Disco Vision 
Associates (a corporation jointly-owned 
by MCA and IBM), and is built around a 
Fairchild F-8 microprocessor with approxi- 
mately IK bytes of memory. These com- 
puter programs are meant to "manage" 
the disc, and make very simple responses 
practical. 

Here's an example of the advantage of 
these "smart" discs and players: Let's say 
three viewing options are offered in a 
Level One program. Each of these directs 
the viewer to a specific frame or chapter. 
To respond to this prompt, he will need 
to enter manually either the chapter 
number (one or two digits) or the frame 
number (up to five digits) on a control 



panel. Under internal program control, a 
Level Two program can offer options that 
need only a single keystroke in response, 
since the chapter and frame directives 
are defined in the computer program. 

Level Three programs incorporate all 
the features of Levels One and Two. and 
use an intelligent videodisc player inter- 
faced with a microcomputer. In this way, 
larger management programs can be used, 
and computer-generated graphics and text 
can be intermixed with the videodisc 
visuals. In some schemes, the on-screen 
video can be switched between the com- 
puter-generated material and the disc video. 
In others, the computer video can be 
mixed and superimposed with video on 
the disc. 

Particular to Level Three, is the ability 
to gather and store (on magnetic floppy 
disk) viewer responses and data on how 
viewers select options. This way, a group 
of viewers can be polled, or the designer 
of an educational program can ascertain 
that students have viewed and understood 
its content. 

These are convenient definitions of 
interactivity, but aren't necessarily exclu- 
sive. Discs designed only for frame storage, 
for example, can be used as visual databases 
in a Level Three system configuration, 
yet even these discs can be used by man- 
ually accessing the material they contain. 

It is possible, then, to design an inter- 
active videodisc that works on all levels, 
differently. Even though consumers will 
not achieve the same interactive experience 
that the users of computer-driven Level 
Three systems will get, a disc can reach a 
much wider audience, and none of the 
visual content will be lost. 

Consumer vs. Industrial Players 

How are "consumer" and "industrial" 
players defined? 

There have been two generations of 
consumer players. Both were designed to 
offer limited access to the functions of 
the disc medium. The first of these was 



JANUARY 1982 



91 



isions, continu 




the Magnavox Magnavision disc player 
Even though some experimenters have 
interfaced the Magnavox player with micro- 
computers, it is the most primitive of the 
LaserVision systems. Though all of the 
manipulative features— still frame, fast and 
slow motion, scan, etc.— are available, 
these features can only be operated from 
a group of keys on the front panel of the 
player. 

The Pioneer VP-1000 player belongs to 
the second generation of consumer 
machines. Its design incorporates two 
badly-needed features: a hand-held remote 
control and the ability to call randomly 
any frame or chapter by entering a number 
on the player console or the remote. As a 
result, interactive programming is now 
easier to design for consumer use. The 
idea of using the disc for consumer-oriented 
single frame applications also becomes 
practical. 

The Pioneer VP-1000 is sold as an 
industrial-quality player by DiscoVision 
Associates, which calls the machine its 
model 7810. DiscoVision began selling it 
in response to the needs of industrial clients 
for cheap, yet capable machines. 

(The Pioneer. Magnavox and 7810 are 
priced in the $700 to $800 range.) 

Three different players are marketed 
by DiscoVision Associates. Each is desig- 
nated by the model number 7820. The 
7820-1 is the original industrial player. It 
accepts programs about IK in length loaded 
off the videodisc, and its longest access 
time in locating a frame or chapter is 
about 5 seconds. (Worst accesss time in 
the model 7810 and Pioneer VP-1000 is 
about 20 seconds.) The 7820-2 is faster, 
can randomly access segments in about 
2.5 to 3 seconds, and its design improves 
upon the original by providing "hand- 
shaking"— a response from the disc player 
that the commands of an external computer 
have been received and executed— through 
its computer interface. 

The model 7820-3 disc player is a further 
refinement on the original. It improves 
access time (albeit slightly) and adds a 
necessary computer instruction to its vocab- 
ulary. (The new instruction, "Branch on 
Fail." insures that the disc player doesn't 
"get lost" if it doesn't find the frame number 
or chapter number requested in a program. 
This could happen, for instance, when a 
disc is improperly replicated or mastered, 
and frame numbers are lost or garbled.) 

Sony of Japan has recently begun manu- 
facturing LaserVision-type discs and 
players. Sony's LDP-1000 is their first, 
and is an industrial-style machine. Unlike 
the DiscoVision players, though, the LDP- 
1000 uses an internal Z-80 microprocessor 
u>n-disc programs, presumably, must be 
written in Z-80 code) and is oriented around 
a standard RS-232 serial interface. The 
Sony player is built to be basically com- 
patible with other LaserVision discs. In 



other words, it will play them, though it 
won't recognize some codes that are com- 
monly used, like chapter and frame 
numbers. Sony, at this time, has not 
announced plans for a consumer disc 
player. 

Several off-the-shelf interfaces between 
videodisc players and the Apple II micro- 
computer are currently available. One is 
Omniscan, distributed by Aurora Systems, 
Madison, WI. The Omniscan board con- 
tains all the hardware to control the Pioneer 
VP-1000 (and DiscoVision 7810), and can 
switch between computer and disc video 
under software control. It retails for $250, 
and includes machine-code and Basic soft- 
ware, documentation, and the required 
cables. 

Another board is offered by Allen Com- 
munications, Boulder, CO. This one inter- 
faces the Apple to five different disc 
players, all those previously mentioned, 
except the Magnavox player. The board 
retails for $575, including software for 
interfacing to one of the machines. Addi- 
tional software packages (for other players) 



The picture produced 

by a videodisc exceeds 

the quality of other 

audio-visual media 

which have been 

available to educators 

in the past. 



are available for $50 each, and the board 
allows interfacing peripherals to the disc 
player and computer via its own RS-232 
port. Allen Communications produces 
interactive discs, and consults to those 
who wish to design their own. The company 
is also active in refining and simplifying 
the "authoring" systems required in creating 
an interactive disc and computer pro- 
gram. 

Other companies have developed their 
own hardware for computer/disc interface, 
too. 

WICAT Incorporated. Orem, UT, 
designs and manufactures their own mini- 
computer system (around the Motorola 
68000 microprocessor), and has long been 
active in computer-driven videodisc 
research. The Nebraska Videodisc Design/ 
Production Group has fashioned its own 
computer interfaces, one of which is built 
around a TRS-80 microcomputer. The 
Interactive Television Company, Arlington, 
VA, has created several systems for video- 
disc applications such as data management, 
electronic libraries, geographic mapping 



and interactive movie viewing systems. 

It is known, too, that Commodore Inter- 
national is hunting for a simple interface 
between its inexpensive VIC-20 micro- 
computer and consumer videodisc 
players. 

Applications 

It's one thing to invent hardware and 
dream up new systems, but what do you 
do with them? 

Much of the basic work on interactive 
videodisc was done, not surprisingly, by 
educators. In Utah, a state with so much 
videodisc research that it has been nick- 
named "videodisc valley," the University 
of Utah at Salt Lake. Utah State University, 
and Brigham Young University have all 
pursued projects that stem from their 
development of computer-aided instruction 
(CAI) programs. 

The goal of all of these projects was to 
arrive at automated teaching systems which 
might displace (or at least enhance) many 
of the traditional classroom environments. 
The proponents of CAI often state that 
people learn better when they learn at 
their own pace. Another generally-held 
tenet, used particularly in support of inter- 
active videodisc, is that the higher the 
fidelity of the automated image, the 
stronger the transfer of learning. Fidelity 
is an apt term, since, the picture produced 
by a videodisc exceeds the quality of other 
audio-visual media which have been avail- 
able to educators in the past. 

A look at the way in which interactive 
discs will filter down to consumers can be 
seen in two discs produced for Optical 
Programming Associates (OPA), a con- 
sortium of MCA, Philips and Pioneer, set 
up to demonstrate the possibilities of the 
LaserVision system. 

"How to Watch Pro Football." is the 
rather prosaic title of the first interactive 
disc produced by the National Football 
League for OPA. The NFL has long used 
motion picture film and analytic movie 
projectors to teach players and coaches 
from "game films," and this approach is 
carried through to their videodisc. One 
chapter uses the two audio channels for 
alternate descriptions of the same football 
play. Another chapter is a collection of 
single frames of the pages of an NFL 
play book. Another is a game called "Freeze 
When," which teaches the necessity of 
anticipating what kind of play will be run. 
There are also quizzes on the disc, using 
one audio channel for the questions and 
the other for answers. 

The OPA football disc isn't for everyone. 
It is a tough, technical discussion of football, 
suited for the most serious of fans and 
students of the game. But it does demon- 
strate how very complicated topics can 
be organized for interactive viewing. 

A very different approach makes the 
"First National Kidisc" (OPA's second 



92 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



IF YOU'RE READY FOR ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 



then read what the experts say about Walt Wellers PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING series. 



"PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE 6502 stands out like a pearl among peas. . . What makes this work 
even more amazing is that it comes with its own editor/assembler/Debug package. . . It has been more helpful to me than 
all the other books put together, was a pleasure to read and came with nifty software to boot. . . At $32.95 this book is a true 
bargain. " 



NIBBLE 



October '81 



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November '78 



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language programmer. " 



BYTE 



October 79 



PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE 6502 $32.95 

20 chapters, 6 appendices, 474 pages. This book applies to any 6502 based computer but is written around the Apple II. Special 
chapters on graphics and cryptography are included. Source code for a full editor/assembler and debug are included. APPLE II 
object code is sent to the reader FREE when the coupon from the back of the book is returned. 

PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE Z80 $32.95 

18 chapters, 4 appendices, 481 pages. This book applies to any Z80 based computer. It contains special chapters on graphics and 
decimal arithmetic. The Z80 is treated as an 8080 extension which means that you don't have to throw away your hard won 8080 
knowledge because of a language change. Source code for a full editor/assembler and debug is included in appendices. TRS-80 
cassette or paper tape object code. is sent to the reader FREE when the coupon from the back of the book is returned. 

PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE INTEL 8080 $23.95 

18 chapters, 3 appendices, 318 pages. This book covers assembly language technique for the popular 8080 family computers. In 

addition to fundamental topics it contains special chapters on point by point control of a matrix printer and manipulation of A/D 

converters. 

PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE M6800 $23.95 

16 chapters, 2 appendices, 301 pages. This book contains a full treatment of fundamental assembly language topics for the popular 

M6800 computer as well as special chapters on fast low precision trigonometry and random number generation. 



AND IF YOU'RE JUST GETTING STARTED. . . 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING FOR THE APPLE BASIC USER $9.95 

This 150 page paperback will get you started in assembly language gradually and easily with simple program exercises that 
relate assembly language principles to your BASIC experience. If you decide to go on from here the book contains a coupon that 
entitles you to $3.00 off the price of any other Northern Technology Books publication. 



Send coupon and check or money order to: 
Northern Technology Books 
Box 62 
Evanston. IL 60204 

Check enclosed 



Money order enclosed 



PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE 6502 
PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE ZB0 
PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE INTEL 8080 
PRACTICAL MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING: THE M6800 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING FOR THE APPLE BASIC USER 



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I 



CIRCLE 1 53 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1982 



93 



Visions, continued... 



program) even more fascinating. "Kidisc" 
is a collection of 22 games and activities 
for children, and is probably the most 
impressive program yet developed for the 
medium. Rather than asking for responses, 
this disc invites a child to play with it. 

Each of the chapters demands that the 
viewer use it in a different way. Detailed 
instructions for making 1 1 paper airplanes 
are shown as groups of sequential still 
frames. Key phrases and the alphabet in 
manual language (sign language) are 
learned by watching a segment in slow 
motion. Two target games help develop a 
child's eye-hand co-ordination, and several 
chapters are collections of single frames— a 
flag and dinosaur quiz, and other chapters 
include puzzles and games. 

Yet "Kidisc" is free from any confusing 
instructions. Its approach is simple, but 
elegant. 

More concentration is required to use 
an experimental catalog published by Sears, 
Roebuck and Company. Sears, which is 
always looking for alternatives to its printed 
catalogs, took many of the sections of its 
Summer 1981 catalog, and organized it 
on an interactive disc. The disc was used 
as a market test in stores, and was given 
to Pioneer disc player owners for evalua- 
tion. 

Naturally, much of the Sears disc is 
single frames, each of which describes a 
product that Sears sells. In addition to 
5000 of these frames, however, the 
designers of the disc chose to include 12 
real-time motion sequences to demonstrate 
certain products. One such chapter is a 
women's fashion show. Others demonstrate 
wireless telephones, toy sailplanes, and 
backyard barbeque cookers. The organi- 
zation of the Sears disc requires attentive 
viewing, since so many of the actual catalog 
frames make references, back and forth, 
to other frames. Some of these references 
necessitate a great deal of keypunching 
to get to where you want to go on the 
disc. Five thousand single frames can be 
a staggering amount of information. 

Even more impressive is a visual database 
called "Patsearch," a project of Pergamon. 
the British publishing company, and Online 
Computer Systems, Germantown, MD. 
"Patsearch" is a visual record of 700,000 
U.S. patents which is accessed by a com- 
puter dial-up. The host computer, in turn, 
controls a videodisc player. A series of 
videodiscs contains the corresponding illu- 
strations for each of these patents. The 
discs, as well as the computer database, 
are periodically updated to keep the system 
current. 

Computer-control of disc players is also 
the heart of a unique, game-like simulator 
designed by Perceptronics, Woodland Hills. 
CA. The concept of using a computer 
game to train military personnel isn't a 
new one, but Perceptronics' "Tank/ 
Gunnery Trainer," goes one step further. 



realistic film segme 
on videodisc, as well as computer graphics. 
The scenes on the videodisc depict per- 
spective views from inside a tank. When 
the operator moves or turns the tank, the 
video responds appropriately. When a tank 
is fired upon (with computer-generated 
shells), a direct hit yields the realistically 
gruesome results. 

The trainer was created under a U.S. 
Department of Defense contract, and offers 
distinct advantages. Training a soldier in 
a real tank, firing real shells, is expensive— 
the trainer slashes these costs. More impor- 
tant, though, the trainer is designed to be 
a competitive, fun activity, and, in fact, 
has been installed in Army post day rooms. 
to stimulate play among servicemen. (To 
add "bells and whistles" to the game aspects. 
Perceptronics has even incorporated the 
electronic voice of "crusty Sgt. McCoy," 
a southern-accented Army NCO who barks 
at players in a gruff, salty manner.) 

The most unique and fascinating inter- 
active disc project may be the creation of 
"vicarious travel experiences," the work 
of Massachusetts Institute of Technology's 
Architecture Machine Group. 

One of the MIT travel systems is a 



"Kidisc" is free from any 

confusing instructions. 

Its approach is simple, 

but elegant 



"movie map," or visual tour, of Aspen. 
CO. Aspen was chosen because of its 
relatively small size and grid-like street 
layout. Thousands of feet of motion picture 
footage, and thousands of individual frames 
were shot of the city's streets and buildings. 
Viewing the "movie map," you can drive 
down a street, turn corners, stop, or enter 
a public building. It also gives the viewer 
the opportunity to see short films about 
aspects of life in the city, or even fly over 
Aspen via a computer graphic simula- 
tion. 

What's Ahead? 

Naturally, these are just a few of the 
applications of interactive videodisc. Most 
industry watchers agree that the number 
of these projects will only increase during 
the coming months and years. 

Optical Programming Associates will 
continue to create new disc programs 
aimed at the consumer. The next of these 
are an aerobic dance disc, and "Master 
Cooking," an instructional cooking disc 
incorporating a still frame recipe file, and 
other interactive elements, presided over 
by chef Pierre Franey and food critic 
Craig Claibourne. 



Special effects master Douglas Trumbull 
("Close Encounters." "2001," and "Silent 
Running") is presently consulting with MCA 
Videodisc on a series of interactive pro- 
grams, though, like Trumbull's other 
projects, these remain under wraps for 
the time being. 

In the future we may see more releases 
similar to the ambitious production, a tour 
of the National Gallery of Art, which 
features thousands of single frames, includ- 
ing virtually every piece in the Gallery's 
extensive painting collection. It is presently 
available from Videodisc Publishing. NY. 

Online Computer Systems hopes to enter 
the home with the concept of its visual 
databases, via a system called "Discover 
II." "Discover" will permit a home user to 
dial a computer database which will give 
a videodisc tour of American colleges, 
technical schools and universities, helping 
high school students select colleges and 
careers. Online hopes to have the visual 
portion of the system— corresponding 
videodisc— available through school and 
public libraries, and plans to have the 
system operational (with data on schools 
in ten states available) during 1982. 

The more distant future presents even 
greater potential for videodisc. At present, 
"sound over stills" is under development. 
This new disc encoding technique would 
make dozens of hours of sound, as well as 
thousands of single frames, available on 
one disc. This would be accomplished by 
digitally encoding audio data within one 
television frame, and using an inexpensive 
"black box" to convert the frame back 
into sound. Using this technique, a hundred- 
hour college course, for example, could 
be packaged on just a few disc sides. 

One inevitable question arises: Will it 
be possible to record on a videodisc? The 
answer, at least for now. is no, but practi- 
cally every manufacturer of videodisc 
hardware has a disc recorder under 
development. Most of these designs use a 
slightly more powerful laser to write infor- 
mation on a special disc. Matsushita of 
Japan has already shown a working proto- 
type of such a recorder, though it can 
only record still frames at present. Since 
the digital data storage capacity of a 
videodisc is so great (reportedly a theo- 
retical 20 gigabits), this is one area of 
research which will surely continue. (Some 
of the thinking in this direction imagines 
a disc as a gigantic Write Once. Read 
Only Memory. A WOROM?) 

The real future of videodisc can't be 
predicted, though. Perhaps VHD (or 
another system not yet developed) will 
challenge the superiority of today's Laser- 
Vision system. And there are still solid- 
state devices, like bubble memories, that 
may make discs totally obsolete. 

For now, the videodisc is a true wonder, 
but one which is waiting for our imagina- 
tions to catch up with its capabilities. □ 



94 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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JANUARY 1982 



CIRCLE 306 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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.Videodiscs in the Classroom: 




^E0<^ 




'A/g C<3 



An Interactive Economics Course 



Kent T. Kehrberg and Richard A Pollack 



Perhaps the most often-mentioned 
use for the combination of videodisc 
and computer is education. And while 
others have been mentioning it. the 
Minnesota Educational Computing Con- 
sortium has been implementing the 
technology in classrooms across the 
state. Here the project director describes 
the development of an economics 
course using Apples and videodisc 
players. —EBS 



The Special Products Division of the 
Minnesota Educational Computing Con- 
sortium (MECC) is charged with the task 
of researching and developing new uses 
for computers in education. With a grant 
from the Rockefeller Family Fund, we 
embarked on a project to develop a high 
school economics unit to be delivered by 
a microcomputer and videodisc player. 
This article describes our project, speci- 
fically the materials we developed and 
the process we used to develop them. 

Declining enrollments and corresponding 
reductions in funds have meant changes 
in many school districts. In the past a 
school could offer a great variety of courses, 
including those taken by only a few stu- 
dents. Now. tightened school budgets make 
it impractical to provide this variety in 
the traditional manner. 

Small rural schools have been particu- 
larly affected. Yet. should students be 
deprived of an enriched education because 
they live in a sparsely populated area or 
attend a small school? Perhaps technology 
has a solution to this problem. 



Keni T. KehrberK and Richard A. Pollak. Minne- 
sota Educational C'ompuiinK Consortium, 2520 
Broadway Drive. St. Paul. MN 551 1.1. 



The videodisc adds 

tremendous potential 

to traditional 

computer-assisted 

instruction. 



Application of Technology 

The purpose of our project is to apply 
the evolving technologies of the micro- 
computer and the videodisc player to 
educational problems caused by declining 
enrollments. A course frequently eliminated 
because of reduced enrollments is eco- 
nomics, which is often taught as an elective 




Keeping notes in the student manual pro- 
vides a reference for the student and evi- 
dence of progress for the teacher. 



in the social studies area. Although an 
important course, economics is, unfortu- 
nately, one which attracts few students 
and one which few social studies teachers 
are well trained to teach. Therefore, eco- 
nomics seemed a good subject area in 
which to develop courseware making use 
of new computer technologies. 

We began by defining an economics 
course in terms of five units. The first 
unit, a general introduction, teaches stu- 
dents such concepts as resources, wants 
and needs, and scarcity. These ideas are 
taught during 1 1 student sessions, each of 
which covers one or two concepts and 
takes approximately 20 minutes of the 
student's time. The remaining four units 
will also consist of ten to fifteen sessions. 
The second unit is currently being devel- 
oped with the other three to follow. 

Three types of media are used in each 
session. A booklet introduces the lesson 
and directs the student to use the other 
pieces of equipment. At the same time, it 
provides space for note taking and record 
keeping. A microcomputer contributes 
tutorial, drill and practice dimensions to 
the lesson. And a videodisc player presents 
information, shows examples, and develops 
concepts which involve graphics or 
motion. 

One of our objectives was to keep the 
cost of the project as low as possible. We 
chose an Apple II computer with a single 
disk drive. Although not as inexpensive 
as some cassette-based microcomputers, 
several thousand Apples were already being 
used in Minnesota schools. The Pioneer 
VP1000 LaserDisc system was also chosen 
for its low cost and because of the availa- 
bility of an interface board (Available from 
Blue Lakes Sales. 3240 University Ave.. 



98 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




IMAGINE a computer printer/electronic 
typewriter with a 100 character daisy wheel, 
controlled by 6 microprocessors (including 
2 Z-80's) with an all-electronic keyboard.all 
in one machine! 
THAT'S INCREDIBLE! 
THATSTHETYPRINTER221! 

AUTOMATICALLY. IT WILL: 

Center copy. 

Line up decimal points. 

Print vertical lines (to separate columns). 

Layout columns. 

Center titles (over a column). 

Print flush right 

Return carriage (at end of line). 

Paper feed to pre-set starting point. 

Indicate end of page. 

Set tabs from one to many. 

Clear tabs from one to all. 

Set temporary margins (wherever you like) 

as often as needed. 
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Do reverse print (white on black), 

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Indent paragraphs. 
Store in non-volatile resident memory: 

Often used line formats (margins & 
tab stops). 

Often used phrases (up to 835 characters) 
in 10 "bins". 

Up to 10 complete forms (tax, 
medical, insurance, etc.). 

Up to 14,000 characters in an 
additional 26 "bins*". 
Print perfectly spaced proportional letters. 
Return to typing position after correction 

with relocation key. 

Allow one character to overlap another (0). 
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Print two columns with both right and left 

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Accept paper up to 17" wide. 




Backspace 1/10, 1/12, 1/15 or even 1/60 

of an inch. 
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one line or as many as 10 pages*. 
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Discs in the Classroom, continued... 




The low-cost learning station consists of an Apple II 
and Pioneer Videodisc Player. 




The student begins the lesson by placing the appropri- 
ate videodisc on the player. 



Madison, WI) which allows it to be con- 
trolled by the Apple II. 

The videodisc adds tremendous potential 
to traditional pieces of media equipment: 
slide, filmstrip and movie projectors, as 
well as audio and videotape players. One 
side of a videodisc has space for 54,000 
frames; this is comparable to the number 
of frames on a 16mm movie film. Each 
videodisc frame, however, has an identi- 
fying number so it can be directly accessed. 
Single frames can be displayed like slides, 
and motion sequences can be presented 
by having the videodisc pass forward or 
backward over successive frames. Varying 
the speed of the player provides slow or 
fast action. When played at normal speed, 
a videodisc shows a half hour of motion 
material. 

Student Interaction 

A student begins a session by opening 
the appropriate lesson booklet. The printed 
material lists the lesson objectives, provides 
a few paragraphs of background material, 
and then directs the student to turn on 
the computer. 

The computer displays additional text 
material and some questions to test the 
student's understanding. Then, at appro- 
priate times, video material is presented 
from the videodisc player. The video mater- 
ial may be stills or motion sequences. It 
may present information, give examples, 
or provide a visual reference for test 
items. 

The computer occasionally directs the 
student to make notes or to write answers 
to questions in the booklet. In this way 
the booklet serves as a reference for the 
student in reviewing the lesson and provides 
tangible evidence of the student's work 
for the teacher to review. Each session 



ends in the booklet where the student is 
directed to turn off the equipment. 

Teachers may be as involved in the 
student's learning activities as they desire. 
The teacher can review a student's work 
after each session or wait until he completes 
the unit. In this manner the student can 
study economics under the direction of a 
classroom teacher who may actually spend 
most of his time teaching a larger class in 
another social studies area. 

The Development Process 

Designing courses that involve several 
different media is a challenging juggling 
act. What role should the computer play? 
When should video material be shown? 
How can the author convey the structure 
of the lesson content to computer pro- 
grammers and video directors? 

We solved this problem in two ways. 
First, each lesson was systematically laid 
out on paper without regard to the use of 
media. The various lesson components 
were then examined in light of the available 
technologies. If a picture could enhance 
a concept, then the videodisc was applied. 
When motion played a role in defining a 
concept, the videodisc was used again. 
Also, when information could be delivered 
efficiently through a short video interaction, 
the television was used. Finally, lists or 
definitions were printed in the student's 
booklet. 

The second part of the juggling problem 
was solved by using color-coded sheets of 
paper. Material for the student booklet 
was written on green paper. Individual 
frame sheets for computer coding were 
written on white paper. Pink was used for 
television scripts. 

By placing the sheets in the proper 
sequence, a person could read through 



the entire lesson prior to its production. 
When the lesson was approved, the white 
sheets could be given to the computer 
programmer and the pink sheets to the 
video director. 

Producing the Videodisc 

Although the typical lesson requires 20 
minutes of student time, only two or three 
minutes of video material is used. This 
video material is divided into segments 
which are interspersed throughout the 
lesson time while work in the student 
booklet takes up the remainder. 

The costs of producing video material 
vary with the quality desired. To the 
microcomputer programmer who is accus- 
tomed to creating new programs quickly 
by typing out a few lines of code, the 
costs of video production seem high. (Com- 
mercial costs range from $1000 to $3000 
per minute of material.) We were able to 
reduce these costs in a variety of ways. 

First, using a service called Encyclovideo, 
which cross-references existing film seg- 
ments, we were able to locate material 
from films available through Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. The rights for short one or 
two-minute segments were secured and 
we then added our own audio track. 

Also, rather than using commercial stud- 
ios to produce new video sequences, we 
were fortunate in being able to work with 
the Osseo Public School District in Osseo, 
MN. Their well-equipped facilities allowed 
us to produce high quality segments at 
costs that were lower than those associated 
with commercial productions. The end 
product was a 3/4" videotape containing 
new video material along with modified 
16MM film, slides, and graphic artwork. 
The videotape was the equivalent of a 
half-hour of material for the videodisc. 



100 



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Softlights 

By Fred Huntington 

Welcome to the world of Huntington Com- 
puting and the first Softlights column 

To celebrate our first column we are offer- 
ing Space Eggs and Apple Panic for only 
$19.** each (list o29 95) You must men- 
tion this ad to gel the special price Shipping 
(usually UPS) for software is o2 00. no matter 
how large the order UPS Blue Label is ^3 50 
Foreign shipping (except for Canada and 
Mexico) and hardware shipping are extra 

Huntington Computing started out' a year- 
and-a-halt ago as a mom and pop outfit We 
now employ close to fifty people We think we 
have the largest selection of software for the 
Apple in the world 

Check the reader service card for a free 
catalog of software for the Apple ■ . We also 
are now carrying a large selection of software 
for the Atari . TRS-80 - and Per but dont 
have a catalog yet. 

We have fast service, the best guarantee in 
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Our store hours are 7 am to 9 p.m. 
(P.S.T.) on weekdays and 10 am to 5:30 
p m on weekends and holidays (except 
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much beyond those hours and can even be 
reached in the middle of the night occasion- 
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We want your business and will do what we 
can to get it and keep it 

Got a pre-schooler 7 Our two-year-old 
loves Hodge Podge by Dynacomp - only 
$20.9* (list ^22 99) Our vote for favorite 
arcade-type game is Sneakers. A lot. of 
people, however, tell us they get addicted to 
Apple Panic 

Business systems? We took a handful to 
our C PA and he chose the Continental 
General Ledger for us - $212.49 (list 
.250 00) 

Even if you don t see the software you want 
listed here or in our catalog, chances are we 
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a discount We stock more than 1.000 dif- 
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day 



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CIRCLE 144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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- 



*- 



Discs in the Classroom, continued. 

Post-Production 

Producing a videodisc is done in three 
stages: preparing a premaster videotape, 
mastering a disc, and making replicates 
of the disc. Premastering is taking the 
assortment of source materials (slides, film, 
graphic art and videotape) and carefully 
editing them onto a one-inch helical video- 
tape. Single slides must be recorded on 
single frames of tape, and all titles and 
captions must be added. Special encoding 
is required to allow access to individual 
videodisc frames. The preparation of this 
premaster tape is done by a post-production 
facility. We used the services of the 
Nebraska Videodisc Design/Production 
Group at the University of Nebraska. 



Videodisc production is 

not the expensive 

component in computer 

and videodisc 

courseware 

development. 



CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The premastered tape is then sent to a 
videodisc manufacturer. The process of 
making a videodisc is called mastering. 
The 3M Company in St. Paul. MN, facili- 
tated the production of our master video- 
disc from the premastered tape. From 
this glass plate master, videodisc replica- 
tions were made for use on the videodisc 
player. 

Production Costs 

Videodisc production costs (pre- 
mastering and mastering) depend on the 
complexity and amount of material that 
is integrated into the disc. Our disc included 
slides, title frames, and two audio tracks 
as well as motion sequences. The cost for 
pre-mastering and mastering was $6,000. 
Replication of the master disc was inex- 
pensive. In small quantities, copies can 
be made for fifteen to twenty dollars 
each. 

Videodisc production is not the expen- 
sive component in computer and videodisc 
courseware development. The major 
expenses lie in the development of the 
courseware with its computer and video 
material. 

Videotape-based systems could, at times, 
be used to reduce the cost of using a 
videodisc system. In fact, we used a tape- 
based system as our development system. 
The setup is similar to the videodisc, but 
the videotape player replaces the videodisc 
equipment. However, the videodisc does 
have several advantages over the videotape, 
including lower cost hardware, clear single 
frame display, fast access time, reverse 

102 



motion, and two separate audio channels, 
as well as durability. These features 
counter-balance the additional cost of 
videodisc production. 

The Future 

A two and one-half week economics 
unit has been developed for use with 
computers and videodisc technologies. This 
unit is one-fifth of a total, stand alone, 
self-instructional high school economics 
course. Initial reactions from students and 
teachers are favorable and suggest that 
the use of microcomputer and videodisc 
technology will play a significant role in 
the future of instruction. A more formal 
evaluation of this first economics unit is 
underway. Meanwhile, with support from 
the Minnesota State Department of Edu- 
cation, we are beginning to design and 
develop the second unit. As the units are 
completed, they will be made available 
for use in schools throughout the 
country. 

We believe that our project will dem- 
onstrate the viability of these developing 
technologies. Most important, the project 
will demonstrate the feasibility of providing 
learning opportunities in circumstances 
where they do not now exist. We hope to 
be able to maintain and expand learning 
opportunities where they may be in the 
process of being phased out and. thereby, 
improve the comprehensiveness and quality 
of educational programs. This is especially 
important to the school district faced with 
a reduction in the course and program 
options available to the students. 

Finally, we hope that the project will 
show how available, low-cost technology 
can be used to deliver information in an 
interesting and even exciting fashion. In 
addition to demonstrating the viability of 
the computer-videodisc concept, the pro- 
ject will generate important new informa- 
tion about the design and development 
tasks required when working with this 
type of instructional delivery system. □ 




It's an incredible word processor— no vis- 
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• 518 E. ECHO CT., SAN BERNARDINO, CA 92404 

PHONE ORDERS (714) 886-0761 



CIRCLE 310 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Using a Videodisc with Apple SuperPilot 



V is for 



Videodisc 



Charlie Kellner 



Charlie Kellner works for Apple Com- 
puter, Inc. and was one of the devel- 
opers of Apple Pilot and SuperPilot. 
Here he gives a brief introduction to 
the capabilities of SuperPilot as they 
relate to videodisc technology to whet 
our appetites. An in- depth evaluation 
of SuperPilot is planned for an upcoming 
issue. 



Q: What talks to a videodisc, has 27 colors. 

and flies? 

A: Apple SuperPilot'. 

Hi. Welcome to the future. I'm Charlie 

Kellner. and I'll be your guide for a brief 

tour of Apple's remarkable new educational 

system, called SuperPilot. 

Let's start with a quick review. Pilot is 
an instructional language similar to Basic. 
The letters stand for "Programmed Inquiry 
for Learning Or Teaching." Apple Pilot is 
an extended version of Pilot for the Apple 
II. with built-in graphics, high-resolution 
character sets, and sound effects. 

When Apple Pilot appeared a year and 
a half ago. it answered many questions. It 
also raised many new ones. The most 
frequently asked was, "How can I control 
a videodisc player with Pilot?" The answer 
is SuperPilot. 

What is SuperPilot? 

Technically speaking, SuperPilot is a 
"superset" of Apple Pilot. In other words. 
any lesson that will run in Apple Pilot will 
also run in SuperPilot. 

Apple SuperPilot has many additional 
commands and features which have been 
specially designed to enhance the educa- 



C'harlie Kellner. Apple Computer. Inc.. 10260 
Hundley Dr.. Cupertino. CA 95014. 



tional process. The actual design of the 
SuperPilot system is a direct result of the 
tremendous response Apple received from 
Pilot authors across the nation. In fact, 
most of its new capabilities were originally 
suggested by Apple Pilot users. 

Mixed high-resolution text and graphics 
are standard in both Apple Pilot and 
SuperPilot; however. SuperPilot can print 
the text in 27 colors, on 27 colors of 
background, in single or double size fonts. 
It can also animate blocks of custom- 



Just imagine, though, 
having a child's 
favorite cartoon 

characters tell him why 

2 and 2 doesn't 

equal 22. 



drawn characters (remember "Maxwell"?) 
at up to thirty frames per second. It can 
control a printer, keep student records, 
and generally do most anything in order 
of magnitude faster than Apple Pilot. Like 
the man said, "Try it— you'll believe a 
program can fly!" But seriously, folks... 

The V: Command 

Perhaps the single most powerful new 
command is V:. With this command, you 
can add materials from videodisc or video- 
tape sources to any SuperPilot lesson. 
For instance, it's obvious that a practical 
demonstration of life-saving techniques is 

104 



much more effective than a lengthy dis- 
cussion. Just imagine, though, having a 
child's favorite cartoon characters tell him 
why 2 and 2 doesn't equal 22. The possi- 
bilities are endless. 

With a random-access videodisc player, 
for example, you might start out with the 
SuperPilot command "V:IN1T." To display 
a picture located on frame 25037. you 
could say: "V:FIND(25037>;VIDEO." To 
play an entire movie from frame 1200 to 
frame 15000, the command would be 
"V:PLAY( 1200,15000)," and so on. The 
actual command words may vary slightly 
from one videodisc or videotape machine 
to another, but the functions will be essen- 
tially the same. 

The first thing you need in order to use 
this capability (besides an Apple II) is a 
video source. Most modern disc and tape 
players have remote control capability; 
in fact, an increasing number of them are 
designed for computer control. The Apple 
(like most personal computers) usually 
requires a special interface card to control 
the player. What kind of card you need to 
use depends on which unit you want to 
control, so before you invest in video 
equipment, be sure that a suitable interface 
is available! 

The other thing you need is a special 
control program to allow SuperPilot to 
talk to the hardware. This will very likely 
be available from the same people who 
supplied you with the interface card. If 
you have a Pascal language system, on 
the other hand, you can write your own! 

How Does SuperPilot Control the Video- 
disc? 

The SuperPilot system is written in Apple 
Pascal 1.1 (a structured programming lan- 
guage for the Apple II). Each lesson disk- 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 




ette contains a library of Pascal subroutines 
which are used by the SuperPilot interpreter 
as it runs your lessons. Library unit 8, 
named "VCONTROL." contains just one 
procedure, called "VCOMMAND." As you 
might suspect, this is the procedure which 
controls the videodisc. Whenever a V: 
command is executed. SuperPilot calls 
this procedure, and simply does whatever 
it tells it to. 

A complete description of how to write 
a VCONTROL subroutine is beyond the 
scope of this article. Suffice it to say that 
you can use any combination of Pascal 
and 6502 assembly language, up to IK 
total (just remember, a picture is worth 
1,024 words). All the information you need 
is supplied with the system. 

Why Use a Videodisc? 

Videodisc technology brings tremendous 
new capabilites to the classroom. It is no 
exaggeration to say that a single videodisc 
contains more information than any com- 
puter program ever written. In terms of 



A videodisc player is 

much more than just a 

high-technology 

slide projector. 



storage alone, each side of the disc can 
hold up to 54.000 frames, with both pictures 
and stereo sound. In computer terms, that's 
more than three billion bits of data! 

A videodisc player is much more than 
just a high-technology slide projector, 
though. Not only can any single frame be 
displayed at random, but any sequence of 
frames can be shown, either forwards or 
backwards, at any speed up to X) frames 
a second. It can find any individual frame 
in just a few seconds and hold it all day 
without any loss of picture quality. 

Still, the most exciting thing about the 
videodisc is not what it does, but what 
you can do with it. Under computer control, 
each and every one of those 54.000 frames 
becomes a resource in a portable "library" 
of visual materials. It's not inconceivable 
that one side of a single disc, properly 
organized, could hold an entire curriculum's 
worth of reference material, which could 
be used interactively by a wide variety of 
instructional programs. 

By itself, the videodisc will have an 
unprecedented effect on the educational 
system. Used in conjunction with the per- 
sonal computer, its potential is limited 
only by the imagination. □ 

JANUARY 1982 



do you have 
hard time tearing 

yourself away . . . 




. . from endless tax tables and 

computations every time you 

run your payroll? 



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• FULL SUPPORT after you make your purchase. Hotline for 
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system current, even with changes in local laws, available at low 
coat (free for the first year). Your system never becomes obsolete! 



Consider the fast and versatile 

alternative PAYROLL from 

Broderbund Software b written in 

PASCAL and assembly language so it 

runs many times faster than Basic, yet K 

requires no language card or other special 

hardware! PAYROLL will run on any 48K 

Apple U with DOS 3.3 and two disk drives. 



Ask for a demonstration of the Broderbund PAYROLL at your 

authorised Apple dealer. 

Coming soon PASCAL General Ledger 

Accounts Receivable 

Accounts Payable 
For hard disk users - PAYROLL "HD" has a capacity of 745 
employees and 63 Divisions, plus other special features, and requires 
a Pascal language card system. 
Apple I is a trademark of Apple Computer Company. 



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105 



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93401 In Cal call 
(800)592-5935 or 
805)543- 1037 



CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The First National Kidisc 
TV Becomes a Plaything 



Now you don't have to worry about letting your children watch the tube. 
This interactive videodisc can provide hours of educational fun. 



T 

J. hi 



John Blizek 



, HE FIRST TIME you work with the La- 
serVision videodisc player, you will prob- 
ably discover, as we did, that it is a com- 
munication tool with truly exciting poten- 
tial. We also found, however, that the 
software that was available was not de- 
signed to exploit this potential. We saw a 
glaring need for an approach to program- 
ming that made use of the interactivity 
possible between the viewer and the 
program. 

Our feeling was that children would 
be particularly responsive to an inter- 
active disc. This belief was confirmed by 
a young nephew of Lin Oliver, one of our 
clients at MCA Videodisc. The young 
boy sought out from the DiscoVision 
library feature films with numerous car 
crashes, explosions, and the like. By step- 
framing, slowing, freezing, and reversing 
these scenes, he was creating an interac- 
tive situation from the only material that 
was available to him. 

Our production team consisted of pro- 
ducer Bruce Seth Green, co-producers 
James Ritter and myself, director of pho- 
tography H. J. Brown art director Betty 
Green, and educational consultant Ann 
Brown. We submitted our proposal, in 
treatment form, to Optical Programming 
Associates, which is responsible for creat- 
ing programming designed specifically 
to make maximum use of the features of 
the LaserVision system. 



John Blizek is a video and film producer 
and a member of B. Green Co. He was co- 
producer and Editor of the Kidisc, the first 
videodisc especially for children, which is 
the subject of this article. B. Green Co. 
retains copyright on this discussion and it is 
used here with permission. The company 
also retains rights to the photographs, which 
are also used with permission. 



Since our show would be the first of its 
kind, we had to establish our own set of 
rules. What came of our many early brain- 
storming sessions would be revised and 
expanded and eventually would become 
the first truly interactive disc program for 
the home user — The First National Kidisc. 



IN DESICNING our program, we had 
four basic requirements: 

1. It had to utilize all of the optical 
videodisc functions — forward and 
reverse modes, slow motion, step- 
frame still-frame, dual audio chan- 
nels, and chapter stops. 

2. It had to play as a cohesive program, 
even though it would contain nearly 
30 individual modules. 

3. It had to be an entertaining and "hu- 
man" program rather than a cold, 
sophisticated information storage 
system. 

4. The sequences had to have a high 
repeatability value. We felt one or 
two viewings should not be sufficient 
to exhaust the information available 
in a particular sequence. 

Our first outline was called 18 Things 
To Do On A Rainy Day, and consisted 
mostly of craft activities. Although these 
did utilize the various disc functions, we 
realized that, with a few exceptions, the 
show would work equally well on linear 
videotape. Expanding our ideas further, 
we developed our first "breakthrough" 
segment — 1 01 jokes and Riddles. 

This segment was oriented exclusively 
to the LaserVision videodisc. With a ques- 



tion on one frame and an answer on the 
following frame, we found that we could 
present 101 pairs of riddles in less than 
nine seconds of actual disc time, yet to 
read all 101 in the step- frame mode could 
take nearly half an hour. What we did, in 
effect, was encode information by com- 
pressing it. Incomprehensible at the nor- 
mal speed of 24 fps, it could be decoded 
or expanded by using the step-frame 
viewing mode. 

The encyclopedia concept of single- 
frame events led to three other segments 
— visual puzzles, a flag identification 
game, and a dinosaur name game. In 
single frames, following real-time demon- 
strations on how to make a secret decoder 
and a waterglass xylophone, we presented 
1 3 messages to decode and the music for 
ten songs, respectively. In both cases, 
one-half second of screen time could be 
expanded into hours of play value. 

We then extended single-framing from 
animation into the realm of live-action 
photography. The first segment of this 
type was A Trip to the Zoo. By single- 
framing a 16mm motion picture camera, 
we created a sequence lasting less than a 
minute that contained over 40 animals, 
each preceded by an identification sign. 
By using the step- and still- frame modes, 
a child can view a slide show with five to 
ten views of each animal. Then we sug- 
gest to the child that he view the se- 
quences in reverse and make a game out 
of guessing each animal before he gets 
back to the identification sign. 

We then began to experiment with 
vicarious travel. We took our cameras on 
an airplane ride over Catalina Island and 
parts of Santa Monica. We found that the 
feeling of flight worked best when the 
camera angle was straight ahead. Pointing 



106 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Does your CP/M** or TRS-80* Word Processor need help? 
Aspen Software has the finest document proofreading tools available. 



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Beyond Spelling Checking 

Spelling checkers are useful, but they are not enough! 
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unique word in the document was used, helpful for identifying 
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using Grammatik for only a short time. Grammatik is fast, 
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The Aspen Software Company Spelling Checker 

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Aspen Software programs are professional quality, reliable software 
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— SOFT-SCREEN*", a powerful, state of the an full screen text 
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— PP-RATFOR. a pretty printer. Automatically formats and 
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Model 1 


Model II 
(64k, Id) 


Model HI 


CP/M 

<2.2,4SM 


Manual only 


Proofreader 
Proof- Edit 
Grammatik 


$54.00(32kld| 

$30.00 

S59.0O<32kld) 


$119.00 

incl. 

S99.00 


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incl. 

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Soft-Screen 
Soft-Text 
both 


S69.00<48kld) 
S69.00(4ftkld) 
$129.00 


$99.00 

$99.00 

$179.00 


$75.00(48kld> 
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SW.OO(PAT) 
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$179.00 


sis.oo 

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$25.00 


Ratfor 
PP-Ratfor 
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S3O.0O|4«k2d) 
$74.00(48k2d) 


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Specify computer model, operating system, memory size, and number of drives when ordering! For CP/M, 

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currently only 8" single density CP/M versions available. Please inquire about other CP/M disk formate. 

sions available. Manual only orders can be applied to final purchase. CP/M prices are Introductory. 

Orders sent postpaid by first class mail. Terms: Cash, check, money order, VISA, or Master Card. NM residents add 4% tax. 

Proofreader, Grammatik, Soft-Screen, and Soft-Text are trademarks of Aspen Software. 

"trademark of Digital Research "trademark of Tandy Corp. 



T.M. 




P.O. Box 339 -C Tijeras, NM 87059 (505) 281-1634 



CIRCLE 1160N READER SERVICE CARD 



Kidisc, continued. 



Table of Contents 
for The First National Kidisc 




1. Disc opening and main title montage, 15. 
description of videodisc features 16. 

2. Paper flying machines 17. 

3. The flag game 

4. Sign language 18. 

5. Terry teaches the jig 19. 

6. Movie magic flip book 20. 

7. Flying 21. 

8. The Kidisc target game 22. 

9. Knot tying 23. 

10. Manfred presents: Three Card Monty 

11. The Kidisc trip to the zoo 24. 

12. Caf s cradle 25. 

13. 101 jokes and riddles 26. 

14. The water glass xylophone 



Pig Latin 

The dinosaur name game 

Manfred presents: The performing 

paper clips 

The Origami crane 

Terry teaches rock dancing 

A trip to Universal Studios tour 

Secret code maker 

The Kidisc bar game 

Manfred presents: The amazing rope 

trick 

Puzzlers 

Athletes in motion 

Closing and end credits 



it straight down, however, was interesting 
in the step- and still-frame modes since 
each frame was significently different 
and the terrain and structures formed 
constantly changing patterns. At roughly 
one frame per second, the entire flight — 
from takeoff to landing — took one minute. 

Another vicarious trip was a tour of 
Universal Studios. Depending on the par- 
ticular attraction, eitherseparate, unrelat- 
ed frames, or sequences of time-related 
frames were clicked off at varying rates. 

We then added Athletes in Motion, in 
which a child can study the movement of 
the human body. The child now has con- 
trol of the slow motion and freeze- framing 
that previously were the domain of the 
television sports director. 

At this point, we modified two seg- 
ments to take advantage of the disc's 
information compression potential. A 
demonstration of how to fold an Origami 
crane originally took three minutes in 
real time, no matter how ruthlessly we 
cut it. We then shot the demonstration at 
8 fps, cutting the time by one-third, yet 
still retainingall of the necessary informa- 
tion. Since the machine's slow motion 
mode is infinitely variable, the viewer 
can easily restore the sequence to "real 
time." 

In Paper Flying Machines, we pushed 
paper-folding to its compressible limit. A 
frame was clicked off only when it was 
absolutely essential to a clear demonstra- 
tion of the folding process. Our original 
real-time version took two and one-half 
minutes to show the folding of three 
airplanes. In one minute, shooting only 
the essential frames, the revised version 
included 12 paper airplanes. 

We also created two video games based 
on the optical videodisc's ability to stop 
instantly and hold a clear, frozen frame. 
In one case, to make the highest score the 
viewer is asked to freeze the picture 



when the moving concentric circles of a 
target reach the bull's eye. The second 
game utilizes two rectangles that move 
quickly across a colorful field of vertical 
bars Freezing the disc when the rectan- 
gles occupy the same bar scores the high- 
est number of points. In both games, 
negative points penalize the player for 
overshooting the target. (The games can 
be made easier by playing the disc in 
slow motion.) 

We used the disc's two-channel audio 
capability in a section demonstrating Pig 
Latin. On one channel, a girl gives an on- 
camera explanation of how to speak Pig 
Latin— in Pig Latin. The other channel 
carries a voice-over translation. In another 
case, we teach two dances with music 



and instruction on one channel and music 
alone on the second. Once children have 
learned the dance, they can turn off the 
instruction channel and dance to the 
music and picture only. 

To achieve our goal of a cohesive blend- 
ing of segments and an entertaining "hu- 
man" presentation, we employed several 
devices First, we introduced two princi- 
pal characters — a magician and a dance 
instructor — who appear in various seg- 
ments. Second, a spinning videodisc in 
black limbo appears between segments 
as a consistent bridging device. Third, 
each segment is preceded by a title se- 
quence, and last, music cues segue' 
throughout. 



.HE FOLLOWING POINTS have come 
from our production experience with 
The First National Kidisc and may benefit 
your interactive video production. 

1. Compressing information can be a 
useful technique. When appropriate, util- 
ize the encyclopedia concept of single- 
frame events, especially when a lot of 
graphic information must be presented. 
Live-action photography can be compres- 
sed by filming at speeds less than 24 fps. 
This is particularly appropriate for demon- 
strations or processes. Determine how 
much visual information is essential to 
the viewer, presented as single frames, to 
arrive at your shooting speed. 




Working on one of the animation segments for The First National Kidisc are (from left to right) James 
Ritter, Betty Green, and Bruce Green. Nearly one-third of the disc is composed of animated segments. 



108 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






OSI 




TRS-80 




COLOR-80 




OSI 



GALAXIAN - 4K • One of the fastest and finest 
arcade games ever written for the OSI, this one 
features rows of hard-hitting evasive dogfighting 
aliens thirsty for your blood. For those who 
loved (and tired of) Alien Invaders. Specify 
system - A bargain at $9.95 OSI 



LABYRINTH 8K • This has a display back- 
ground similar to MINOS as the action takes 
place in a realistic maze seen from ground level. 
This is, however, a real time monster hunt as you 
track down and shoot mobile monsters on foot. 
Checking out and testing this one was the most 
fun I've had in years! $13.95. OSI 



THE AARDVARK JOURNAL 
FOR OSI USERS - This is a bi-monthly 
tutorial journal running only articles about OSI 
systems. Every issue contains programs custom- 
ized for OSI, tutorials on how to use and modify 
the system, and reviews of OSI related products. 
In the last two years we have run articles like 
these! 

1) A tutorial on Machine Code for BASIC 
programmers. 

2) Complete listings of two word processors 
for BASIC IN ROM machines. 

3) Moving the Directory off track 12. 

4) Listings for 20 game programs for the OSI. 

5) How to write high speed BASIC - and 
lots more - 

Vol. 1 (1980) 6 back issues - $9.00 

Vol. 2 (1981) 4 back issues and subscription for 

2 additional issues - $9.00. 

ADVENTURES!!! 

For OSI. TRS-80, and COLOR-80. These 
Adventures are written in BASIC, are full fea- 
tured, fast action, full plotted adventures that 
take 30-50 hours to play. (Adventures are inter- 
active fantasies. It's like reading a book except 
that you are the main character as you give the 
computer commands like "Look in the Coffin" 
and "Light the torch".) 

Adventures require 8K on an OSI and 16K on 
COLOR-80 and TRS-80. They sell for $14.95 
each. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS (by Rodger Olsen) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANT. You'll have to explore a Martian city 
and deal with possibly hostile aliens to survive 
this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. It 
is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of problems. 
Exciting and tough ! 

TREK ADVENTURE (by Bob Retelle) 
This one takes place aboard a familiar starship. 
The crew has left for good reasons - but they for- 
got to take you. and now you are in deep trouble. 

DEATH SHIP (by Rodger Olsen) 
Our first and original ADVENTURE, this one 
takes place aboard a cruise ship - but it ain't the 
Love Boat. 

VAMPIRE CASTLE (by Mike Bassman) 
This is a contest between you and old Drac - 
and it's getting a little dark outside. $14.95 each. 



OSI 



OSI 



NEWNEWNEW 
TINY COMPILER 

The easy way to speed in your programs. The 
tiny compiler lets you write and debug your pro- 
gram in Basic and then automatically compiles a 
Machine Code version that runs from 50-150 
times faster. The tiny compiler generates relocat- 
able, native, transportable machine code that can 
be run on any 6502 system. 

It does have some limitations. It is memory 
hungry - 8K is the minimum sized system that 
can run the Compiler. It also handles only a 
limited subset of Basic — about 20 keywords in- 
cluding FOR, NEXT, IF THEN, GOSUB, GOTO 
RETURN, END, STOP, USR(X). PEEK. POKE, 
-.".*,/. .S.\ , Variable names A-Z. and Integer 
Numbers frdrfi 0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in Basic. It can 
be modified and augmented by the user. It comes 
with a 20 page manual. 
TINY COMPILER - $19.95 on tape or disk OSI 

SUPERDISK II 

This disk contains a new BEXEC that boots 
up with a numbered directory and which allows 
creation, deletion and renaming of files without 
calling other programs. It also contains a slight 
modification to BASIC to allow 14 character 
file names. 

The disk contains a disk manager that con- 
tains a disk packer, a hex/dec calculator and 
several other utilities. 

It also has a full screen editor (in machine 
code on C2P/C4)) that makes corrections a snap. 
We'll also toss in renumbering and program 
search programs - and sell the whole thing for - 
SUPERDISK II $29.95 (5'/.") OSI 

BARE BOARDS FOR OSI C1P 
MEMORY BOARDS!!! - for the C1P - and they 
contain parallel ports! 

Aardvarks new memory board supports 8K 
of 2114s and has provision for a PIA to give a 
parallel ports! It sells as a bare board for $29.95. 
When assembled, the board plugs into the expan- 
sion connector on the 600 board. Available now! 

PROM BURNER FOR THE C1P - Burns single 
supply 2716's. Bare board - $24.95. 

MOTHER BOARD - Expand your expansion 
connector from one to five connectors or use it 
to adapt our C1P boards to your C4/8P. - $14.95. 

16K RAM BOARD FOR C1P - This one does 
not have a parallel port, but it does support 16K 
of 21 14s. Bare Board $39.95. 




WORD PROCESSING THE EASY WAY- 

WITH MAX I PROS 

This is a line-oriented word processor de- 
signed for the office that doesn't want to send 
every new girl out for training in how to type a 
letter. 

It has automatic right and left margin justi- 
fication and lets you vary the width and margins 
during printing. It has automatic pagination and 
automatic page numbering. It will print any text 
single, double or triple spaced and has text cen- 
tering commands. It will make any number of 
multiple copies or chain files together to print an 
entire disk of data at one time. 

MAXI-PROS has both global and line edit 
capability and the polled keyboard versions 
contain a corrected keyboard routine that make 
the OSI keyboard decode as a standard type- 
writer keyboard. 

MAXI-PROS also has sophisticated file 
capabibilities. It can access a file for names and 
addresses, stop for inputs, and print form letters. 
It has file merging capabilities so that it can store 
and combine paragraphs and pages in any order. 

Best of all. it is in BASIC (0S65D 51/4" or 
8" disk) so that it can be easily adapted to any 
printer or printing job and so that it can be sold 
for a measly price. 
MAXI-PROS - $39.95. Specify 5% or 8" disk. 

SUPPORT ROMS FOR BASIC IN ROM MA- 
CHINES C1S/C2S. This ROM adds line edit 
functions, software selectable scroll windows, 
bell support, choice of OSI or standard keyboard 
routines, two callable screen clears, and software 
support for 32-64 characters per line video. 
Has one character command to switch model 
2 C1P from 24 to 48 character line. When in- 
stalled in C2 or C4 (C2S) requires installation 
of additional chip. C1P requires only a jumper 
change. - $39.95 

C1E/C2E similar to above but with extended 
machine code monitor. - $59.95 OSI 



ARCADE GAMES FOR OSI. COLOR-80 AND 
TRS 80 (8K OSI. 16K TRS-80 AND COLOR-80) 

TIMETREK - A REAL TIME. REAL GRAPHICS 
STARTRECK. See your torpedoes hit and watch 
your instruments work in real time. No more un- 
realistic scrolling displays! $14.95. 

STAR FIGHTER - This one man space war game 
pits you against spacecruisers, battlewagons, and 
one man fighters, you have the view from your 
cockpit window, a real time working instrument 
panel, and your wits. Another real time goody 
$9.95 

BATTLEFLEET - This grown up version of Bat- 
tleship is the toughest thinking game available on 
OSI or 80 computers. There is no luck involved 
as you seek out the computers hidden fleet. A 
topographical toughie. $9.95 

QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. Quest is 
played on a computer generated mape of Alesia. 
Your job is to gather men and supplies by comb- 
bat, bargaining, exploration of ruins and temples 
and outright banditry. When your force is strong 
enough, you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable in 2 to 
5 hours, this one is different every time. 
16K COLOR-80 OR TRS 80 ONLY. $14.95 



OSI 



Please specify system on all orders 

This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. We offer over 120 games, ROMS, and data sheets for OSI systems 
and many games and utilities for COLOR 80 and TRS-80. Sand $1.00 for our catalog. 



AARDVARK TECHNICAL SERVICES, LTD. 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313)669-3110 

CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



COLOR-80 



Kidisc, continued 




Pictured above is Jenny Brown following a paper-folding demonstration from the film- 
editing bench which allows for frame-by -frame access so Jenny can move along at her 
own speed. 



2. The slow shutter speed of motion 
picture cameras is a problem when you 
want sharp, single framesand the camera 
or subject is in motion. Variable shutter 
cameras can solve this problem. 

3. The audio signals cut off when the 
LaserVision disc is played at speeds other 
than normal play. Therefore audio infor- 
mation can be related to compressed 
time segments only when played at nor- 
mal speed. 

4. The audio quality of a LaserVision 
videodisc is very good. Take care in origi- 
nal recording, transfers, and re- recording. 
If your program is on film, use your 
mixed mag track when transferring to 
disc. 

5. To avoid losing frames, single- frame 
sequences must be shot on film. They can 
then be transferred to videotape if you so 
desire. (That has some advantages, as 
discussed below.) 

6. Assembling A and Broils on video- 
tape is very time-consuming and costly, 
and is likely to result in lost frames. The 
last point is significant only when edits 
occur within, at the beginning, or at the 
end of single-frame sequences. It is advis- 
able at least to go to an answer print 
before transferring to videotape so video 



editing is eliminated. Conformed 35mm 
camera original can be transferred directly 
to tape since A and B rolls need not be 
made. 

7. Timing and color correction can be 
a problem in compressed time sequences 
when you are dealing with very short 
shots. Forty frames is about the minimum 
reaction time for laboratory timing cor- 
rections. Therefore color correcting in 
video where changes can be made faster, 
is very useful, and is one reason for 
eventually transferring to tape. 

8. We included a "warning" count- 
down device preceding single- frame se- 
quences so the viewer could stop very 
close to the first frame of the sequence. 
These countdowns are similar to SMPTE 
leader. 



9. Each frame is numbered, and the 
LaserDisc players can display these frame 
numbers over the picture. These frame 
numbers are not known until the disc is 
mastered. Therefore if you want to make 
reference to these numbers within the 
program, you must go to a second master 
disc. The frame numbers can be inserted 
into "blanks" that you must design into 
your program graphics. 

The First National Kidisc does not have a 
"menu" or "table of contents" at the be- 



ginning of the disc itself. A list of chapters 
is printed on the album cover, and the 
information leaflet that comes with the 
disc describes the content of each one. 
When viewers wish to see only one or 
two specific segments (chapters), they 
can use the disc player's search function 
to locate what they want by chapter 
number. 



10. The LaserVision system allows self- 
paced viewing. How clearly you've pre- 
sented your material to the viewer should 
no longer be judged in a "real-time" 
viewing. Density is the key to maximizing 
the LaserVision system features. 

It is clear that a new approach to pro- 
gramming will be developed for the Laser- 
Vision videodisc system. It's been exciting 
for us to contribute to that new approach. 
It is also clear that much more is yet to 
come. n 



Kidisc Available 

By the time you read this, The Kidisc de- 
scribed here should be available from your 
local videodisc dealer or program distrib- 
utor. It will probably be priced around $20, 
and contains 27 minutes of programming 
when played in real time. 



110 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




with our variety of quality disk drives. 



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PO's accepted) 



JANUARY 1982 



111 



CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Shopping for Video Discs 



David H.Ahl 

We set out to buy some 
Laser Vision video discs 
with mixed results 



Being the first one on your block to 
own the latest technological marvel may 
bring some brightness into your life but it 
is likely to be accompanied by an equal 
amount of frustration. Such was the case 
when I acquired a Pioneer VP-1000 Laser 
Scan video disc player. It has all the bells 
and whistles that one could ask for: chapter 
search, frame search, freeze frame, reverse 
and forward slow motion, jump forward 
and reverse, and all of this possible from 
across the room by means of an infra-red 
remote control or by control from a com- 
puter. 

"Boy. is this going to be fun," I thought. 
In my mind I could see adventure games 
based on movies such as Jaws where the 
shark would be coming at you with its 
jaws wide open, the movie would halt and 
you would have to make a decision. Make 
the right decision and the sequence would 
run backwards, perhaps in slow motion, 
and the shark would back away. Or, you 
could evoke magic which would transform 
you to an entirely different time and place. 
Make the wrong decision, of course, and 
you get eaten. 

With such visions dancing in my head. 
I set out to get some laser scan video 
discs. The press release from the Laser- 
ViSion Association boasts that nearly 140 
discs are currently available from seven 
sources: Columbia Pictures, Magnetic 
Video, MCA, Paramount, and others. 




Saturday Night Fever from Paramount 
Pictures was available in only one of the 
six stores we visited on our videodisc 
shopping spree. 




The Muppet Movie was recently released 
by Magnetic Video. It was not available 
at the time this article was written, however, 
it should be in retail stores by October or 
November. 

112 



Macy's and Bamberger's are a large. 
New York based department store chain. 
They do a big business in electronic 
appliances and even have their own private 
label TV sets. They carry both the Magna- 
vision and the Pioneer video disc players. 
Making my way to the TV department in 
the Morristown store, I asked the middle 
aged woman about video discs. She 
responded, "Just a minute, I'll see what 
we have in the back." I pointed out to her 
that the glass cabinet immediately behind 
her contained what looked like a pile of 
video discs. "Gee, I don't know about 
that," she said but unlocked the cabinet 
and took out its wares. She also, quite 
obligingly, sent a young sales girl to the 
back to bring out the additional discs. I 
said I was particularly interested in space 
adventure movies such as Star Trek or 
Alien, but that any adventure movies would 
do. 

Unfortunately, the main titles that were 
in stock included Smokey and the Bandit, 
The Jerk, and 1941. Kind of slim pick- 
ings. 

I then set out for Livingston Mall, where 
several retailers were selling either the 
Magnavox or U.S. Pioneer players. My 
first stop was Sam Gordon's, a large 
appliance dealer with outlets all over 
northern New Jersey. I wandered into the 
store and hung around the Magnavision 
player for awhile. When it was apparent 
that no one was going to come my way, I 
went to the back and asked the salesman 
whether any laser vision discs were in 
stock. "Yes. I think we have some in the 
back," he replied. It was as though I had 
inquired about x-rated video cassettes. 
He returned a few minutes later with a 
battered record box containing eight or 
ten video discs. Again, there were only 
three or four titles including many of 
Smokey and the Bandit and several of 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Computer Exchange 



Apple 11 + 

* 16K $1049 22% 

* 48K COS*' 29% 

* 64K $1258 27% 
Disk II W/3.3DOS $ 499 23% 

Ail are 1981 models with Apple RAM 64K unit is 48K 
unit with Microsoft 16K RAM board 64K units 
include Applesoft and Integer BASIC ' s when used 
with DISK II The Apple II no longer comes with game 



SAVE APPLE/// CALL 



SAVE 



Apple Monitor 12" Green $ 249 25% 

SOFTWARE Apple H/II+ 



paddles Paddles are extra - CALL 

HARDWARE 



for 

Apple II/II+ 



Disk II and 3 3 Controller 
Disk II only 
it Corvus 

5 Meg Hard Disk 
10 Meg Hard Disk 
20 Meg Hard Disk 
Mirror 

Other Corvus accessories 
■# Micro Sci 5" Drives for Apple II 
A/0. 286K. 5" Drive 
A40. 160K. 5" Drive 
Controller Card 
MONITORS: 



ATI: 
NEC 

SANYO: 



9' B8.W 
12" Color 
12- Green 

• B&W 

BSW 

* Green 
" Color 

Green 



9" 
12" 

12- 
13' 
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J 499 
S439 

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$489 
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CALL 
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ZENITH 
DISKETTES. 5". box ol 10 
* Apple 
Maxell 
Memorex 
80 COLUMN VIDEO CARDS 
Apple. Smarterm 
Videx Videoterm 
M&R Sup R Term 
PRINTERS: 

Apple. Silentypew/ Interface 

Centronics 737 Interface 
Centronics. 737 
Epson 
MX 80 
MX80FT 

MX 100 W /Graphics 
MX 80/ 100 Interface 
MX 80 friction teed adapter 
MX 80 graphics option 

MISCELLANEOUS: 
Apple: Graphics Tablet 

1 Yr Extended Warranty 
IEEE-488Card 
CCS: Serial Interface Card 
Parallel Interface Card 
"W Hayes: Micromodem II 
Smartmodem 
Keyboard Company: Joystick II 
Numeric Keypad 
^- MAR: RF Modulator ( 

SUP R FAN 
W Microsoft: 

ZSO Sot tea rd 
16K RAM Card 
Mountain: CPS Multifunction Card 

Clock I Calendar 
Orange Micro Grappier 
SSM AIO Serial 'Para Interface 



Repair Department 
(503)772-4401 



23% 
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CALL 
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Apple: 

Apple Fortran $149 

Apple Pilot $119 

Apple Plot $ 49 

Apple Writer $ 59 

DOS 3 3 $ 49 

DOS Tool Kit $ 59 

Dow Jones News & Quotes $ 69 

Dow Jones Portfolio Eval. $ 45 

Language / Pascal System $ 379 

Microcourier $ 189 

Broderbund Software CALL 

Central Point Software: 

Copy II Plus $ 35 
Will copy most copy pro feted software 
tor your backup in 45 seconds' NEW! 



25% 
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Epson, MX 80 Graphics Dump $ 7 30% 

Hayden. Sargon II (chess) $ 29 22% 

Info. Unlim. Easywriter (PRO) $199 13% 

Insofl: 

ALD System II $110 10% 

TransFORTHII $110 10% 

Accounting Software $ 365 66% 

A lull professional quality integrated GL. AIR, 
A/P. Payroll package Hotline support available 
Send lor tree sample printouts Requires ZSO 
and I6K RAM card 



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A 

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Atari 820 Printer $249 17% 

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Atari 410 Program Recorder $ 59 34% 

Atari 16K RAM Module $ 83 27% 

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Atari Software CALL CALL 



Micro Pro Wordstar 
Microsoft (on disks) 

AIDS. 

BASIC Compiler 

Cobol 80 

Fortran 80 

Olympic Decathlon 

TASC Compiler 

Typing Tutor II 
Muse, Super Tent II 
Peachtree Soffware 
Personal Software: 

Desktop Plan II 

Visicalc3 3 

Visiplot 

Visitrend Visiplot 

Visidex 

Visiterm 

Visifile 
Software Publishing: 

PFS Filing /Data Base 

PFS Report 



$239 

$110 
$299 

$559 
$149 
$ 24 
$159 
$ 19 
$109 
CALL 

$159 
$159 
$129 
$199 
$159 
$109 
$199 



69 



Stoneware. DB Master (new version) $ 1 79 



29% 

10% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
24% 
22% 
30% 
27% 
CALL 

21% 
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28% 
31% 
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30% 

28% 
28% 
22% 



$695 


13% 


$175 


20% 


$339 


25% 


$139 


22% 


$ 99 


20% 


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26% 


$249 


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$ 25 


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For specific software not listed, CALL 

TOLL FREE 

NATIONAL ORDER DESK 

(800)5471289 



Above prices for mail orders only Our store show- 
room is 259 Barnetl Rd , Unit 2. Medford. OR. Store 
prices, which include software service, differ from 
mail order prices. No mail order sales at store. CALL 
ORDER DESK 

ORDERING INFORMATION: 

Minimum order $100. Money Orders. Cashier Checks 
or Bank Wire welcomed. Visa and MC orders add 
3% . Personal or company checks are accepted 
(allow 20 days to clear) Add 3% for shipping, 
handling and insurance; UPS ground is standard. 
6% total for UPS Blue or 10% total for foreign orders 
or US Parcel Post. Include your telephone number. 
No COD ' s. Prices are subject to change without 
notice Order desk hours are 8 to 5 PST, 10 to 3 
Saturdays. 

REFERENCES: 

Custom Computer has been an Apple dealer since 
1978 Our bank reference is First Interstate Bank 
1503) 776-5620 We belong to the Chamber of 
Commerce (503) 772-6293 



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" Sales and Service 

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(CUSTOMERS ONLY-PLEASE 
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(503) 772-3803 



NO SALES TAX 



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-«-. ... v National Sales Dept. of CUSTOM COMPUTER W 925 



Dept 
259 Barnett Rd., Unit 3, Medford, OR. 97501 




JANUARY 1982 



113 



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114 



Shopping, continued. 

The Jerk. All the titles were ones that 
were originally furnished to stores with 
the Magnavox players nearly a year ago. 
I asked if more titles were due in and got 
the same response as I did at Bamberger's, 
"I don't know. The home office does the 
buying." I thanked him and went on to 
my next stop. 

My third stop was Sam Goody's, a large 
retailer of records, tapes and audio equip- 
ment. Goody's was featuring the Pioneer 
player but. like the other two shops, it 
was not running nor was anyone around 
who seemed to know very much about it. 
However, nearby were six record bins of 
video discs. Four of the bins had discs in 
the VHD (RCA Selectavision) format 
whereas two of the bins contained laser 
vision discs. Unfortunately, most of what 
was in the bins were the disc separator 
cards with the titles emblazoned on them 
and very few discs. Inevitably, Smokey 
and the Bandit, The Jerk. 1941 and 
Saturday Night Fever were in stock and 
about seven additional titles, none of which 
were in the space or adventure genre. 

So far, three stores and all I had seen 
were the same handful of MCA titles that 
were distributed with the original Magnavox 
players nearly a year ago. Just two titles 
from Paramount, and none from Magnetic 
Video, Columbia, or any of the others 
who were supposedly producing laser vision 
discs. "Ah, well," thought I. "tomorrow is 
another day." 

A few dozen phone calls indicated that 
some of the video-only shops had a better 
selection of video discs than department 
stores and other consumer electronics 
retailers. Hence, my next stop was Video 
Shack on Route 46 in Parsippany. Upon 
entering I was immediately greeted by 
three young salesmen all offering their 
help. A four-tier display rack of laser scan 
video discs was immediately to the left of 
the entrance. I told one salesman I was 
interested in space adventure titles and 
he immediately pointed out Star Trek- 
The Motion Picture, however, that was 
the only one in stock. Unquestionably, 
they had a larger array of titles than my 
previous stops although most of them were 
still from MCA. Titles included: The 
Incredible Shrinking Woman. Grease. Jaws 
II, Abba, and the all-too-familiar. The 
Jerk. 

1 asked whether they expected any titles 
in from Magnetic Video such as The Alien 
and 7"!rt? Muppet Movie, the salesman 
told me that "No, there would be no titles 
forthcoming from Magnetic Video as the 
company was owned by MGM, who was 
a major backer of the RCA CED video 
disc format and, therefore, would not be 
issuing any laser scan titles." I knew this 
not to be the case and questioned the 
other salesman and the owner. They 
concurred, that indeed Magnetic Video 
would not be issuing any laser scan titles 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



but that maybe someone else would do so 
and that I ought to wait six months and 
then go disc shopping. I asked further 
about other companies making laser scan 
titles and was assured that the only people 
in the market now or for the forseeable 
future were MCA, Columbia, and Para- 
mount (I'm sure the folks at Pioneer Artists, 
Magnetic Video, and Optical Programming 
Associates (OPA) would not be pleased 
to hear that news). I thanked them for 
their help and set out in my car for the 
shopping center jungle in Paramus. 




The First National Kidisc. produced by 
Optical Programming Associates, is a 
widely-acclaimed "interactive" disk. Unfor- 
tunately, we did not find it widely available 
at the retail level. 

My first stop in shopping mall jungle 
was Colonial Magnavox in Bergen Mall. 
Upon entering the store I was delighted 
to see four or five video discs to the left 
of the entrance along with a broad array 
of video tapes. However I then noticed in 
the back of the store an entire wall of 
over 50 titles of video discs. While most 
of the titles were from the MCA catalog, 
a few Paramount and OPA most notably 
Kidisc and How To Watch Pro-football 
were also represented. Like my previous 
stop, the shopkeeper knew nothing about 
the entry of Magnetic Video into the field 
and was only vaguely aware that Columbia 
was about to release several titles. Unfor- 
tunately, this excellent selection of discs 
had one major drawback: prices were 
about $5 per disc higher than any place 
else I visited. Nevertheless. I shelled out 
$29.95 for Buck Rogers In The 25th 
Century and went on my way. 

My next stop was about a mile east on 
Route 4 at the Video Shack, part of a 
five-store New York-based chain. The entry 
to the store is like a small theater lobby; 
to the left is a miniature theater with 
large stuffed animals looking up at a 
mocked-up video screen. The main part 
of the store is open and roomy and lined 
from floor to ceiling on three sides with 
the largest collection of video tapes and 
discs I've ever seen in one place. One 

JANUARY 1982 



corner was devoted to laser scan video 
discs and virtually every MCA title as 
well as a good cross section of the Para- 
mount and OPA catalogs were in stock. 
The young salesman immediately came 
over and offered his assistance and proved 
exceptionally knowledgeable about existing 
titles, ones about to go out of print, and 
new titles and labels entering the field. 
He told me that he expected Magnetic 
Video titles in about a month and that a 
concert series from Pioneer Artists would 
also be forthcoming. I was impressed by 
the cleanliness of the store, the knowledge 
of the salesman and the discounted prices 
(about 18% off retail). I bought Roller 
Coaster, a movie with plenty of action to 
integrate into an adventure game, for 
$25.50. Video Shack, incidentally, carries 
no hardware; only media (and/or soft- 
ware). 

Crossing over to the other side of Route 
4 on one of the most complicated U-turns 
I've ever seen, I made for my next stop, 
Theatervision. A heavy user of radio 
commercials. Theatervision is both a 
hardware and media dealer. The store 
was a hodge podge of cameras, TV sets 
and. in the back, a room set aside for 
large screen and projection TV sets. A 
magazine-type rack contained about 25 
titles each of CED and LV video discs. 
After getting a demonstration of projection 
TV sets and deciding that $3,000+ was a 
bit more than my budget could stand, I 
settled for The Great Waldo Pepper for 
the lowest price yet, $24.95. Only MCA 
discs were in stock. The salesman "expected 
others soon," but couldn't tell me what or 
when. 

What are my conclusions from this 
shopping spree? The first one is that clearly 
there is a much greater selection of discs 
to be found at video-oriented stores than 
at department stores and audio stores. 
For the very best selection, a video-media- 
only outlet is probably the best bet. Another 
advantage to shopping at video-oriented 
outlets is that their prices tend to be 
somewhat lower than full-line stores. 
Another conclusion: don't believe every- 
thing you see in advertisements or a catalog. 
Just like the computer field, manufacturers 
are prone to announce products before 
they are available at the retail level. On 
the other hand, sales people are not 
necessarily the best source of information 
either. The more you can find out about 
what is going on in the field, the better off 
you are. In other words, become an 
informed consumer in any way you can: 
through magazines, shows, advertising, and 
by shopping around. 

Coming in a future issue of Creative 
Computing: reviews of a representative 
sampling of video discs with an eye toward 
making them the basis of a computer 
game as well as, of course, their entertain- 
ment value. D 

115 



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MMM IV tori MM MM MMM t A todt-M IMMI alWWt MM M MMMM* MM MM MMI MtoM M ll 

M4)\ISl.MA/f lAMh-Md AMMiato,) Prto SM •• » mm SM.M 

MOVING MAZE MMdm* IV |MMM aadUW M mmci a mi Iiomi om tor of ■ 



MMtoM iM t- w to too. to tol a -aR Voruaj ■ a- m *Mmm mm a 



AIPHAIK.HI>Jt(AkarlMrt7> "Mm: IMM € aaarM. SM » 

Tm tacaRMi a/aaton mm mmm btommm m om< Al PMA IK.HIII immhm >m lo daatrn ik* ataa 
BMWa tooMk mm mmm of iV ton ALPHA RASE m m dM Mk of m aawa UPO j MitoM. V Ito UPO . art 
to ato IV mmm* Ro*h mmmmmnVi 
ALPHA HGHTt R airrtMltt mMM 

THE RLNGS Of THE DdTPtRC 4 Atot arth | 

TV mm' tot an rtnprr l ■ a— tolite *t 



PrM IMMI aaarM. SMM DMM 

•mm. E*d> tow m> Mart iVomjR 

inapj TMHOMipMin 



< MMMHti ato wto bWcm V pMvai kyoM* 



I to ■ a raM pMd ayapkii:* aaaat -to* ptort row m Om —MOV o« i V Dtmmmm Vtmm) m» Moto *t aton TV 
dtoMM totoMM ato Mr toacud 10 drwior r«.M aUtoMi Vmbmm ItolatoOMM tmm tto^io«MMpa«Mh 
iVptoM fir* tort, of dinkto. are pf.«MMJ INTRUDER ALERT immm a ynrtKt ato -dl wa om l*K itmmm 



— GIANTSLALOMiAtoriMrtbt 



Prto SM *A( aaartw SIR M ti 



Prto: Sld.M (mmIIIM DM 
TRIPLE RtOCKAOtMai—M Mm pMrMpraaMwa MM mmm) a rt l aa pai r h m MtooMdaw >Mm>m 
■mm -to* aatoi RMM MMM) Umj IV Aimi foy«>,*i iV Mat' ■ lo torti roM M to k rtoaj Mm momm 
mmm bmRbm IMMMJ MM |M ■BplBIB U l) AtoMMfR dM CBMMON M mm*. «V oaato 



GAMES PACR I (A« 

GAMES PAIR I II 1 1 T M I III dM dMM cmmMM pmm* of RLACKJACK. LUNAR LANDER, t RAPS. 
HORSERACE. SWITCH ami rmm* TVm aarao* to** to c omMbM mo om top* propraM to mm m toMtop 

Tin 1 * 1' i". ■ ' "ifl i 'I 1 ' TW(atocMaMM-MrtRitopnotMMitoiVUVNAtOMP*M 

MM af Rt At KIM K 

GAMES PAI k II (A ilillirtoaJ L iPM * Pto. i» * < mmom Si« M ORtoto 

GAMES PACTC II adMn iMbm( RA/> EIGHTS. JOTTO. AlE V -OUtE V. LIFE. WUMPUSatooT 
artk OAMttS PACK I . aR to pmm* m toMM m mm pmm ato m 

m DVNACOMrt mmm ar crazy eights 

Why pay 11 M m mm pM praajM a*M mm cm tor a DVNACOMP t rtai U iaa lor mH 110 9)T 

MfMlsriMHW lAlarlatoS^lR-MMMMtTI PrW Sll Ml m— SIS MOtow 

TW m m *Mi«Mtor ihaRMMMp ' VaM totot mom m* TV mom mmm «to*> IrMM otto w toM M a p u d H if M Mid 
UMataMdMMMM'tMTteM TMMMidlkltiMtoOiMUUrtaf rMM oail piM Ktort IV rM of RaanM Mi 



SPACE TRAP 1 AkBrt RMy. MK> r-to: EMM 1 mm SIR M D 

TT111 piRnii "in ■-!- in" i-iiifni— r'-— r~ ""^ *"*" Tom tawol rMM M M ii t ipR Mtojd 

MR Mi MMMM M RMM M MM) o( >V atoi Mto* M MMM Mforr dM Rtok tort dtoM atort MM 



ADVENTURE 



CRANSTON MANOR ADVENTURE (N 

Al toll A cBBMaVa 

TUUlMfcMMM 



m -MtoM a RafM TV mmmm af n 



GLMRAL1 RALLY ADVENTURE (NmtRb • 



,€RK) PrtoSilMDto 

■ mm TV port m 10 im row -ar to dM fMMfc tot » 
m of to* tan ito* m Mm parat TV efcartt *»fj af 



DYNACOMP BM- ato 

toMMh COMMCI TVT IO r 

Um aaatM loptopiaM mm 



SPEECH SYNTHESIS 

7 TYPE NT AUt™ tTNT) mmm* n-atkMMM fr«M Vmiu 
BMMMwrtofMitoikrtWMM m. 



Pnca tm t) 1 Pto*. add U 00 to Rmm mM totojl 

TNT Software 

TV lltoaa DYNACOMP ptMJiMi art n adaMi to m* Mb TNT 

STUD POKER <AMn. MKl 
NORRRNOCS JIGSAW lAuri. MK| 
TEACHERS PET I (ton ato Nor* Rtol 
RRIDGE JROtonhSMil 
CHOMPCXO 1 Aian. MK 1 

• TALK IOMHTNT AdrlMh. MK> Prh. IM M<mmmm SIR RJ 

" MaaMJtVAiMnRODHMTYPE NTAIR™ T 



t **■ mVmtmU aortMal -« 4 pmmmum m -t* at ptoi 
Pmm mmmPi TNT' m 



ABOUT DYNACOMP 

DYNACOMP M a leading Ra«l*MMfaTRRM IMIR1 ROflwRre -nth Mdn M Mna m g ihe wdfU (turrewilj « 
•accM ol 40 cowMnn) Dunn* the pan 1*0 yean ** have grapjily eiUwted Um DYNACOMP pr odwd 
Rmc. ato have MPMrt—pd Rm mmmovm cmw high level of guabiy and CMtioaMn vupport TV actorverMcnt 
m QMRaty m appareni lro«i oar HUMiy irpeai cuMcmimi* aad Ike toflwafR rev mm* m Mck paMkCMroaa M 
tOMPUTRONICV RYJSoliMMcCrMK)tM>ai*d A N A L OG Oar cMoanet ummjkmi m m ckwc a* yoae 
phone It n Rhrayi friendlr TV naff it highly trowed and al-iji arukng to ducuM product* or give 



BUSINESS and UTILITIES 



tan mm ptaBaci a*a* mriw i a* mm af row miw mm) | i mw (WOID- 

MAR. MAOK WAND. IUCTIK PENCIL. TEXTED EDTTOB II to odMn) W^iM^imNiImh. 
SPELLOUABP™ rapaJFt mm to. m » to — I, «ww, -4 ■>——»«. I mm t T^y , i ^^ZiZmTTZ 

twM»MB r aiM ^ t^ f»MM (MMilMi ^ aa j itoparracM l li mi M MIT Immi m «rt pto- 

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POBftSLBTTU SYSTEM IPUHafta mm! pnmi tor mmj to mMm. ImlMnwliMMilw t<«Mi« 

■ [immI m iI j tawpa u tli -«» MAIL im 1 J. mm* w« to m*J w aww> iMwtrM mMnh Mm 
ru wul MAIL LIST 1 1 arc m«w m a nwtiaii pattajt (a* WD 



BaaaraMB to NORTH STAB BASK Prwao aw wjawwl Ii i tow—a totawak at wm w> waa dwaaat « 

9MTTT - wh M M AM rmtraua} to DYNACOMP i M All 1 1ST mmm to n m» wiw m ru <apa 
at attar BASIC a*ta rlt unwj 

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rAMIMBIIM.MlAM4.MM>' M.INHMW 

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"' aaawai. w awni Bat* tow Vw taa ratarB m IiIic m Ii ww awl cto a m itata toa n a FAMILY 

n m mB ai to 1 aarrw aw laa ateoaatr Data art a 



IMIllNKlAHrtMhl _ PrM IMMOWM 

■toowjh a fyi BMran mi law traawrw mwi taw ww af awrabw rm w oaawn wiw tamca «a . Tto 
BOUBCt at MmjpNmi mm aatttfr Iwlwwa wart aao i wgai wta ww raw tor war »mwr TtaaaMirrra 

taM"MWw"itlmjmmn<tar|i " 1 ■ -' J r* 1 — *i rrTiminliiiliiin ■ 

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Iwwt" m wta coa wia, wwm ito Alan a ar, w wwwl f *aa Alan BASIC inaaii war to aatawwV 
f mi tor, a ww il Mr ww to tow afftoat W mm to ■ r t a rraBia . wan tom w i tor nia na».iM<aiM 

tto Aun wl ii hi b i i itow m « m <m1. tot pr j lm mim AR 



TEXTIJXTOBtlKP Ml hv, tit ai Dww Ui « M 

Tw* a MM mom fimm wiM of DYNACOMP , paaator TEXT LDI TOR t im cmmh awry m* Cwm«i W« TEXT 
EDITOR II row aw> toliwi ftoinWrti mm mi i»iIi mwi to. Im« *mm> BttHtoafkruwaT to apMWMtf. MMnwt w 
wtowl nwanta tawal m m'«wm m rwtai laa u Bw' ii aaiaral tomat to to to arwwt to aaiw Tl XT UMTOB II 
aritoCT MFD'anw* hat, ASCII CT/M Wtaa jaatowa i BASIC W wrwBh taiMWJI pragrawil wat to rwt to <to 



a it wi afcwl wta to a* a> 5m mm irnpaw at Ito 



MMMT iSaww Mw awfl 

Ttoi m a itor m«m wawaw vtoct 



■atorawMa atcawi to i to tor*«raa of itoar irto* FtoMwa 1 toj wt w 
lajlnn aruda. racaM awwr. arc) la iwinaa to to«M raarrtw. t 
arc totMto. MM nrr wo awl awaaaMMM iw rt tw tor tto prr w al racaraa awl afjiiialwial rwctaw tor ito iiiwinii 
or** Ba to r— c a raror* ara i ccw iiai to a m#> ItmN or to "« refnanM i*o at ito ki 



aflan af eratoai rwawal to c rww, TAX OPTIMIZCB to* I 

•■■ tto cvrrwt M* Iwta m a* wta Mar TAX OPTIMlZf B n ui 



EDUCATION 



Ktof Ito aroMMBiatapton "»*»• mm toMtd it ■ drl*jk< '< 



klMKMan ttowurr MWaaw * 



» ; SI I W Cwta -Stt-tB Pwiwr 

>l Mffato ). TtAtHli S PI I 

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MISCELLANEOUS 



— C IVM Al A (Atari aw» 



rltMCaaM. SIJMIXm. 
ww »*kK vary m ito pmmw 
i iw iwm C'BYSTAl-Stoiki 



MOBTTM STAB SOfTW AJU KXCHArvGC INWI UttAII 
DYNACOMF aa* InaBain ito 11 mm NBK Iwary Tw wto 
M*a«i •■*!« 'a w patitot rn> 1wrr wmM to pan af a*ar> Non 

Pm »« at aacB/Sras aac* ta m wort) 



DYNACOMP CASSETTES 



DYNAttlMPrMmo^fnibiaBwaBtvDYNAlUMPtoMMMwC IBci 



AVAILABILITY 



DYNACOMP amm > immmI m m*n wa 



1ATABI imjmm >4B) Emm Matt aawl. r afMWi m 
MMiNMiwa*ilal<mlaiMlBMi| 
cm toatoMM m iMilrrl (IBM torwjll ■' Ifv Ibwi d 



STATISTICS and ENGINEERING 



>+m U i Mia wa r wiiat, mm MMk mwm ito mm to atoaja *m an ni 
ttoa ItMi ■ mmm ol Ma torn* Tto flwr tartar m i»tiMjMiM| imwM m* mm mwm (mimm 

MJCB MMM tMM Ml ffl U MIM J !• Ito «.*K» WJ M tto MM o* Ito IrMMMC* U»m4m (MftM 



■ a 1 DK>ITA1 

HlI»MJwrl»«to^'MaBrMta^M*tofMwj. mmBmBmI h al tto ctow BBat Imm AtoMrw 
arast. rMftttal mm mmmm rumanii 



DAT A SwKKITHr* | SaK ■MM fot A tort I 

Tto. MHtol waa MMtatwj m mm war to mm 



hto IHWiwtolUtl IXaSMr 
. . Ba m i Mtfal a lw aa im ton wHat Mrtawt mm twjtoatnwj 
Tto toTtMrt toatMM .tor - Mmm mm tawt ol f« . w «■ m mbmB>< Ikw awl mm 
M M lMiag a« ito mmm wta awl mm t mI ttwto 



MH MM ANALVZEB lA*w 

L>M IWT MOM MR IO IUWM tl 

atottMc o( ito wa too aad n 



II AiTraMlat Imcmm AawrfMrri tot IHM(mm. IDMOMM 

Twa a a (MMl hAm P*.kaar rtat «, to mm u> t*atoait Ito If mmm rMtciMN af .»n«m. wk m k. r, Mohton awl 
PJwn to tiawi w at to traraw i m mmm mw TIAatauM MMtlkaawiof FOUBltK asai V/m immmm 
ra ^aaMia B -atMawa ^ MtlMMilailriaiir t ) anaMvau awwj toan Wtorwa MM R IF H ANAI mirrt 



rwjMtMl to <to FFT Mannilw 



at na» Dm otmmm Bau ■ mwl mm a <mw n 



OH j arB j mmm aat mmmimmw to mjmmm "pnhaaMial" 



«i pwl p| w-» »' 

aUMwak 

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M» of flUM* (W 

i. l arrala i iaa caaflWMM. 



BBOBBBMON I w oarwaiy tto coratr 
FwrllttKaMMSUIIO 



RH .Bl sMf IS II |P ABAFIT I (A ■ III Far w 

PARAFTT at w n patd to law imm mm* m mmB ito pam 

Ma Tto mm *wpt> Mail tto fMRMtal torw. MMtoaj Ito WHMMMnlAIII. AUl.tk Immmm woraBASK 
mm Data mm rwato war to waaMMwiMl mm pfcaitd m -nth RfcOBESSION I Vm BFoBISSION I U 
mm PARAFTT tor imm diMplicaiii f mhImm 

IMAto 



HI I I II INF ABB 

MLB m a MorwMMl taftwara packi 



«w> Mat m tow m to 'to •.« 

■ It.KI \\M1S I. || MM Ml I III INI At RFGBFSSION ■ 



ANOVAiNtoi iBalliFatPtT CBMl 

tat Bw mm aw ANOVA laaahM af . 
DYNACOMP too toMMM ito mmt af to 



MM BBatMWa.tMM WMWtaMMtl MtaaMWM TMMMM Bm U M 

i to 'appl M aB ftow tot ito Mtowa tpiaia Tto ■atS it of 



I •> (to kw*r MIMftlMI MM 



DYNACO*4P toatiDaati tto mm afatowatoaa to mm u mm r^ wm mtmmii mm AWQV a. ito DYNACOMP 

aaftoan aacfcaai mcmbm (to I •■», 1 -m* mm N mm, praMm Ak* prantM m* ito Yaw J* f lacmM wja Fw 
*mB ANOVA, at mh Mttt Tto Mt aMpMMaaaMMwwra mm mm m a twial l atBMa Ito a pro- 



a mm bash xtrsrmc scwFovrmcs. 

Mi Mii M M iMMtotMWMl m a aii 



a f I Ctoaaar* 1 mm J Data to Immum ptotMB. » ■» » ■ ' mmm mm 'mkimm 



i In 

IKtKMIKllIM I 

to* Ito at iBwaa mm 



r I FMhIumI apfx 



CtwcMa M CmpM 4 COBDK * 



rtOM DYNACOBBF: 



•to» (Na*MM. I aGra 



t fMMaj ito taal foora af h 



lirtttMiw Siiat dmmm 
a n aiMtli toWWaaa r iiia M iilMi II » to Wajto Maw 

.aaJpanofitoatt^MmUi-w fttW \t tt\Tlfh VI BM(M U\fS > 



.^ Rt MUM A.I 



BASIC SCIENTIFIC SUBBOUTINES. Vol I (II* pajMl 11**5 * ?M paa 
BASIC SCIENTIFIC M. BBOl.' T INT. V Vol 1 (TW paaaa) 121 *t • IINi 
Sat immn KILOBAUD mm Dr Daato 



BttoMtaaaaf a* 



to a aawtoS. ROOTS M 

ito Baprat of ito MtowaJ. awl tacwM ito 



ACnVK ( IB( Ml AS Al VSIS (AC API Iwal Aaala aatol 

ACAP .. ito aaakM crraM mmm'i mm to LOGIC SIMULA TOR Wu ACAP tw war Matrat ito raapoaaa of aa at 
irtt or pra.it ioaaauMM uroM k ( , a traawM m MfBfar, MM paM fww. att I Tto cwcm war to protoB at rawoi Mat m 
Tr u aratt. mm ito twRwj cwaaaii Ii • . taal mm waaarrl ' u taaM al aadk i naM " '»a' Maeiurt ttaMMM) Br ptoMM Ito 
mmmm "' 'tew rotaaa ti . tto frtwMCT mm ol a Mm or aaaabfMr war to t owpMMh la tw l «ak raaaan w tow 
aaaaBtaat aaw ptoat la aaaxxM. ACAP prrau a Ma nua l aaataar of ito raa 
MMiaatMatoMPMii At AP » miWMi to m Saaa*r«aa 
ttoa ptaiMMM. to imm C*CM Br n r MiiMir may to MttaB oaks raaiawi or wl MM to to inaBil M a to mm Iot taac* 
wa or tow AC AP Mmmm to pan of t^r, okm aw ton it m<m>m Btoary 

LOCK NlMllAI1M<Aaa«aaMVMRBAM> M. UltiiM MNDbto. 

Wak LOCK SIMULATOR yw ran taatF. MM vow Mttoto *waal torac Bama MB taaaan to atMt M af MMU to 
J MW MMr to* mR ito orcM •« aaaraM Tto toaw »Mcfc au, to aaaalaMM wctoto wwalt Maw AND. OR. NOR. 
FXOR. EXNOR mm) NANDpam. arBa MMMn. IK awl D fto> ft-a.. to mm Tto iimmm af ito vara a 
t.MWWr nrry ckxt mm lawa. war to ttoctaB m wt .aryraa dat> cydt raaaBta'wptacMMiM aw) ton May to aw 
to mi aaKM . a mmm awjnm for aa* am m of MM m» to ptor 
« Mto tto CMCM a ctoM to LOGIC SIMULATOR 



ORDERING INFORMATION 



i II paywi to VISA or Maaw* < ad. MtoBr al 



B mBmi toMtatoaj heaktl art mwi Ftm Clau 



DaaMct lOto mm 



r- 1 p m DMto 

ABB U M M Ito toMB Mm p 
MKraaafi MBASK ot BASK BO 



r fw tach I" rkaM **k (IBM mS «wM ( P M fonwti Prea 



Aa rot DYNACOMP ptoat a w m roar toal wJtoart Baato Wmt tor aVMaato) toitna of tto 
DYNACOMP 

DYNACOMP, Inc. <d»i- o 

1427 Monroe Avenue 

Rochester. New York 14618 

24 hour order phone: (716)442-8731 recording 

Office phone (9AM 5PM EST): (716)442-8960 

n«* Va«t toawktoaptoaatflt Mlatoti 



>oooooooooooooooooooooooooo< 



How Will the New Tax Law Affect 
Computer Owners? 



Vernon K. Jacobs 



Should you buy your first (or next) 
computer this year or next? Should you 
lease or buy? Are there any other areas 
of the new tax law that might affect those 
who own or are thinking of owning a 
computer? 

There are at least 109 specific provisions 
in the "Economic Recovery Tax Act of 
1981," and it will be months (perhaps years) 
before the impact of all the provisions is 
evaluated. It's almost certain that we will 
have another tax bill early in 1982 to 
correct the inevitable technical errors and 
flaws in this hastily drafted and complex 
set of tax law changes. Nevertheless, here 
is a brief summary of some of the provisions 
of the new ta\ law that should be of 
specific concern to computer owners and 
lessees. 

Full Write Off For Small Computers 

One of the provisions of the new tax 
law permits businesses to deduct the first 
$5,000 of business equipment acquired in 
1982 and 1983. the first $7,500 of purchases 
in 1984 and 1985 and the first $10,000 of 
purchases after 1985. This means that 
many small computers could be fully 
expensed in the year acquired. No invest- 
ment credit would be allowed on such 
purchases but the immediate write off 
would usually be better. 

If the cost of the computer exceeds the 
deductible amount, the excess would be 
eligible for the new depreciation method. 
This full write off provision is not available 
for investors. It is only available if the 
equipment is to be used in a trade or 
business. 



Reprinted with permission from the 
September, 1981 issue of The Financial 
Systems Report, Volume 2.09. Copyright 
1981, Vernon K. Jacobs. A sample copy 
can be obtained for $3.00 from Syntax 
Corporation, Box 8137-P, Prairie Village, 
KS 66208. 



New Depreciation Rules 

If you purchased a computer in 1981, 
the 100% write off won't be available, but 
the new method of depreciation (called 
the "Asset Cost Recovery System") does 
apply to 1981 equipment purchases. 

Under the new method, computers will 
be depreciated over a five-year period 
using specific rates for each of the five 
years. (If computers can be classed as 
research and development equipment, they 
can be depreciated over a three-year 
period.) 

For five-year class equipment purchased 
in 1981 through 1984. the first year's depre- 
ciation will be 15% of the cost. The second 
year's depreciation will be 22% of the 
cost and the rate will be 21% in each of 
the next three years. The entire cost will 
be deducted over the five-year period. 

By contrast, the prior law permitted a 
computer owner to write off up to 40".. of 
the cost in the first year if the equipment 
was placed in service before July first. An 
additional 24% of the cost would be written 
off in the second year. 14.4".. in the third 
year and 10.8% in the fourth and fifth 
years. This assumes a five year life, which 
has been typical for computer owners. 
Consequently, owners of larger and more 
expensive computers won't fare as well 
under the new law as under the old. but 
owners of personal computers will be better 
off— assuming no other equipment pur- 
chases in the year. 

If the tax deductions are not available 
because of other tax deductions or business 
losses, computer owners will be able to 
elect to write the equipment off over a 
12-year or a 25-year period using a straight 
line method of depreciation. However, 
the choice of the slower method is manda- 
tory for each year's purchases, i.e. you 
can't change your mind after a year or 
two. 

The main reason to use a slow method 
of depreciation is to avoid the possible 
loss of deductions during a prolonged start 
up period due to the existing time limit 
on offsetting losses of one year against 
profits of future years. The new law pro- 
vides substantial relief in this area, which 



may make the slower depreciation method 
unnecessary. Previously, business losses 
could be carried forward for seven years, 
but the new law extends this to 15 years, 
retroactive to 1976. 

Investment Tax Credit 

Computer buyers will realize a small 
increase in the amount of available invest- 
ment tax credit for purchasing a computer. 
Under current law, equipment with a five- 
year useful life is eligible for 2/3 of the 
full 10% tax credit. Equipment with a 
five-year life will now be qualified to claim 
the full 10% tax credit for equipment that 
is depreciated over a period of five or 
more years. 

If the equipment will have a three-year 
useful life (autos, trucks and certain R & 
D equipment), the tax credit will be 6% of 
the cost of the property rather than 10%. 
These new tax credit rules took effect in 
1981, and include property that was 
acquired before the law was passed on 
August 13. 1981. 

There was no specific change relative 
to claiming the tax credit on the full cost 
of a system that included both hardware 
and software. However, if the tax credit is 
claimed on the software because the price 
is combined with the hardware, then the 
buyer must depreciate the software with 
the hardware. If the software is purchased 
separately, and is licensed rather than 
purchased, then the full software cost can 
be deducted in the year of acquisition. 

Defining Leases 

Taxpayers and the IRS have been 
arguing for years about whether a lease is 
really a lease or just a method of financing 
an equipment purchase. The new tax law 
attempts to simplify some of the complex 
rules that have cropped up in this area. 
Basically, the parties must agree that the 
transaction is a lease and the lessee must 
not acquire ownership of the property at 
any time during the lease. The lessor must 
be a corporation and must have an invest- 
ment of at least 10% that is "at risk" in the 
investment. Generally, the property must 
be new property. 



>ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo< 



118 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Why use their flexible discs: 

Athana, BASF, Control Data, Dysan, IBM, Maxell, Nashua, 
Scotch, Shugart, Syncom, 3M, Verbatim or Wabash 

when you could be using 

MEMOREX 

for as low as $1.94 each? 

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204 
IN 
It* 
204 



SO* 
IN 
10* 
3.0* 
30* 
14* 
30* 
34* 
IN 



1U 
2 14 
2 14 
234 
234 
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IN 
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IN 
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2 7ft 
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CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






^ 



(ices . . . notices . . .nctic 



MECC 




The Minnesota Educational Computing 
Consortium (MECC), which provides 
support services for educational computing 
for 30 college campuses and 433 school 
districts in the state, has signed an agree- 
ment that is expected to lead to the 
purchase of approximately 750 personal 
computer systems from Atari, Inc.. over 
the next year. 

The agreement specifies Atari 400 
computers with Atari Basic cartridges. 
Atari 810 disk drives and joystick con- 
trollers. At retail, each system would be 
priced at approximately SI, 100. 

As part of the agreement, MECC will 
also convert about 75 of its educational 
software programs (kindergarten through 
12th grade) for use on Atari computers. 
The programs and accompanying course- 
ware will be available from MECC. 

It is expected that Atari versions of the 
MECC software will be available from 
Creative Computing Software, which 
currently distributes the programs for the 
Apple. 



Atari Software 
Acquisition Center 



* 




The first Atari Regional Software Acqui- 
sition Center has opened its doors in 
Sunnyvale, CA. 

The center is designed to provide a 
place where qualified software developers 
can work with Atari equipment, have 
access to technical reference materials 
and be able to work with a staff of trained 
people who can answer their questions 
about Atari computers. 



Independent software de- 
veloper works on con- 
verting his software, ori- 
ginally designed to work 
on another manufac- 
turer's computer, to a 
format useable on Atari 
Home Computers. 



The 4,000 square-foot center houses 
the administration and duplication facilities 
for the Atari Program Exchange (APX), 
which makes software written by users of 
Atari computers available through a 
quarterly catalog. More than 57 different 
programs are now offered through the 
catalog. In addition, it houses a facility 
for the conversion of programs written 
for other computers to a format that will 
work on Atari computers. 




Corrections 

We've received a few corrections for 
"The Computer Tutor," from the October 
issue. 

In Listing 1 : 
160 OPEN#7: "CS1", INTERNAL. OUT- 
PUT, FIXED 192 
490 CALL HCHAR (L2,2+I,T) 
5001=1- 

860 L1$=SEG$(L$(L2)J,1) 
In Listing 2: 
105 OPEN#7: "CS1", INTERNAL 

INPUT, FIXED 192 
430 Y=POS(T$,",",W) 
620 IF S$=STR(0) 
THEN 640 




120 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




>' 



Sag! 



*<&r 



far mW .aranm. _ _ 



SEC 

Microcomputer 



mmtiMiimiMnutt iiimiiHtuiwwww 




PC-SOOIA 32K Computet CALL 

PC-S012A I/O Unit w/32K RAM CALL 

PC-S013A Dual Mini 1)1. k Drive Unit CALL 

PC 8001 MultiC.rdv.are (I Dl O « 32K) CALL 

CP/M 2 2 Operating Syetem for NEC 129 

WoidSt.r ctmllgurrd lot NIC 299 

Supertak conllauird lot NIC . 279 

NEC Wordproceeeor * Accounting Software CALL 

Many mora software package* and language*: 

(Paacal. Forttan. Cobol. etc) are available t onllgured for 

the NEC 8001A Computer. 

Pleaae call or write lor a product price llat. 



Offcippkz computer 

W< Authorized Dealer 

f 



L 





ATARI 
800 
16K 

$749 



Atari 400 <v,16K .349 

410 Program Recorder. . . . . . 65 

SIODtek Drive 449 

825 80 col. 7«8 Dot matrix Impact printer 699 

822 40 col. Quiet Thermal Primer . 349 

8S0 Interface Module 159 

Atari 16K Ram Module 69 

Aalon Ramcram 32K Module .119 



Video Monitors 

Amdek /Leader. Video 100 12" BatW 
Aaadek/Leedea Video 100G 12" Green Phoaphe 
Amdek IHHai hi) |3~ Color w, audio output . . 
NEC 12" Green Phoapher Dteplay JB I20IM . 

NEC 12" Lo-Ree Color Dlaplay 

NEC ir HI Re. RGB Color Dlaplay . 

Sanyo 9" BaVW Dteplay 

Sanyo 9" Green Pfcoepher Dteplay 

Sanyo 12" BaVW Dtopiav 

Sanyo 12" Green Phoapher Dlaplay. 

Sanyo IT Color Dteplay 

Zenith 1 2" Green Phoapher Dlaplay ZVM- 121 . . 



.155 
. . .179 
. .319 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
. .185 
CALL 
. .269 
. 285 
. .449 
. .149 




ZENITH 

12- 
GREEN 



$149 



APPLE II PLUS 



16K NOW $1025 

48K NOW $1089 

64K*noiv $1199 

°48K Apple with 16K RamBoard 



m 



APPLE DISK 
DRIVES 



$439 



w/controller and DOS 3.3 $499 



Apple Cards and Hardware 



Uaeuir Syateva w Paacal • BASICS 
Silentype Printer w / Interface card 

fiayea Mkcromodem II 

Novation Apple-Cat 

Vldea Vldeoterm 80 column card . 

Vide. Keyboard Enhancer 

Z-80 Sof tcard by Mkrroaoll 

ItKeUmCardbyMlcroaoft 

CPS Multi-function carat 

Software for the Apple 

VkarCalc ver.lon 3.3 

VlelFUe (NEW data baae anuiii) 

Vl.fTrend VtelPlot 

UBMa.ter 

WordStar (Apple M col. veralon) 
Dow Jonee Portf oato Evalnntae . 

Apple Poet 

Apple Writer 

Dow Jonee Newa at Quotea Reporter 

Annie Plot 

Tax Preparer 

Haul Eatnte Annhyaer 



.379 
.349 
.199 
.339 
.169 
.115 
.299 
.169 
.169 



.159 
.199 
.119 
.169 
.249 
. .45 
. .45 
. .65 



16K RAMBOARD b v ConComp 
for Apple II Computers 



FOR ONLY 



129 



95 



VIC20 



$259 



Personal 
Computer 

Color * Sound ' Graphics 
Call or write for more Info. 
Disk drives available Boon! 





S-100 



California Computer 
Systems 

Floppy Disk Controller $369 

64K Dynamic Rasa Board. 200ns $499 
Z-80 CPU board w monitor ROM $269 

16K Static memory board. 200na 369 

32K Static memory board. 200na 399 

S-100 12 Slot Mainframe 475 

4 Port Serial Interface . 299 

2-Port Serial 2 Port Parallel Interface 299 

4-Port Parallel Interface 219 



AVAILABLE NOW 



Printers 

Silentype 

w Apple II Interface 

$349 

Epson 
MX-80 or 
MX-80 FT 

CALL 

Anadea 9501 w/ZK Buffer 

C Itoh Starwrtter 25 CPS dateywkeel 
C. Itoh Starwrtter 45 CPS dateywneel 
Epaon MX- 70 

Epaon MX-80 * MX-80 F T 

Epaon MX 100 

NEC 8023 Impact Dot Matrla 

NEC Splnwriteta (Latent modelal 
Paper Tiger IDS-445G w graphic. . . 
Paper Tiger IDS-460G w graphic. . 
Paper Tiger IDS 560G w graphic. . 
Silentype Printer w / Apple Interface . 
Queae Sprint Dalaywheeh (Latent m 




. 1349 

. .1449 

.1649 

CALL 

.CALL 

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. . .693 

CALL 

...699 

...949 

1249 

.349 

CALL 



ORDER TOLL FREE 

800-854-6654 

In California and 
outside continental U.S. 

(714) 698-8088 

Telex 695-000 Beta CCMO 



Send Orders To: 

Ordering mformatron Phone order*, using VISA MASTERCARD 
AMERICAN t XPRI ss DINER S CLUB CARTE BLANCHE bank 
wire transfer, cashier ■ or certified check, munry order, or personal 
check (alow Urn day* lo cleati Unless prepaid with cash please add 
S% lot shipping handbng and insurance (minimum b OO) Calttot 
me residents add r>'«. sales tax We accept CODs OEMs Institutions 
and corporations please send (or a written quotanon All equipment 
■ subject to price change and avaiUb-tty w-thoul notice AH equip 
menl is new and complete with manufacture. * warianty i usually l *0 
i 'vvroom prices may .inter from mail order prices 

(3®[iLlQ[o)Qal?©L?§ MaU Order 

8314 Parkway Drive 
La Mesa. Calif. 92041 



CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



J®EF GQQ© M$pg& 




It seems that more and more people, 
particularly computer owners, are 
becoming aware of the utter cruelty of 
the keyboard arrangement, commonly 
referred to as QWERTY, currently in use 
on most typewriters and computers. A 
superior arrangement, the Dvorak Sim- 
plified Keyboard, which was developed 
by August Dvorak in 1936, minimizes finger 
distances travelled and thus greatly 
improves typing speed and accuracy. 

When I bought my typewriter. I sur- 
rendered to QWERTY, balking at the 
thought of breaking off and re-soldering 
the key slugs. However, when 1 purchased 
my Apple. I saw an ideal opportunity to 
reap the benefits of DSK. To convert the 
Apple to a DSK computer, we need to 
change the way both the computer and 
its user interpret the keyboard. 

To make the computer believe that 
you are typing on a DSK keyboard, you 
need to supply it with a list of ASCII code 

Patrick Nicsink. .156 Lindsay St.. Winnipeg. Mani- 
toba. Canada R.W 1H3. 



Patrick Niesink 

values known as a "translate table." and 
since the 6502 chip has no translate instruc- 
tion, you will also need a short machine 
language translating program. The translate 
table tells the computer which character 
you want to type (DSK keyboard) when 
supplied with a character typed on the 
QWERTY keyboard. For example, when 
you press the "Q" key on the DSK arrange- 
ment, you are actually pressing the "X" 
key. The entry in the translate table which 
corresponds to the "X" is the ASCII code 
for a "Q." 

Since you will want to make this table 
as small as possible, you can omit the 
keys which are not rearranged and com- 
pensate by making the translating program 
a bit more complex. Now you must decide 
which characters to relocate and which 
to leave alone. Clearly, you cannot tamper 
with the control codes, since if you did, 
the next time you pressed the backspace 



or forward arrow keys, you would get a 
nasty surprise. It might seem like a better 
idea to move CTRL-B along with the "B" 
key to avoid confusion. For example, if 
control codes are not relocated. CTRL-C 
becomes CTRL-J, thus making your Basic 
manual somewhat obsolete. However, you 
can always write short notes in your man- 
uals with the new control codes. 

Mr. Dvorak's suggested layout for numer- 
ic keys seems more of a hindrance than 
an aid. so I have not altered the numbers 
(or their shifted characters) in my imple- 
mentation. This leaves the letters A-Z 
and the colon, semicolon, slash, question 
mark, period, comma, hyphen, asterisk, 
less than, greater than, plus sign, and equal 
sign. In the ASCII code table, the asterisk, 
comma, hyphen, period, slash and plus 
sign occur directly before the numbers 
and the others are nicely sandwiched 
between the numbers and the letters. Thus, 
if you include the numbers in the translation 
table, you may have wasted ten bytes, but 
the translating program becomes less 
complex. 





Figure t 


. The Apple DSK Keyboard. 








































i 
1 


2 


n 

3 


s 

4 


3 


& 
6 


7 


( 
8 


) 
9 





+ 


1 

* 


RESET 


ESC 


•) 


• 




P 


Y 


F 


G 


C 


R 


L 


REPT 


RETURN 




CTRL 


A 


O 


E 


U 


BELL 
I 


D 


H 


T 


N 


s 


4 


=> 






SHIFT 


= 





J 


K 


X 


B 


M 


W 


V 


Z 


SHIFT 

























122 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




LISP 1.7 & 2.0 



Introducing 

LISP. The language 

that can think for itself. 

With SmartWare, your micro 
computer possesses intelligence. Solves 
problems like never before. Actually can learn 
from its mistakes. And educates itself in much 
the same way your brain operates. It's a new 
concept in the way information is handled in 
microcomputers. 

We appropriately called our version of LISP, 
SmartWare. Because it's as limitless as the 
human imagination, mind, memory. 

An advanced, high-level language, LISP was 
first developed for use in artificial intelligence on 
large computers. And now, LISP is available from 
Datasoft for use on the Apple II and Atari Computers. 

Store multiple programs in memory. It can 
take it. Program other languages into LISP. It's 
no problem. Because LISP offers greater capacity 
and power. And, it's a faster, more streamlined 
language. For example, just 2 lines in LISP could 
equal hours of BASIC programming. 

The fact: Relational data base capabilities. 
User and program definability. Pattern-directed 



invocation 

language. Uses 

syntax and data 

structures upon which esoteric applications 

may be implemented. Remembers data 

along with "relationships affecting it." Offers 

REAL power to micros. 

At MIT, they say LISP is the language of 

the future. 

At datasoft, we say, why wait. Ask your local 

computer dealer for SmartWare. Right now! And 

turn your computer on to thinking. 

SmarfWuely 

~^=^ COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

19519 Business Center Dr.. Northridge. C'A 91324 

(213)701-5161 



CIRCLE 266 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



InterLISP 65 for ATARI 48K systems 149." & APP-L-1SP 1.7 for Apple II 48K systems 124.". 



DSK Keyboard, continued... 


933! 


I 


TRANSLATES 


TO - 


?34i 


+ 


TRANSLATES 


to : 


935: 


t 


TRANSLATES 


TO W 


936! 


- 


TRANSLATES 


TO « 


937! 


, 


TRANSLATES 


to y 


938: 


/ 


TRANSLATES 


111 z 


939: 





TRANSI ,', it', 


TO 


910: 


1 


TRANSLATES 


TO 1 


941: 


2 


TRANSLATES 


TO 2 


912: 


3 


TRANSLATES 


TO 3 


943: 


1 


TRANSLATES 


TO 1 


9ii: 


'j 


TRANSLATES 


TO 5 


915: 


6 


TRANSLATES 


TO 6 


91a: 


7 


TRANSLATES 




917: 


B 


TRANSLATES 


TO 8 


918: 


9 


TRANSLATES 


TO 9 


919: 


: 


TRANSLATES 


in i 


950: 


» 


TRANSLATES 


TO S 


95t: 




TRANSI Ait;; 


TO < 


957: 




TRANSLATES 


TO / 


953! 




TRANSLATES 


TO > 


954: 


-> 


TRANSLATES 


to ; 


955! 


1 


TRANSLATES 


to e 


956! 


H 


TRANSLATES 


TO A 


957". 


B 


TRANSLATES 


TO X 


958: 


c 


TRANSLATES 


TO J 


959! 


D 


TRANSI AILS 


TO E 


960: 


E 


TRANSLATES 


TO . 


961! 


F 


TRANSI AT E S 


TO U 


962: 


G 


TRANSLATES 


TO I 


963: 


H 


TRANSLATES 


TO D 


"61 : 


T 


TRANSLATES 


TO C 


965! 


J 


TRANSLATES 


TO H 


966: 


K 


TRANSLATES 


TO T 


967! 


L 


TRANSLATES 


TO N 


968: 


M 


TRANSLATES 


to n 


969: 


N 


TRANSLATES 


TO E: 


970! 





TRANSLATES 


TO R 


971! 


P 


TRANSLATES 


TO L 


972; 


P 


TRANSLATES 


■ 


973: 


R 


TRANSLATES 


TO P 


97i: 


S 


TRANSLATES 


TO 


975: 


T 


1 ATES 


TO T 


976*. 


LI 


TRANSI 


TO G 


977! 


V 


TRANSLATES 


TO K 


978: 


» 


TRANSLATES 


TO , 


979: 


X 


TRANSLATES 


TO Q 


980: 


Y 


TRANSLATES 


TO F 


981 : 


z 


TRANSLATES 


TO ■ 



Figure 2. Contents of Translation Table. 

Now all that remains is to decide where 
on the keyboard to put these 38 characters. 
Clearly, you can't "double up" characters 
(one being the shift of the other) on a key 
such as the QWERTY "0" key, since 
shifting the key will not produce a different 
code. Dvorak's key layout puts four non- 
letter keys in the places formerly occupied 
by "Q." "W," "E," and "Z." The comma 
and the period I have placed as suggested, 
but I have left less than and greater than 
where they were. In the suggested place 
of the slash, I have substituted the question 
mark, the Basic abbreviation for PRINT. 
The suggested semicolon-colon key is the 
equal sign on my computer, since it is 
also used very frequently in Basic pro- 
grams. 

The arithmetic keys I have placed in 
the upper right corner, in an order which 
seems the most logical from a mathematical 
point of view. Thus simple arithmetic can 
be performed entirely with the top row 
and leftmost three keys of the second 
row. This leaves only the semicolon and 
the colon. These I have placed above the 
"Z" and "S" keys, since they were the 
only places left. 



The Translating Program 

Now you're ready to write the translating 
program. The first thing it has to do is 
call the Apple's KEYIN routine, at location 
SFD1B. This subroutine returns the ASCII 
code for the typed character in the Accu- 
mulator. Next, you must save the A and 
X registers in temporary storage locations. 
I have chosen locations 8 and 9, as they 
are not used by either Basic, the monitor. 
or DOS 3.2. 

Now you have to make sure that the 
typed character is one of the relocated 
ones. Subtracting the value $AA (which 
is ASCII for "•" with its high bit set) 
serves two functions: first, if this operation 
sets the N flag, the character is either a 
control character or a shifted numeric 
key: thus you don't want to change it. If 
the N flag is not set, you need only check 
that the code is not greater than $DA, 
which is a "Z." 



Now that the Apple 
understands DSK, all 

you have to do is 

change the key caps 

on the keyboard. 



The accumulator now contains a modi- 
fied ASCII code: for an asterisk. 1 for a 
plus sign, 2 for a comma, and so on. This 
means that "Z" has a value of $31, so all 
you have to do is compare the accumulator 
to S31. This time if N is not set. the 
character should not be changed. To leave 
the character unchanged, merely re-load 
it from location 8 and return. If the N flag 
was set this time, the character must be 
translated. This is accomplished by using 
the pre-indexed mode of the "load accum- 
ulator" instruction. 

First, transfer the current value of the 
accumulator into the indexing register X. 
Then, giving the start address of the trans- 
lation table (mine is at S3A5), load the 
DSK counterpart of the typed character 
into the accumulator. What this particular 
form of LDA does is add the current 



value of the X register to the specified 
address, and use the result as the address 
of the desired byte. Remember that the 
table starts at *, that is, location SA5 has 
the ASCII code for the DSK character 
which replaces the "•" on the QWERTY 
keyboard. 

Now the accumulator contains the trans- 
lated ASCII value. All you have to do is 
store this value in location 8, then act as 
if you don't want to change it, that is, 
reload the accumulator and X register 
and return to whatever program called 
the translation program. Simple, wasn't 
it? 

Implementation 

The next problem lies in implementation. 
The translation table and program can be 
saved either on tape through the monitor, 
or, if you have a disk drive, in a binary 
file. Then, each time you power up, you 
will have to load in the table program, 
and set the monitor KSW switch (bytes 
S38 and S39 if you don't have a disk drive) 
to the address of the translating program. 
S3D6 in my implementation. 

If you have a disk drive, it's a bit more 
involved. Not only will you have to set 
the KSW of DOS. which is 5205 and 5206 
bytes past the HIMEM set by DOS 3.2, 
but you will have to protect resets and 
Basic IN#0 commands from putting you 
back in QWERTY. 

This can be done in many ways, but the 
simplest is to zap out the section of DOS 
3.2 which resets the KSW switch. The 
only disadvantage of this is that it invali- 
dates the Basic IN* command and the 
CTRL-K command of the monitor. If this 
really bothers you, there are other ways 
of protecting the DSK, such as wedging a 
routine before the DOS RESET routine 
which plugs your translation program into 
the DOS KSW. 

All you have to do, then, is write a 
Basic program which loads in the binary 
file, sets the DOS KSW, and clears out 
the KSW-resetting routine (which runs 
from 46% through 4703 bytes past the 
HIMEM set by DOS). Then store this 
program as the "hello" program on your 
disk. This program will only work if it is 
run before any program which changes 
HIMEM. 



Listing 1. "HELLO" program for disk. 



10 


PRINT "DO YOU WANT OSK OR QWERTY''" 




20 


PRINT "(ENTER OR OK" J 




30 


GET A*: IF A* ■ "" THEN 30 




40 


IE A» = "Q" OR A* ■ "X" THEN PRINT "0"l PRINT "OK. 


": GOTO 140 


50 


REM ALLOW FOR BOTH KEYBORDS (Q OR X, D OR H) 




60 


IF A* < "D" AND A* < > "H" THEN 20 




70 


PRINT "D" 




80 


PRINT CHR* (4>!"BL0AD DSK" 




9 


HI ■ PEEK (115) + 256 * PEEK (116): REM HIMEM 




1 00 


POKE 5205 ♦ HI, 214: POKE 5206 + HI, 3*. REM DOS KSW 




110 


FOR K ' HI ♦ 4696 TO HI. ♦ 4703 




120 


POKE K.234: REM NOP (*EA) IN 'RESET' RTN; PERMITS 


IN*0 AND RESETS 


130 


NEXT 




135 


PRINT "DSK KEYBOARD TRANSLATION INSTALLED." 




110 


END 





124 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



03A5- 


AD 


BA 


I)/ 






03A8- 


AA 


D6 


UA 


BO Bl 


B2 B3 B4 


03BO- 


B5 


B6 


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AB D3 BC 


'i '.bB- 


AF 


BE 


HH 


CO CI 


D8 CA C5 


03C0- 


AE 


D5 


L.9 


C4 C3 


C8 D4 CE 


03C8- 


CD 


C2 


D2 


CC BF 


Dii CF D9 


03DO- 


C7 


CB 


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BD 


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20 


IB 


FD J BR 


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03D9- 


85 


OS 




STA 


soa 


03DB- 


86 


09 




STX 


• 09 


03DD- 


E9 


AA 




SBC 


tt*AA 


03DF- 


30 


0A 




BMI 


•03EB 


03E1- 


C9 


31 




CMP 


#*31 


03t:3- 


10 


06 




BPL 


*03EB 


03E5- 


AA 






TAX 




03E6- 


BD 


AS 


03 


LDA 


•03A5.X 


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STA 


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LDX 


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RTS 





Listing 2. Translating table and program. 

Now that the Apple understands DSK. 
all you have to do is exchange the key 
caps on the keyboard. Placing a pointed 
instrument underneath a key near the 
edge, and your finger on the opposite 
side of the key. lift straight up. applying 
equal pressure on both sides of the key. If 
this is the first time you've ever removed 
the caps, they may be rather stiff. The 
removal of the first cap should provide 



enough room to get your finger underneath 
the rest, thus eliminating the need for the 
pointed instrument. When you are done, 
some of the keys will be incorrectly label- 
led; you can cover them with masking 
tape and re-label them if you have trouble 
remembering which keys are which. The 
whole operation takes about five 
minutes. 

Learning to Type 

Now that you have a DSK keyboard, 
all you have to do is learn to type on it. 
The first week or so. you will probably 
find yourself typing keywords as if you 
still had QWERTY. After a while, though, 
you will be typing faster than ever. If you 
have special software which can only be 
run from a disk boot, you will have to 
revert to QWERTY every time you want 
to use it (unless you can figure out a way 
to get the program onto a regular disk). 

If you want to use the Applesoft Chain 
program, you will have to relocate the 
translation table and program. Also, if 
you are an experienced DSK typist, you 
will have trouble finding keys on a regular 
keyboard (as if you'd want to). Nevertheless, 
these drawbacks are minimal when com- 
pared to the savings in tedium, wasted 
time, and sore fingers achieved by using a 
modern, efficient Dvorak Simplified 
Keyboard. □ 



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125 



CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Big Numbers and 
Small Computers 



«l?8«756«8?337867»3J65?7]?0IJ0*N5«!$5"'£i* 



Mark Zimmermann 



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n TT TT TT 7T TT TT TT TT TT rr TT rr TT TT n rr rr 



Numbers are fascinating entities. In 
some ways, a number is pure, abstract 
thought, unsullied by "reality." Consider 
the decimal number "17": does it exist in 
nature? Sure, there are collections of 
things that contain seventeen objects; you 
may have seventeen pennies in your 
pocket, or walk up seventeen flights of 
stairs. But those pennies aren't "17," any 
more than they are Abraham Lincoln. The 
number "17" goes far beyond any specific 
embodiment of it. 

Seventeen has properties independent of 
whether one is considering pennies, or 
stairs, or stars. In counting upwards, 17 
follows 16 and precedes 18. Seventeen is a 
"prime," that is, it has no factors except 
itself and 1 among the positive integers. It 
is possible to construct a seventeen-sided 
regular polygon using only a compass and 
a straightedge, just as it's possible to make 
an equilateral triangle or pentagon. Sev- 
enteen is very special, in lots of ways; so 
are other numbers. 

The positive integers 1, 2, 3, ... are 
sometimes called "natural numbers," 
perhaps because at first sight they seem 
somehow obvious or commonplace. These 
natural numbers, however, soon lead to 
subtle and extraordinary results. Notice, 
for instance, the limitlessness of the series 
of integers: for any number you care to 
name, I can find a larger number. We are 

Mark Zimmermann. 9410 Woodland Drive. Silver 
Sprint!. MD 20910. 



immediately faced with the mystery of 
"infinity" — yet we ourselves are finite 
creatures, on a finite planet in a finite 
galaxy. (Perhaps the universe is finite 
too — we don't know.) 

Even staying well short of infinity, the 
natural numbers overwhelm us. Pick a 
random decimal number a thousand digits 
long. If every star in the observable uni- 
verse has a hundred planets, and every 
planet has a trillion aliens, and every alien 
is guessing a trillion numbers per second, 
the odds are very, very long against 
anybody guessing your number within the 
age of the universe. 



The most important use 
of Bignum may be to 
extend one's reach to 

larger integers, 

so that new theorems 

or conjectures 

may be grasped. 



Big numbers form a vast, unexplored 
territory. It's a territory into which almost 
anybody with the inclination can venture, 
a land full of never-before-seen sights and 
discoveries, waiting to be found. In the ex- 

126 



ploration of large numbers, to quote IBM, 
"a small computer can make a big dif- 
ference." A home computer can speed 
your journeys and take much of the 
arithmetical "grunge" away; a machine is 
also less likely to make a mistake! 

I've written a program in Basic, called 
Bignum, which is an aid in handling big 
numbers. Bignum imitates a pocket calcu- 
lator, but with a difference: it can add, 
subtract, multiply, divide, and raise to a 
power integers of up to 1024 decimal 
digits! (The length limitation of 1024 digits 
can be lifted if you have enough memory 
and can dimension arrays of more than 256 
elements in your computer.) My imple- 
mentation of Bignum occupies most of the 
available storage space of an 8K Com- 
modore PET. 1 haven't used any PET- 
specific "tricks" in the program, so it 
should be adaptable with little or no modi- 
fication to other types of machines. 

This article will first discuss a variety of 
problems in number theory which I've 
begun to use Bignum to investigate. I'll 
next describe in some detail the actual 
Bignum program, and give instructions for 
its use. Finally, 1 will mention some pos- 
sible extensions and modifications to the 
program which some readers may be inter- 
ested in pursuing. A listing of Bignum ac- 
companies this article; I apologize for the 
.lack of comments (and spaces) within the 
listing, but they had to be removed in order 
to fit the program into the limited memory 
of the PET. 

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CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Jig Numbers, continued. 



Topics lo Explore with Bignum 

In this very finite article, I can only 
begin to touch upon a few of the subjects 
which Bignum can help you explore. One 
of the most difficult things to do is to 
invent new, interesting, and important 
questions to ask — questions of which no 
one else has thought. 

Frequently the ability to "experiment" 
with numbers can lead one to formulate a 
good question; probably the majority of 
classic mathematical theorems grew out of 
such experimentation with small numbers. 
The most important use of Bignum may be 
to extend one's reach to larger integers in 
this sort of play, so that new theorems or 
conjectures may be grasped. 

One specific topic for which I have fre- 
quently used Bignum is the factoring of 
large numbers into a product of smaller in- 
tegers. As mentioned above, occasional 



numbers (such as 17) cannot be broken 
down into smaller factors; such numbers 
are called primes. 

Prime numbers become rarer as one 
moves into the realm of big integers, 
mainly because the bigger a number is, the 
more smaller numbers there are that may 
divide into it evenly. The chance of a 
random big integer being a prime is about 
one in 2.3 times the number of decimal 
digits in the number; for example, a 
thousand-digit number has about one 
chance in 2300 of being a prime. 

A number can be tested for primality 
simply by trying all smaller integers and 
seeing whether any of them divide the 
number being tested. That's not very effi- 
cient, however! First of all, it is unnec- 
essary to try any divisors which are greater 
than the square root of the target, since if 
the target has a factor greater than its 



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square root, it must also have a factor 
smaller than the square root. 

Second, it's not even necessary to try all 
of the numbers from two through the 
square root; once 2 has been tried and 
found to fail, there is no way for 4, 6, 8, or 
any other multiple of 2 to succeed in di- 
viding the target number. Similarly, if 3 
doesn't work, no multiple of 3 can, etc. To 
be really efficient, we need only try the 
prime numbers (2, 3, 5, 7, II, 13, 17, . . .) 
smaller than the square root of our target; 
if none of them divide it, then the target is 
prime. 

Trying all those potential factors is not 
an easy task. Even the largest, fastest com- 
puters would take an impossibly long time 
to factor a number a few hundred digits 
long, using the best known tricks to speed 
the process. What hope is there for a small 
machine? 

Fermat Test 

If one does not demand to see the ex- 
plicit factors of a number, N, but simply 
asks the question, "Is N prime?" then 
there is hope of getting an answer. Con- 
sider the number A N ', the result of multi- 
plying A*A*A*...*A with the number A 
occurring N-l times in the product. A 
beautiful theorem, stated by Pierre de 
Fermat around 1640 and proved by 
Leonhard Euler about a century later, says 
that if N is prime, then N must leave a re- 
mainder of 1 when divided into A N '' for 
any value of A not a multiple of N. Con- 
versely, if the remainder left after division 
by N is not 1 , then we know that N is not a 
prime (though we don't know what the 
factors of N are). 

For example, suppose we want to test 
the number 15 for primality. We could 
choose A = 2 and calculate A N '' = 2 14 = 
16384; then dividing 16384 by IS, we get 
1092, with a remainder of 4. Since the re- 
mainder was not I , we know that I S is not a 
prime. 

This Fermat test for primality is not 
quite complete: if we come out with a re- 
mainder not equal to 1, we know that our 
number N is not a prime, but if the re- 
mainder is I , then N may be a prime — but 
it's not quite certain. There are numbers 
(fairly rare compared to the primes) which 
for many choices of A give a remainder of 
1 in Fermat 's test. Techniques exist to 
catch these exceptional numbers, but 
they're too complicated and I don't under- 
stand them well enough to attempt to ex- 
plain them here. In the vast majority of 
cases, if the Fermat test answers "Maybe" 
to the question "Is N prime?" then the real 
answer is "Yes." References 1 and 2 give 
more details. 

This Fermat test may not sound very 
practical; after all, isn't A N ' a huge 
number itself, much larger than N, and 
won't it take a long time to compute it? 
Yes — but it doesn't matter. We don't want 



128 



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CIRCLE 285 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Big Numbers, continued.. 

to know A N "' itself; we only want to know 
the remainder left after division by N. So, 
as A N "' is being calculated, we can keep it 
(relatively) small by dividing by N and 
keeping only the remainder as we go along. 
The final result will be the same. 

To calculate A N "' also does not require 
N-l multiplications: by repeatedly 
squaring, multiplying, and squaring again, 
we can save time. For example, to compute 
A 17 requires only five multiplications, as 
follows: first square A (yielding A 2 ), then 
square that result (which gives A 4 ), square 
again (giving A ), square once more 
(giving A 16 ), and finally multiply by A 
again. 

Bignum uses these tricks when com- 
puting the function X Y (modulo Z), the re- 
mainder left after dividing X Y by the 
number Z. It is quite efficient, and auto- 
matic. 

Given this convenient test for primality 
of a big number, a variety of interesting 
questions can be attacked. The Fermat 
numbers F m are defined by the equation 

F m = 2 2m + 1 

m 

where the exponents must be evaluated 
from the top down. Thus, F = 3, F, = 5, 
F 2 = 17, F, = 257, and F„ = 65537. These 
Fermat numbers are all primes, and it 
turns out to be possible to construct, using 
only a compass and a straightedge, regular 
polygons with F m sides, if F m is a prime, 
and not otherwise. 

Strangely enough, for m ranging from 5 
through 16 (at least), F m are not prime 
(Reference 2), and it is not known whether 
there are any more primes among the 
higher F m . All of the Fermat numbers, 
whether prime or not, pass the A N '' test for 
A = 2 and for A = 3, but there is a sure 
test for the primality of F m : F m is prime if 
and only if 3 <F "< "" leaves a remainder of 
F m -1 when divided by F m (Reference 2). 



Mersenne Numbers 

Another set of interesting and mathe- 
matically important numbers are the 
"Mersenne numbers" defined by 

M.-2--1 

for prime values of n. (For n not a prime, 
M n is never prime and is a bit less useful.) 
The first few Mersenne numbers are M 2 = 
3, M 3 = 7, M, = 31, and M 7 = 127, all of 
which are primes; M n , however, is di- 
visible by 23. 

The Greeks called a number "perfect" if 
it was equal to the sum of its divisors (ex- 
cluding itself), like 6 = 1 + 2 + 3, or 28 = 
1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14. All even perfect 
numbers have the form M n 2" "', for M n 
prime. So, to find a perfect number, it is 
essential to have a test for the primality of 

E. A. Lucas devised such a test in the late 
1800's; it is described in References 1 and 



2. Using it, and a rather large machine, L. 
Nickel and C. Noll found that M 2I701 is 
prime; it is 6533 decimal digits long, and is 
the largest prime yet found. (Reference 3). 

Rep-Unit Numbers 

Somewhat less interesting, except to 
base-ten chauvinists perhaps, are the "rep- 
unit" numbers defined by 

R n = (10 n -l)/9; 

they are called rep-unit numbers because 
they consist of strings of ones. Thus, R 2 = 
11, R 3 = 111, R 4 - 1111, etc. For a rep- 
unit number to be prime, it must have a 
prime subscript; among the rep-units less 
than R, 031 , the only primes are R 2 , R, 9 , R 2J , 
and R JI7 (Reference 4). 

Other Applications 

Besides determining prime numbers, 
another important application of large 
integer arithmetic is in the field of cryp- 
tography, the coding and decoding of 
messages. There are many mathematical 
operations which can be used to scramble 
the bits of a message. Useful operations 
for codemaking are ones which are easy to 
perform but hard to un-do (unless one 
knows the secret). 

A prime example (pun intended) of such 
an encoding operation is our familiar 
function X (mod Z): by using integers a 
few hundred digits long, it is possible to 
make a crypto-system that is apparently 
unbreakable, as far as mathematicians can 
tell today (References 5, 6, 7). Bignum is 
well-suited to investigating these new ideas 
in cryptography. 



Another important 

application of large 

integer arithmetic is in 

the field 

of cryptography. 



Finally, even if one has a problem in- 
volving non-integral numbers, Bignum 
may be able to help. By mentally placing a 
"decimal point" somewhere within the in- 
tegers that the program is handling, one 
can do high-precision arithmetic, accurate 
to hundreds of decimal places. 

For example, put the decimal point 100 
places into the numbers. Addition and 
subtraction proceed as usual; after multi- 
plication, one must divide by 10 100 to re- 
normalize the result, and after division, 
one multiplies by 10 ,c0 . This scaling of 
results can also be done before performing 
the operations. Thus, to compute the value 
of 355/113 to a hundred decimals, divide 



355 * 10 IUU by 113 and mentally place a 
decimal point a hundred digits into the 
result. 

Program Description 

The program Bignum for handling 
arithmetic with large integers uses al- 
gorithms taken from Reference 1 , Donald 
E. Knuth's, Art of Computer Pro- 
gramming, Volume 2; see in particular 
Chapter 4, section 4.3.1. The program 
avoids conversions into and out of base 10 
by effectively working in base 10 4 , that is, 
by breaking large decimal numbers up into 
four-digit chunks. The value of each 
chunk is an integer within the range to 
9999, and is stored as one element in an 
integer array. The Basic floating-point 
arithmetic which is used to perform oper- 
ations on these chunks must be perfectly 
accurate to eight decimal places, so that it 
can correctly execute operations such as 
9999 • 9999. If your Basic interpreter 
sometimes keeps fewer than eight signif- 
icant decimal figures, you may want to 
work in base 10 J or 10 2 . Aside from 
changing the value of the Basic variable B 
to your new base, you will probably need 
to modify some of the input/output 
sections of the program as it is given in 
Listing 1 . 

To a user, Bignum seems much like a 
pocket calculator, specifically a Hewlett- 
Packard model HP-35. It has a stack of 
four numbers, named X, Y, Z, and T, and 
a memory register separate from the stack, 
named M. Numbers are input into the X 
register from the keyboard; from there, 
they can be pushed up into the stack, rolled 
down, stored into and recalled from 
memory, and operated upon. 

Commands such as arithmetic oper- 
ations are taken from the keyboard and 
stored in. a command string, C$, where 
they are executed on a strictly left-to-right, 
reverse-Polish-notation basis. This sim- 
plifies the "parsing" part of the Bignum 
program (lines 1000 through 2999) which 
performs the commands for the user. If 
one prefers to use another scheme (such as 
an "algebraic" system with pending oper- 
ations and parentheses), the parser can be 
modified without affecting any of the 
computational subroutines. 

Because Bignum occupies so much of 
the available memory space of the small 
computer on which I developed it, there 
are no comments or spaces in Listing 1. 
The remainder of this section, therefore, 
combines documentation for the program 
and information for the user, and should 
be read in conjunction with the listing. 

Comments By Line Number 

Line 100 of Bignum dimensions the 
arrays used by the program: X%, 
YVo.ZVo.T^o.W^o, and MVo. Each array 
is allocated 256 elements, subscripts num- 
bered through 255, since that is the 
maximum allowable on my machine. An 



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lig Numbers, continu 



element of an integer array can take on a 
value between -32767 and + 32767, 
though Bignum uses only numbers be- 
tween and 9999. Arrays X%, Y<7o, Z"7o, 
and T<% are used for the X, Y, Z, and T 
stack, array M% is the special memory 
which may be exchanged with the X reg- 
ister, and array W% is an auxiliary reg- 
ister, used for temporary storage within 
the program and not available to the user. 
Line 100 also defines B = 10000, the base 
used for the computations. 

Line 500 gets a command string from the 
keyboard and places it in the string var- 
iable CS. Variable C is a pointer into CS 
used by the parser; inline 1000 of Bignum, 
the pointer is incremented, and if it has 
reached the end of the command string, 
the program loops back to line 500 for 
more command inputs. Otherwise, exe- 
cution proceeds into lines 1040 through 
2999 where commands are recognized and 
performed. 

The current single-character command 
is taken from C$ and placed in AS by line 
1040. That line also begins the mo- 
notonous task of recognizing the 
command, carried out by IF statements in 
lines 1040 through 1380. At most a single 
one of the IF statements will be satisfied; 
after a command has been executed, or if it 
is not among the legitimate commands 
available, line 2999 loops back to line 1000 
where the next character in the command 
string is removed. 

The individual commands included in 
Bignum are summarized in Table 1 . They 
are all reasonably easy to remember, and 
after using the program for a short time 
you'll probably find that the commands 
become quite natural. Below, I will de- 
scribe each command and tell what it does, 
how, and why. 

First, however, it is useful to know the 
format in which Bignum stores numbers in 
its arrays. As mentioned above, a decimal 
number is broken up into four-digit pieces, 
each piece a positive integer between and 
9999, inclusive. For each of the X, Y, Z, T, 
and M registers, a variable exists which 
holds the sign of the contents of the corres- 
ponding register. In Basic notation, SX = 
SGN(X), SY = SGN(Y), and so forth for 
SZ, TS, and SM. (Note that the sign of the 
T register is stored in TS; the letter- 
combination ST is a reserved word in PET 
Basic.) 

Each sign variable takes on only the 
values + 1 , 0, or - 1 , depending on whether 
the contents of the register are positive, 
zero, or negative. The four-digit pieces of 
the big numbers are stored in the arrays 
with least significant parts in the lowest 
numbered array elements and with most 
significant parts in higher numbered slots. 
The index of the most significant array el- 
ement in use is stored in variables NX, NY, 
NZ, NT, and NM. For example, if the X 
register contains the number 1234567890, 




Command Definition 

D Display the contents of the X register. 

E Enter a number from the X register, pushing up the stack: 

Z-T.Y-Z.X-Y. 

I Input a number from the keyboard into the X register; stack not 

affected, old value of X destroyed. 

C Clear the X register, leaving zero; rest of stack unaffected. 

+ Y + X-X.Z-Y.T-Z. 

Y-X-X.Z-Y.T-Z. 

? display contents of stack; equivalent to command string 

DRDRDRDR. 

R Roll down stack: X-temp, Y-X, Z-»Y, T-Z, temp-T. 

5 Swap X and Y registers: X-»temp, Y-*X, temp-»Y. 

M Memory interchange between M and X: X-»temp, M-»X, 

temp-»M. 

N Negate X: -X-»X. 

• Y*X-X,Z-Y,T-Z. 

/ Y/X-temp, Y-X»INT(temp)-Y, INT(temp)->X. 

T Ten's power: input desired power of 10 from keyboard into the 

X register, old value of X destroyed, stack not moved. 

Q Quick look at contents of X, Y, Z, T, and M (only the most 

significant digits). 

T X Y (mod Z) -» X, other values in stack except Z destroyed; M 

also destroyed. For X Y , set Z to zero before execution. 

6 Input 6 into the X register, destroying present contents of X and 

not otherwise affecting stack. Also works for 1 through 9. 



Table I. 



then SX = 1, X«ft(0) = 7890, X«%(1) = 
3456, XVo(2) = 12, and NX = 2. The 
value of NX is thus just INT(LOG10(X)/ 
4), where LOG 10 means a logarithm to the 
base ten. 

With the above background infor- 
mation about how numbers are stored in- 
ternally, the remainder of the Bignum 
parser is easy to read and to understand. 
After extracting the current command and 
placing it in AS, line 1040 checks for a D, 
which means ' ' Display t he con ten t s of X . " 
If the command is D, subroutine lines 4000 
through 4100 format the contents of the 
array XVt as a string and print it, including 
the sign from SX. Program execution then 
returns to the line following 1040, all the 
subsequent IF tests fail, and at line 2999 we 
loop back to line 1000, where parsing con- 
tinues. 

If the command in AS is E for "Enter," 
line 1060 detects it and calls subroutine 



7000. "Enter" acts just like the "Enter" 
key on the Hewlett-Packard calculators: 
the contents of the Z register are copied 
into T, the contents of Y move into Z, and 
the contents of X are duplicated in Y. In 
other words, the "stack" is pushed up; the 
old value of T is lost. 

The command I for "Input" is caught 
by line 1080 of the parser, which prints a 
prompting request for the X register and 
then calls a subroutine beginning at line 
5000. That subroutine clears out the X reg- 
ister (using subroutine 8000) and accepts a 
string X$ from the keyboard. That string is 
then properly formatted as a positive in- 
teger and placed in the X% array by lines 
5800 and 5840. 

Two important things to note: (1) the 
"Input" command does not push up the 
stack automatically, unlike the usual HP- 
35 mode of operation (if you want auto- 
matic stack-lifting, insert a GOSUB7000 at 



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Big Numbers, continued. 

the beginning of line 5000; I prefer to 
control the process manually); and (2) 
"Input" expects to seeapositive, unsigned 
integer (to input a negative number, follow 
the "Input" by a "Negate X" command, 
discussed below). The Commodore PET 
doesn't like to input strings longer than 
one or two lines (40 or 80 characters) from 
the keyboard, so if I need to input a very 
large number by hand, I break it up into 
parts of length 25 or 30 characters, enter 
the parts (from left to right), and after each 
part is entered, multiply it by 10 25 or 10'°, 
so that it is ready to have the next part 
added to it . This procedure avoids all input 
difficulties and makes mistakes less 
common and easier to correct. 

Line 1 100 of the parser detects the C 
command, which "Clears X" by calling 
subroutine 8000, and does not otherwise 
affect the stack. 

Line 1120 takes care of the first 
arithmetic operation, addition, sym- 
bolized by the + command. It calls sub- 
routine 1 1000, which does addition just as 
one does it with pencil and paper, by 
adding corresponding elements of the X°/o 
and \% arrays, including "carries" from 
one element to the next if the sum is greater 
than 9999. The special cases of X = 0, or Y 
- 0, are handled in lines 1 1000 and 1 1040; 
otherwise, the signs of the numbers being 
added are compared in line 1 1060. 



If both signs are the same, the result has 
that sign too, and lines 14000 through 
14080 do the addition and jump to lines 
13000-13080 where the stack is dropped 
down before returning to the parser. If the 
contents of the X and the Y registers have 
opposite signs, lines 1 1080 through 1 1 140 
determine the correct sign for the sum; if 
the sum is nonzero, it is calculated by sub- 
traction in lines 15000 through 15120. 



To multiply two 

numbers, each 

100 decimal digits long, 

to give a 200 digit 

product takes about 

20 seconds. 



The result of all this complicated work is 
that the sum of the contents of X and Y 
ends up in X, and the rest of the stack is 
dropped down: the former Z is put into Y, 
the former T into Z, and the T register 
keeps its value. 

Subtraction is symbolized by - and is 
performed in the parser by line 1140, 
which simply changes the sign of the X reg- 



ister and calls the addition subroutine (be- 
ginning at line 11000). The result of the 
subtraction is Y - X, placed in the X reg- 
ister, and the stack drops just as it did for 
+ . 

The useful ? or "print stack" command 
is managed by line 1 1 60 of the parser. (The 
? mnemonic is suggested by the use of ? as 
an abbreviation for "PRINT" in many 
versions of Basic.) Since the goal is to print 
the whole contents of the stack, a series of 
alternating "Display X" and "Roll down 
the stack" commands does the job; after 
four of these pairs, the stack is back as it 
was initially and the contents of X, Y, Z, 
and T have been displayed. The parser 
does all this simply by replacing the ? com- 
mand with the string DRDRDRDR, re- 
setting the command-string pointer, and 
relying on the "Display" and "Roll down 
the stack" commands. As a convenience 
for the user, the caption STACK: is also 
printed out. 

The R command mentioned in the 
previous paragraph, which asks to "Roll 
down the stack," is caught in parser line 
1 180 and executed in very straightforward 
fashion by subroutine 20000. R transfers 
the contents of T to Z, of Z to Y, of Y to X, 
and of X back up to T. No information is 
lost. 

Line 1200 recognizes the S command, 
which "Swaps X and Y." It is done in a 



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CIRCLE 1 19 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



134 



CIRCLE 193 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



subroutine occupying lines 6000 through 
6060; the same "Swap" subroutine is used 
by other operations (such as addition, line 
1 1000) when appropriate. The result of an 
S command is to interchange the contents 
of the X and Y registers; the rest of the 
numbers in the stack and in memory are 
left unchanged. 

Line 1220 executes M for "Memory in- 
terchange with X." It calls a subroutine 
occupying lines 16000 through 16060, 
which interchanges the contents of X and 
M, the separate memory register in the ma- 
chine. By using an interchange-type oper- 
ation, the need for distinct "store in 
memory" and "recall from memory" 
commands is eliminated and some space is 
saved. 

The extremely simple "N" or "Negate 
X" command is recognized and executed 
within line 1240 of the parser; all that is 
necessary is to set SX = - SX, that is, to 
change the sign of the contents of the X 
register. 

Line 1260 does multiplication, the * op- 
eration. It calls subroutine 12000, wherein 
the proper sign of the result is determined 
and the actual multiplication is performed 
in much the same manner as one does it 
with pencil and paper. After multiplying, 
the properly-signed result X * Y is left in 
the X register and the rest of the stack is 
dropped down, just as it is after addition 
or subtraction. 

Division is detected in line 1280, which 
looks for the / command and calls sub- 
routine 17000 if it finds it. This subroutine 
is the most complicated in the Bignum 
program, but all of its details are taken 
almost literally from Knuth's book (Ref- 
erence 1). After checking for zeroes in nu- 
merator or denominator, the subroutine 
scales both numbers in the division process 
by multiplying each by a constant, in order 
to simplify later work; the scaling factor is 
stored in the simple variable D. Lines 
17300through 17860 perform the division, 
with the "classical" division algorithm 
which is used for manual, pencil and paper 
long division by humans, slightly modified 
for the machine. 

The result of this / operation consists of 
two numbers: an integer quotient and a re- 
mainder. The operation leaves the X reg- 
ister containing that quotient: in Basic no- 
tation, X contains INT(Y/X). The 
remainder left by the division, however, is 
frequently very useful for number theory 
investigations, so instead of throwing it 
away, it is placed in the Y register: in Basic, 
Y then contains Y - X»INT(Y/X). The 
stack does not, therefore, drop down after 
division, unlike the behavior of a pocket 
calculator. 

One final remark: if either of the 
numbers being divided is negative, the re- 
mainder is not guaranteed to be correct; 
Bignum only promises to divide positive 
integers correctly. Negative divisors or div- 

JANUARY 1982 



idends may be handled correctly, but I 
haven't checked it out completely, since 
I've never needed to use them in my work. 

Returning to the parser, line 1300 senses 
the T command, for "power of ten." 
Upon receiving a T, the X register is 
cleared and the desired power of 10 is input 
from the keyboard and placed in X. All of 
this is done within line 1300; as in the 
"Input" command, T does not raise the 
stack. 

The Q command, for "quick look at 
registers," is recognized by parser line 
1340 and performed by subroutine 21000. 
It prints out the most-significant chunk of 
the X, Y, Z, T, and M registers, along with 
the corresponding power of ten, to allow a 
quick look at the contents of all registers 
without disturbing them. 

A powerful command, T, calculates X Y 
(mod Z), that is, the remainder left when 
the number X Y is divided by Z; it is caught 
by parser line 1 360 and handled in a sub- 
routine beginning at line 25000. That sub- 
routine uses the binary decomposition al- 
gorithm (repeatedly squaring and 
multiplying) described earlier in this article 
and in Reference 1 . Most of the work is 
done by a sequence of subroutine calls to 
the multiplication and division routines. 
The T command, therefore, is like a 
"macro" in that it invokes a sequence of 
more fundamental commands. It unfortu- 



nately uses most of the stack during its 
work; only the value in the Z register is pre- 
served unchanged. The contents of X are 
replaced by the results of the computation 
X (mod Z), and Y, T, and M contain 
partial results from the course of the calcu- 
lations. If only the result X Y is desired, the 
number in Z should be set to zero before 
beginning the execution of the t 
command. 

The final feature recognized by the 
parser, line 1380, is the presence of a pos- 
itive integer, 1, 2, 3, . . .,9. If an integer is 
found, it is put into the X register, just as 
though it had been Input with an "I" 
command. I have frequently found the 
ability to put in a small integer valuable 
when writing a long command string, and 
the process only takes up the single line in 
the parser. 

That's all there is to Bignum. 



Improvements and Enhancements 

The version of Bignum given in Listing 1 
is actually the second major revision of the 
program. My first efforts lacked the T 
command and included some specialized 
stack-manipulation and input/output 
features which I never used much. I have 
tested Bignum extensively, and have 
shared it with a number of friends. None 
of us has yet observed any mathematical 



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135 



Big Numbers, continue 



errors committed by the program. I would 
appreciate it if any reader who finds a bug 
in the program would bring it to my at- 
tention. 

If more memory is available, or if one is 
willing to sacrifice some of the features in 
the present version, there are several 
obvious modifications which should be 
considered. At present, command strings 
are simply read left-to-right and thrown 
away after they are used. A valuable ability 
to add would be looping or branching 
within command strings, so that more ex- 
tensive programs could be written. 

Another enhancement of the Basic- 
language Bignum program could be to in- 
clude machine language modules to speed 
up the workings of the arithmetic oper- 
ations. The Basic program is very portable 
and can be easily used on a variety of com- 
puters, but its speed is only fair. 

In general, on the Commodore PET, a 
multiplication of two random numbers of 
m and n hundred digits takes approxi- 
mately 20m n seconds; that is, to multiply 
two numbers, each 100 decimal digits long, 
to give a 200 digit product takes about 20 
seconds. That's not intolerable, but 
machine-language could speed it up by a 
factor of 10 to 100. Mike Louder of 
Glendale, CA has developed some 6502 
machine-language programs on the Apple 
II which multiply large numbers and raise 
them to powers; possibly that approach 
would be useful to take with Bignum. 



References 



1. Knuth, Donald E., The Art of Com- 
puter Programming, Vol. 2, Seminu- 
merical Algorithms, Addison-Wesley, 
Reading, MA, 1969, esp. sections 4.3.1 
and 4.5.4. 

2. Shanks, Daniel, Solved and Unsolved 
Problems in Number Theory, Vol. 1, 
2nd edition, Chelsea Publishing Co., 
New York, 1978. 

3. "Onward and Upward," in "Science 
and the Citizen," Scientific American, 
Vol. 240, No. 1 , pps. 85, 88 (Jan. 1979). 

4. "R 3 | 7 is Prime", in "Science and the 
Citizen," Scientific American, Vol. 
238, No. 2, pps. 89, 90 (Feb. 1978). 



5. Gardner, Martin, "Mathematical 
Games," Scientific American, Vol. 
237, No. 2, pps. 120-124 (Aug. 1977). 

6. Rivest, Ronald L., Shamir, Adi, and 
Adelman, Len, "On Digital Signatures 
and Public-Key Cryptosystems," 
MIT/LCS Technical Memo. No. 82, 
Apr. 1977. 

7. Hellman, Martin E., "The Mathe- 
matics of Public-Key Cryptography," 
Scientific American, Vol 241, No. 2, 
pps. 146-157 (Aug. 1979). 

8. Halberstan, Heini, "Some Unsolved 
Problems in Higher Arithmetic," in 
The Encyclopaedia of Ignorance, ed. 
by Ronald Duncan and Miranda 
Weston-Smith, Pocket Books, NY, 
1977, pps. 191-203. 



In the final analysis, however, what may 
be needed is not more computing power 
but more mathematical insight. Many of 
the references cited at the end of this article 
(especially References 1 , 2, and 8) contain 
good, introductory-level statements of 
fundamental, unsolved problems, which 
Bignum or an extension of it could be used 
to investigate. The small computer revo- 
lution will really have an impact on mathe- 
matics if somebody, inspired by Bignum or 
similar programs, takes a step forward and 
makes a discovery in number theory. 



It may take years, and it may only 
happen if young people become excited 
enough by their home computers to 
become mathematicians, but I think that, 
in the long run, small machines will make a 
big difference to the progress of mathe- 
matics. 

Acknowledgement 

I thank Charles A. McCarthy for his 
help in obtaining the printout of Listing 1 , 
which was done using his Cheepprint 
program. 



Listing J. 



100 »IMXI(255>,rl<255>, 21(255), 
Tl(255),Ui(255),IU(255) 
■1*10000 

500 INPUTC* 
I CM 
■C»*C«»' ■ 

1000 C-C+l 

■IFC>LEN(C«)G0T0500 

1040 ««-niD«(Ci,C,1) 

■ IFA« = -D- THEHG0SUH000 

1040 IFA««-E-THENG0SUI7OOO 

1080 IF»«>"I-THEHPRIMI"Xl"; 

:G0SU 15000 

I tOO IFA««*C"THENG0SUI8OO0 
1120 IFA«*-*"T«NG0SUI11000 

1140 IFA«*"-"THENSX— SX 

iGOSUIIIOOO 
1140 IF»«»"'"THENC«-"BRllRtRDR- 

♦RIGH!»(C»,LEN(C»)-C) 

■oo 

•.PRINT"ST»CK:" 
1180 1F»»="R-THEHG0SU»20000 
1200 IF»i="S-THENG0SU»6000 
1220 IFM."A"THEHG0SU»UO00 
1240 IF»»*"H-tHENSX— SX 
1240 IFM»"«-THENGOSUII2000 



1280 IFA«*-/-THENG0SUI17000 

1300 IFAt'M'THENGOSUISOOO 
■1NPUT-10 -;K 

■ NX*INT(K74> 

■ SX* 1 
■XX(NX>*I0(K-4»NX> 

1340 IFAt="0-THENPRINT"APPROXl a 
■G0SUI21000 

1340 IFM = " "THEMG0SUI25000 

1380 IFVAUAt)>0THEN60SUI8000 

■ XX(0)>VM.(A«> 

■ SX*I 

2999 S0T0 1 000 

4000 1FSX--0THENPRIHT-0" 
■RETURN 

4040 IFSX— ITHENPRMT*-"; 

4040 PRINTSTR»(XX(NX>); 
■IFNX*0THENPRINT 
■RETURN 

4080 F0RI*NX-IT00STEP-1 
■X**STR»(XX(I>) 
■X«*R1GHT«(X«,IEN<X«)-I) 

4100 PRINTRI6HTt(-000"«X«,4>; 

■ NEXT 
■PRINT 
■RETURN 

5000 G0SUI8000 

■ SX'1 
■NX*-I 
■INPUIXI 



5800 ll = LENU») 

:1F»<>4*INT<II/4>THENX«»"0"»X» 
■G0T05800 

5840 F0RJ*l-3T01STEP-4 
:NX*NX»1 
■XX(NX)*VAL(N!t«(X«,J,4)) 

■ NEXT 
IXA*" 
■RETURN 

4000 N*NX 

■IFH<NrTHENN*NY 

4040 FORI'OTOtl 
■K*XX(I) 
■XX(I)*YX(I) 

■ TXID'K 

■ NEXT 

4040 K*NX 
|NX«NT 

■ NT*K 

■ K'SX 
■SX-SY 

■ SV*K 
■RETURN 

7000 M-NT 

lIFIKNZTHENH-NZ 

7040 F0R1*0T0N 

■ TX(I»ZXU> 

■ NEXT 
|NT*M 
■TS»t2 
:N*NZ 
■IFN<NTTHENN*NV 



7080 FORI'OTON 

■ ZXID'YXU) 

■ NEXT 
■NZ*NT 
■SZ-ST 
IN'NT 
■IFN<NXTHENN*NX 



W20 F0RI*0T0N 
■rX(I)*XX(I) 

■ NEXT 
|NT*NX 
■ST'SX 
■RETURN 

8000 FORI'OTONX 
■XX(I)*0 

■ NEXT 

■ NX*0 

■ SX*0 
■RETURN 

11000 IFSX*0THENGOSUI400O 

11040 IFSr*060TOI3000 

11040 1FSX*STG0T014000 

11080 SX-SGNI (NY-NX )*ST) 

■ IFSXO0G0T015000 

11100 F0RI*NXT00STEP-l 

■SX*S6N((TX(I)-XX(I))»STl 

■ IFSXO0THENI*-! 



136 



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JANUARY 1982 



137 





Big Numbers, continued... 




17520 FORI'NY-NXTONX 


23020 K'O 




11120 HEX! 


16060 K'KJ 


tXXMI'O 


iFORI'NYTOOSTEP-1 




llFSX'OTHENGOSUBBOOO 


iNX»NH 


tNEXT 


tH=(YZ(I>»K»l)/2 




1G0T013000 


tNN'K 




tYZ<I)'lHT(H) 






tK'SX 


17340 F0RI»0T0HY-NX-1 


tK'O 




11140 G0T013000 

12000 sx-sx«sy 


tSX'SH 

■tn>K 

tRETURN 


tXKP'MXU) 

tNEXT 

lK»HY-HX 


lIFINTIHXHTHENK'l 
23060 NEXT 




tIFSX»0THENG0SUB13000 




|NY=NX 


tIFYX(NY)'0THENNY'NY-1 




tGotoeooo 


17000 IFSX'OTHENPRINTVO ERROR" 
tRETURN 


INX'K 


tIFNY<OTHENNY'0 
tSY'O 




12040 FORJ'OTONX 
ttlXIJI-O 
tNEXT 
tFORJ-OTONT 


17020 IFSY'OGOTOSOOO 


17560 IFXX<NX)«OTMENNX"NX-l 
t60T017S60 


23080 IFK-0G0T0235O0 




17040 SX'SX«SY 
lSY»1 
tIFNX<NYG0T017200 


17620 K'O 






iK'O 
tFORI'OTOHX 


|F0RI»NYT00STEP-1 

lH'(K«B»YZ(I)>/D 


25100 G0SUB7000 
I60SUB16000 




lH«XX<I>»YX<JHUX<I«J>*K 




17640 YX(I)»1NT(H) 


I608UB12000 
tIFSZ'0G0T025200 




12080 K'INT(H/I) 


17060 I'NX 


|K»INT<.3»B«<H-YXCI>>> 






|UX<I»J)«H-B»K 


tIFNX>NYG0T08000 


tNEXT 


25120 G0SUB7000 




■ NEXT 






IG0SUB26000 




:UKJ«NX*1>'K 
■ NEXT 


17100 IFXX(IXYX(I)GOT017200 


17630 IFYX(NY)>OTHENRETURN 


tGOSUBI7000 








IG0SUB20000 






17120 IFXX(I)>YX(I)G0T08000 


17660 NY«NY-1 


tRETURN 




12100 HX'HX*NY»1 




lIFNY<OTHENNY'0 






iIFK'OTHENNX'NX-1 


17140 I»l-1 


tSY'O 


25200 G0SUB16000 






|IFI>=OGOT017IOO 


tIFSY'OTHENGOSUBHOOO 




12120 FORI'OTONX 




tRETURN 






tXX<I)'UXtl> 


17160 60SUB8000 




23300 G0SUB7000 




tNEXT 


tGOSUB6000 
1GOSUI8OOO 


17680 G0T017650 


IG0SUB12000 
tIFSZ'OGOT025020 




11000 H'NY 


lSX'1 


17800 K'O 






:1FNZ>H1HENH=NZ 


|XX(0)'1 
tRETURN 


tFORI'NYTOOSTEP-1 


23520 G0SUB7000 






iH«<K«B«YX<I>)/XI<0> 


1GOSUB26000 




13040 FORI'OTOH 






16OSUB 17000 




iYX(l>»ZX<I> 


17200 IFNX'0G0T017800 


17820 YX(I)»INT(Hi 


I60SUB20000 




■ NEXT 




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17220 D=INT(»/(XX(NX)»I)) 


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26000 M=NT 




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17840 IFYX(NY>'0THENNY'NY-1 


|IFH<NXTHENM*NX 




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17240 K=0 


I60T017840 


26020 FORI'OTOH 




13080 FORI'OTOH 


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17860 XZ(0)*K 


tXX(I)<TZ(I) 




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tNEXT 




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tNEXT 




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:RETURN 


17260 FORI'OTONX 


20000 H»HX 

tIFNY>HTHENH«NY 






14000 H'NX 


|J«B«XX(I>*K 








tIFNY>HTHENII'NY 


tK'INT(J/l) 
|XX(I>»J-B»K 


20040 IFNZ>HTHENH«NZ 






14040 K>0 


tNEXT 


20060 IFNT>NTHENH>NT 






tFORI'OTOH 










tll'XXUHYZUUK 


17300 F0RJ'N*T0HX*1STEP-1 


20080 FORI'OTOH 
tK'XZ(I) 






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tIFYZ(J)'XZ(NX)THENN'l-1 






|IFU>'BTHENK»1 


IG0T017340 


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:U=U-I 




|YX(I»ZZU> 




-•|2 •* « M 








17320 H»INT((»«YZ(J)«YX(J-1)) 


tZZ(I)'TZ(I) 




it: 






14060 XXUI'U 


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■ NEXT 




tNEXT 




m 






tNX'H 


17340 IF(XX(NX-I)«H>>((1«YX(J> 










:IFK»1THEHHX-MX»1 
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5111! 








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ElZii 






14080 G0T013000 




tNZ'NT 
lNT'K 








-1 • - 






15000 IFSXOSYTHEN60SUB6000 


17360 K*0 


tK'SX 






ft I 






tSX'SY 


tFORI'OTONXM 


tSX'SY 






■T 








lN»YX<I«J-HX-l)-H»XX(IHK 


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' « 






15060 K»0 


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17400 YX(I»J-NX-I)'N 


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13080 Itlll'U 


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21020 PRINT"Zl"SZ»ZZ(NZ)-«10 






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17420 MX(J-NX-1>-H-1 


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15100 IFXX(NX>'0THEHNX«HX-1 


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21040 PRINT"Ht"SH«HZ(NH)"»10" 




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15120 GOT013000 


17440 K>0 


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23000 FORI'ITONH 






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17300 NEXT 


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■ NEXT 




tSZ'AIS(SZ) 








138 


CREATI 


VE COMPUTING 















_oar< 

SD Prices Slashed !!! 



Single User System 

SaCIM MX HxpamtnKAM 11. Vtr— floppy ll.Cr Mtl 

$995.00 

4 MHz Z-80A CPU. 64K KAM. serial I O port, 
parallel I/O port, double-density disk controller. 
CP/M 2.2 disk and manuals, system monitor, 
control and diagnostic software. 

-All boardx are attsembled and tented- 

ExpandoRAM III 

64K to 256K expandable KAM board 






Sl) Systems has duplicated the famous 
reliability of their KxpandoKAM I and II hoards 
in the new KxpandoRAM III, a board capable of 
containing 256K of high speed KAM. UtilizinKthe 
new H4K x 1 dymanic RAM chips, you can 
confiRure a memory of 64K. 128K, 192K, or 2/ViK. 
all on one S- 100 board. Memory address decoding 
is done by a programmed bipolar ROM so that the 
memory map may be dip-switch configured to 
work with either COSMOS MPM-type systems or 
with OASIS-type systems. 

Kxtensive application notes concerning how to 
operate the KxpandoRAM III with Cromemco, 
Intcrsystcms. and other popular 4 MHz Z-80 
systems are contained in the manual. 

MEM-65064A MK A&T $495.00 

MKM-65128A 128K A&T $639.95 

MKM-B5192A I92K A&T $769.95 

MKM-85256A 25HK A&T $879.95 

Versafloppy II 

Double density controller with CP/M 2.2 




• S- 100 bus compatible • IBM .'1740 compatible 
soft sectored format • Controls single and double- 
sided drives, single or double density, f>'/t" and H" 
drives in any combination of four simultaneously 
• Drive select and side select circuitry • Analog 
phase-locked loop data seperator • Vectored 
interrupt operation optional • CP/M 2.2 disk and 
manual set included • Control /diagnostic 
software PROM included 
The Versafloppy II is faster, more stable and more 
tolerant of bit shift and "jitter" than most 
controllers. CP/M 2.2 and all necessary control 
and diagnostic software are included. 

IOI1-1 160A A&T with Cl> M 2.2 $370.00 



SBC-200 

2 or 4 MHz single board computer 




• S 100 bus compatible • Powerful 4MHz Z-80A 
CPU • Synchronous asynchronous serial I/O 
port with K.S-2.12 interface and software 
programmable baud rates up to 9HO0 baud • 
Parallel input and parallel output port • Four 
channel counter timer • Kour maskable, vectored 
interrupt inputs and a non-maskable interrupt • 
IK of on board RAM • Up to H2K of onboard 
ROM • System monitor PROM included 

The SMC 200 is an excellent CPU board to base a 
microcomputer system around. With on-board 
RAM. ROM. and I/O, the SBC 2(H) allows you to 
build a powerful three-hoard system that has the 
same features found in most five board 
microcomputers The SBC-200 is compatible with 
both single-user and multi-user systems. 

CPU-30200A A & T with monitor $299.95 

ExpandoRAM II 

16K to 64K expandable KAM board 




• S 100 bus compatible • Upto4MHzoperation • 
Kxpandable from 16K to 64K • Uses 16 x 1 4116 
memory chips • Page mode operation allows upto 
H memory hoards on the bus • Phantom output 
disable • Invisible onboard refresh 

The KxpandoKAM II is compatible with most S- 
109 CPUs. When other SI) System' series II 
hoards are combined with the KxpandoRAM II, 
they create a microcomputer system with 
exceptional capabilities and features. 

MKM-16630A I6K A & T $325.(N>B 

MKM-32631A 32K A&T $345.00BJ 

MKM-48632A IsK A&T $365.0oH 

MKM-64633A t,4K A & T . $3H5.0oJ 



Multi-User System 

SHCJiki. USK KxpamlnKAM 111. Vtnmflopp) II Ml'( I 
COSMOS Mulii I sir Opmrmtmt jhatm, C HASIC II 

$1995.00 

Two Z 80ACPUs<4 MHz). 256K RAM. r> serial I 
ports with independently programmable baud 
rates and vectored interrupts, parallel input port, 
parallel output port. 8 counter timer channels, 
real time clock, single and double sided single or 
double density disk controller for f>' c" and 8" 
drives, up to ;«iK of on board ROM, CP M 2.2 
compatible COSMOS interrupt driven multiuser 
disk operating system, allows up to 8 users to run 
independent jobs concurrently. C BASIC II. 
control and diagnostic software in PROM 
included. 

-All boards are a»»embled and tented- 

MPC-4 

Intelligent communications interface 




• Four buffered serial I/O ports • Onboard Z- 
80A processor • Kour CTC channels • 
Independently programmable baud rates • 
Vectored interrupt capability • Up to 4K of on- 
board PROM • Up to 2K of on -board RAM • On- 
board firmware 

This is not just another four-port serial 
I/O board! The on-board processor and firmware 
provide sufficient intelligence to allow the MPC-4 
to handle time consuming I/O tasks, rather than 
loading down your CPU. To increase overall 
efficiency, each serial channel has an 80 character 
input buffer and a 128 character output buffer. 
The onboard firmware can be modified to make 
the board S»LC or BISYNC compatible. In 
combination with SD'a COSMOS operating 
system (which is included with the MPC-4), this 
board makes a perfect building block for a multi- 
user system. 

IOI-1504A A A T with COSMOS $495.00 

Place Orders Toll Free 



COSMOS 



Continental IS. 
800-421-5500 



Inside ( 'alifornia 
800-262-1710 



Multi-user operating system 

• Multi-user disk operating system • Allows up to h 
B users to run independent jobs concurrently • | 
Bach user has a seperate file directory 

COMOS supports all the file strut-tun's of CP M I 
2.2. and is compatible at the applications program I 
level with CP M 2.2. so that most programs J 
written to run under CP M 2.2 or SDOS will also I 
run under COSMOS. 

SKC-550O9039K COSMOS on Vditk $395.0O| 



'/W/imm'(i/ frujuiris t*r CuMiomrf .SVi 

213-978-7707 



Computer Products 

001 W. Kositrans. Ihm tfmrm; Cfl 90280 

TKKMS of SAI.K: Cash, Ctwcka, orwdH cards, or 
Purchase Orders from qualified linn* and institutions 
Minimum Order $I5.<M>. < California resident* add fl 

tax Minimum shipping \ handling charge $-l.(H>. 
Pricing A a\ iiililiilii> nuhji-ti to chnng*' 



CIRCLE 199 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Computer Products 



Printers 



Accessories for Apple Single Board Computer 




BETTER THAN EPSON ! - Okidata 

Microline H2A M 132 column. 120 CPS. 9 x 9 dot 
matrix, friction feed, pin feed, adjustable tractor feed 
Iremoeable). handles 4 part forms up to 9.5" wide, rear A 
bottom feed, paper tear bar. Iim duty cycle 2tXI.ttO0.0OO 
character print head, bt directional logic seeking, both 
serial £ parallel interfaces included, front panel su itch & 
program control <tf HI different form lengths, uses 
incypcnsitc spool type rihhiins. double it tdth & condensed 
characters, true loner case tiesii-nders & graphics 

PRM-43082 With EREE tractor $539.96 

Microline H3A 1.12 2.12 column. 1211 CPS. handles 
forms up to 16" utile, plus all the features of the H2A. 
PRM-43083 with FREE tractor $749.95 

PRA-27081A Apple card $39.95 

PRA-27082A Apple cable $19.95 

PRA-27087A TRS-HO cable $24.95 

PRA-430HO Extra ribbons pkg. of j ... $9.95 

INEXPENSIVE PRINTERS - Epson 

MX-70 HO column, HI) CPS. .5 x 7 dot matrix, adjustable 
tractor feed. & graphics 

PRM-27070 List $459 $399.95 

MX-RO K column. HI) CPS. bidirectional logo mtmstng 
printing. 9 x 9 dot matrix, adjustable tractor feed. & fit 
graphics characters 
PRM-27080 List $645 $469.95 

MX-80FT same as MX HO with friction feed added 
PRM-27082 Lilt $745 $559.95 

MX-lOil 1'.12 column, correspondence quality, graphics, 
up to 15" paper, friction feed & adjustable tractor feed,9 x 9 
dot matrix. HO CPS. 
PRM-27100 List $945 $759.95 

PRA-27084 Serial interface $09.95 

PRA-27088 Serial intf & 2K buffer .. $144.95 

PRA-27081 Apple card $74.95 

PRA-27082 Apple cable $22.95 

PRA-27086 IEEE 488 card $52.95 

PRA-27087 TRSHO cable $32.95 

PRA-27085 Craftrax II $95.00 

PRA-27083 Extra ribbon $14.95 

NEC 7700 & 3500 

NEC Spinwriter w/Intelligent Controller 

Standard serial. Centronics parallel, and current 
loop interfaces • Selectable baud rates 50 to 19,200 

• Automatic bidirectional printing • Logic 
■■eking • <>.t<> character buffer with optional 16K 
buffer • ">"> characters per second print speed • 
( 'onics with vertical forms tractor, ribbon, thimble 
and cable • Diablo compatible software • 
Available with or without optional front panel 

PRD-55511 IK no front panel $2795.00 

l'KD-55512 16 K no front panel $2895.00 

PRD-55515 IK te front panel $2995.00 

PRD-55516 16K ie front panel $3095.00 

Internet! SBC 3S00Q 

New from NKC • the 11500 series Spinwriters. 
Incorporates all the features and reliability of the 
5500 and 7700 series Spinwriters into an 
inexpensive 30 CPS letter quality printer with an 
optional bidirectional tractor assembly. 
PRD-55351 SS00Q IK $1995.00 

PRD-55352 SS00Q 16K $2095.00 

PRA-55100 Deluxe tractor option .. $300.00 



16K MEMORY UPGRADE 

Add I6K of HAM to your TRSHO. Apple, or Exidy in just 
minutes Wc'ce sold thousands of these I6K RAM 
upgrades which include the appropriate memory chips (as 
specified by the manufacturer), all necessary jumper 
blinks, fool proof instructions, and our 1 year guarantee. 

MKX-16100K TRSHO kit $25.00 

MKX-16101K Apple kit $25.00 

MKX-16102K Exidy kit $25.00 

16K RAM CARD - for Apple II 

Expand xtntr Apple to fi-lK, I year warranty 

MKX-16500A Save $70.00 !» $129.95 



Z-80* CARD for APPLE 

Tu 11 computers in one. Z-80 & 6502, more than doubles the 
f tower & ftotential of your Apple, includes Z-80* CPU card, 
CP M 2.2. & BASIC HI) 
CPX-30800A A&T $299.95 



8" DISK CONTROLLER 

Sew from Vista Computer, single or double sided, single or 
double density, compatible with DOS 3.2 ■'<■'<. Pascal. & CPM 
2 2. Shugart & Qttme compatible 
IOU-2700A A&T $499.95 

2 MEGABYTES for Apple II 

Complete package includes: Two 8" double-density disk 

deities. Vista double-density 8" disk controller, cabinet, power 

supply. & cables. DOS 3213.3. CP/M 2.2, A Pascal 

compatible. 

1 MegaByte Package (Kit) $1495.00 

1 MegaByte Package (A&T) $1695.00 

2 MegaByte Package (Kit) $1795.00 

2 MegaByte Package (A&T) $19.95 

(PS MULTICARD - Mtn. Computer 
Three cards m one* Real turn- dink calendar, weriai interface, 
<fc parallel interface all on one card 
IOX-2800A A 4 T $199.95 

AIO, ASIO, APIO - S.S.M. 

Parallel & serial interface for your Apple (nee Byte pti 11) 

IOI-2050K Par & Ser kit $139.95 

IOI-2050A Par&SerA&T $169.95 

IOI-2052K Serial kit $89.95 

IOI-2052A Serial A&T $99.95 

IOI-2054K Parallel kit $69.95 

IOI-2054A Parallel A&T $89.95 

A488 - S.S.M. 

IEEE JHH controller, uses simple basic commands. 
includes firmware and cable. I year guarantee, (see April 
Bytmpt Hi 
IOX-7488A A&T $399.95 



Modems 



CAT MODEMS - Novation 

VAT :tflt) baud, acoustic, answer urgtnate 
IOM-5200A List $189.95 $149.95 

D-CAT 300 baud direct connect, answer orgtnate 
IOM-5201A List $199.95 $169.95 

Al'TO-C'AT Auto answer orgtnate. direct connect 
IOM-5230A Lit $299.95 $239.95 

Apple-CAT - Novation 

Software selectable 1300 or :ioo baud, direct conned, auto 

answer autodial, auxiliary .luire RSSSfC serial port fur 

printer, 

10M-5232A Save $60.00!$ $325.00 

SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

St>phistwatcd direct connect autttunsuer autodial nutdem, 
touch tone or pulse diattntl. RS2.i2(' interface. pn*nrammaMe 

IOM-5400A Smartmodem $269.95 




AIM-65 - Rockwell 

ti.ifl2 onnputer with alpha nu merit display, printer. & 
keyboard, and complete instructional manuals 

C'PK-50165 IK AIM $424.95 

CPK-00468 IK AIM $474.95 

SKK-7I«0(MMI8K XK HASIC ROM $64.95 

BFK-640OOOO4E IK assembler ROM $43.95 
P8X-030A Power supply $64.95 

KNX-O0OO02 Enclosure $54.95 

IK AIM. SK HASIC. potter suppl\. A elleltistire 

Special package price $649.95 

Z-80 STARTER KIT - SD Systems 

Complete Z-HO microcomputer uilh HAM. ROM I O. 
keyboard, display, kludge area, manual. & workbook 

CPS-30100K KIT $299.95 

CPS-30100A A&T $469.95 

SYM-1 - Synertek Systems 

Single btmrtltttiilliltler it tilt /A'../ RAM. IKo( HI >M ).-•; )Kttl. 
I. Eli tltsplttv. Lllmtt A titsst lie inler/tite un biKird. 

( PK-50020A A & T $249.95 



Video Monitors 



MI-RES 12" GREEN - Zenith 

15 MHz bandwidth. It*) lines inch. P:ll green phosphor. 
stiilihttbli- If) or HI) columns, small, light Height & portable. 

VDM-201201 List price $150.00 .... $118.95 

Leedex / Amdek 

Hetisonublv priced i tdco monitors 

VDM-801210 Video 100 12" B&W . $139.95 
VDM-801230 Video 100 80 12" B& W $179.95 
VOM-801250 12" llreen Phospor .... $169.95 
VDC-801310 13" Color I $379.95 

12" COLOR MONITOR - NEC 

tit res momtor with audio & sculptured case 
VIM-651212 Color Monitor $479.95 

12" GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

20 MHz. P-'ll phosphor tidet. monitor with audio. 
exieptumally htnh resolution A fantastic monitor at a 
Vary reasonable price 

VDM-651200 Special Sale Price $199.95 



Video Terminals 



AMBER SCREEN - Volker Craig 

Detachable keyboard, am her on black display. 7x9 dot 
matrix. 10 program function keys. 1 1 key numeric pad, 12" 
nun-filarc screen. M to 19.200 baud, direct cursor control, 
auxiliary hi directional serial port 

VDT-351200 Lint $795.00 $645.00 

ViKWPlONT- ADDS 

Is-litthuhle keyboard, serial RS232C mlerfuee. baud rules 

from I tout 19300. auxiliary werialomtpmt aart.M s bVampmy, 
VDI-5O1210 Sale Priced $639.95 

TELEVIDEO 950 

VI) T 901250 List $1195.00 $995.00 

DIALOGUE 80 - Ampex 

VDT-230080 List $ 1 195.00 $895.00 




Computer Products 



S-100 CIH' Hoards 



THE BIG Z* - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchahle ZHO' CPU with aerial I (). 
accomodates 27IIH. 2716. t,r 27.12 EPROM. baud rate* from 

7n in mini 

CPU-30201K Kit $139.95 

CPU-30201A A&T $189.95 

CPU-302OOB Hare board $35.00 

2810 Z-80* CPU - Cal Comp Sys 

1 / Mil; 7. BOA • I PI uilli KS 2:I2C serial I (I purl and 'on- 
board MOSS 2.2 monitor PROM, front panel compatible. 
CPU-3040OA A&T $269.95 

CB-2 Z-80 CPU - S.S.M. 

JOT 4 MHz Z-tiO CPU bttard uith proi tsum for up (>> HK of 

ROM or /A' of HAM on batud. extended mddrtM$Mng. IEEE 
S 100, front panel compatible. 

CPU-30300K Kit $239.95 

CPU-303O0A A&T $299.95 



S-100 PROM Boards 



PROM- 100 - SD Systems 

27m. 2716. 173i EPROM programmer u softiinre 

MEM-99520K Kit $189.95 

MF.M-99520A A&T $249.95 

PB-1 -S.S.M. 

'716 EPROM board with built in programmer 

MKM-99510K Kit $154.95 

MKM-99510A A&T $219.95 

KPROM BOARD - Jade 

IliK or 32K use* 2708'. or 27/6'.. IK boundary 

MKM-16230K Kit $79.95 

MEM-16230A A&T $119.95 



S-100 Video Hoards 



VB-3 - S.S.M. 

80 character* x 24 lines expandable to HO x 4H for a full page 
of text, upper & lower cane. 256 user defined symbol*. 160 x 
192 graphics matrix, memory mapped, has hey board 
input. 

IOV-1095K 4 MHz kit $349.95 

IOV-1095A 4 MHz A&T $439.95 

IOV-1096K 80 x 48 upgrade $39.95 

VDB-8024 - SD Systems 

HO x 24 I O mapped rtdeo board with keyboard I I), and 
on hoard ZHOA'. 

IOV-1020A A&T $459.95 

VIDEO BOARD - S.S.M. 

64 characters x Ifi tines, 12H x 4H matrix for xraphicu, full 
upper hitter case ASCII character set. numbers, symbol*. 
and week letters, normal reterse blinking tideo. 8 HM> 

IOV-1051K Kit $149.95 

IOV-105I A A&T $219.95 

IOV-1051B Bare board $34.95 



S-100 MothcrlMmrris 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple, and on sale - a better motherboard 
8 Slot <8'/. m x H%~) 

MBS-061B Bare board $19.95 

MBS-061K Kit $39.95 

MBS-061A A&T $49.95 

IX Slot IBM" x8%") 

MBS- 12 I B Bare board $29.95 

MBS-121K Kit $69.95 

MBS-121A A&T $89.95 

I H Slot U4'4"x8H") 

MBS-181B Hare hoard $49.95 

MBS-181 K Kit $99.95 

MBS-181A A&T $139.95 



S-100 RAM Boards 



MEMORY BANK - Jade 

4 MHz. SI HO. bank selectable, expandable from 16Ktu 64K 

MKM-99730B Bare Board $49.95 

MKM-99730K Kit no RAM $199.95 

MKM-32731K 32 K Kit $239.95 

MKM-64733K G4K Kit $279.95 

Assembled & Tested add $50.00 

64K RAM - Calif Computer Sys 

4 MHz bank port bank byte selectable, extended 
addressing. I6K hank selectable. PHANTOM line allows 
m em o ry overlay, homo /.no front panel compatible. 
MKM-64565A A&T $575.00 

64K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

64K static S100 RAM card. 4 16K banks, up to HMIh 
MKM-64400A A&T $789.95 

32K STATIC RAM - Jade 

1 or I Mil. expendable static HAM board use.- tltlL'M 

MKM-16151K IliK I .MIL- Kit $169.95 

MKM-32151K .12K 4 MHz kit $299.95 

Assembled & tested add $50.00 

16K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

4 MHz 16K static RAM board. IEEE S100. hank selectable. 
Phantom capabdity. addressable in 4K blocks, "disable able'' 
in IK tegmenta, extended addressing. Ion poner 
MKM-16171A A& T $164.95 



S-100 Disk Controllers 



DOUBLE-D - Jade 

Double density null roller utth I he inside track, on hoard Z 
HOA*. printer port. IEEE S-100. can function on an 
interrupt driven buss 

IOD-1200K Kit $299.95 

IOU-1200A A&T $375.00 

IOD-1200B Bare board $59.95 

DOUBLE DENSITY - Cal Comp Sys 

SW and H" disk controller, sin/tie or double density, with 
on board boot loader ROM. and free CP M 2.2* and 
manual set 
IOD-1300A A&T $374.95 



S-100 I/O Boards 



S.P.I.C. - Jade 

Our new I O card with 2 Sill's. I ITl "«. and I PIO 
IOI-1045K 2 CTCs. I SIO. I PIO .. $179.95 

IOI-1045A A&T $239.95 

IOI-1046K 4 CTCs. 2 SIO's. I PIO $219.95 

IOM046A A & T $299.95 

IOI-1045B Bare board w/ manual . . . $49.95 

1/0-4 - S.S.M. 

2 serial I O port* plus 2 parallel I O port* 

IOI-1010K Kit $179.95 

IOI-1010A A&T $249.95 

IOI-1010B Bare board $35.00 



S-100 Mainframes 



MAINFRAME - Cal Comp Sys 

12 slot S 100 mainframe with 20 amp power supply 

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Stewart F. Rush 



It is the year 1991. You have crash 
landed on the Earth's moon. Your mission: 
Survival! 
Inital Status: 

I I APSED TIME: MINUTES 
POWER UNITS: 2.K) UNITS 
cm (.IN REMAINING: If 
MINI T I s 

PRES1 M LOCATION STATUS: YOU 

\RI \l MARI SI RIM I \I1S. LONG. 
ITRll SHADOWS I ROM D1SI \N I 
MOUNTAINS AND CRATERS CASH 
I HEMSELVES U ROSS Mil BARREN 
LANDS( API 



Game Description 

This game is patterned after the now 
famous Adventure programs and their 
many derivatives. It requires logic, skill. 
anil persistence and the object is 
survival. 



I Rush 1 182 Wilhelmma Way. San Jose 
i \ >5I20. 



The action takes place somewhere on 
the surface of the moon, ami the player 
must assess the situation, explore the sur- 
roundings, avert potential hazards, ami 
gather resources which may he needed. 

It is a race against time. Main explora- 
tions are required before the total situation 
is revealed and the resources and life- 
threatening situations discovered. Only 
then, can the process of determining the 
optimum set of moves and actions begin 

Once the player succeeds in surviving 
it becomes a challenge to generate survival 
sequences which result in the minimum 
elapsed time. o 

As with Adventure. <he computer 
accepts directional commands: NORTH. 
SOUTH. EAST. WEST. UP. and IX >WN. 
< )ther commands consist of an action verb 
followed bj a noun. Verbs include USE. 
GI f. TRY, and INVENTORY. 



For brevity, the program uses only the 
first three characters of a command or 
item name. In addition, the directional 
commands can be entered as single letters. 

N, S.W, E, U.D. 
The following are some sample keyboard 



oil II I I'M (gel an illuminatoi i 

9 

N ' north i 

•> 

DROP KEY (leave the key) 

Program Description 

The program, by design, is relatively 
small, and requires no additional peripheral 
devices such as disk drives to store textual 
and descriptive information. Thus it mav 
be adapted for use on relatively small 



I a hi. 



Mi P.I i = location to go to it direction is NORTH 
M(P.2) location to go to if direction is SOUTH 
M(P.3) = location to go to if direction is EAST 
Mi I'. -4 1 = location to go to if direction is Wl si 
MtP..M = location to go to if direction is I IP 
Md'.M : location logo to if direction is DOWN 
M(P.7| pointer to first print line in TS sector 
M(P.8) = pointer to last print line in TS vector 



I he current location. 

The previous location iP for the previous location! 
The current elapsed time. 

I he amount of oxygen remaining in the oxygen module. 
The amount of powet remaining in the power unit. 
I he amount of power remaining in the powei pack 
I lie number of visits to the control center. 
The number of items being carried. 
Flag: oxygen in use. 

Meteoi shower. 
Flag: Shed open. 
Flag: Illuminator on. 

Bomb deactivated. 
1 lag: Oxygen required in station. 



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tutor 




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143 



CIRCLE 248 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



jrvival, continued.. 

computers (see "Conversion"). In the 
author's case, the program is implemented 
on a home brew. S-100 bus system with 
8K of RAM. 

The program is directed by a move 
matrix M. There is one vector for each 
location P in the game. Table 1 lists the 
significance of each vector in the matrix 
M. 

If the vector element (1-6) contains a 
value of "0." then the move requested in 
that direction is invalid. If the vector 
element contains a "99." then the game is 
terminated. 

The T$ vector contains the textual 
description of all of the various locations. 
As an example, the first three elements in 
the vector contain the description for 
location 1 in the M matrix. Looking at the 
line 9001. the seventh and eighth data 
items correspond to M(l,7) which has a 
value of 1. and Ml 1.8 1 which has a value 
of 3. 

Table 2 lists the variables used in the 
program. 

Table 3 lists each of the objects used in 
the program which are contained in the 
vector. Normally the vector element in 0, 
for a given object, contains either the P 
location of that item, or a value of 99 
indicating that the player is carrying that 
item. 



0(1) 


- An electronic key. 


0(2) 


- Sealant. 


0(3) 


- An oxygen module. 


0(4) 


- An illuminator. 


0(5) 


- A robot. 


0(6) 


- A deactivator. 


0(7) 


- A nuclear bomb. 


0(8) 


- A transporter unit. 


0(9) 


- Dilithium crystals. 


(X10) 


- A computer message. 


()( 1 1 ) 


- A power unit. 


0(12) 


- A mirror. 


0(13) 


- A coded badge. 


0(14) 


- A power pack. 



Table 3. 

Locations 1-18. and 38 normally require 
oxygen. All other locations are within the 
space station or the space craft. Locations 
1-21. and 38 require a power unit or pack. 
All other locations are within the space 
station. 

Changing the Complexity of the Game 

Normally, the program permits the player 
to carry four items. One way the difficulty 
can be increased is by permitting only 
three items to be carried. In this case, a 
longer survival time results, and the fol- 
lowing statements must be updated: 



350 LET T2= 275 
360 LET PI = 320 
370 LET P2=75 
730 IF Tl> 485 THEN 2960 
740 IF Tl >380 THEN 3840 
2270 IF C> 2 THEN 2390 

Reducing Program Size 

The following are suggested to reduce 
the size of the program for computers 
which cannot accommodate the program 
as shown in the listing. 

1. Eliminate the printed instuctions, 
statements 90-120. and 5020 to 5230. 

2. Eliminate the REM or remark state- 
ments. 

3. Eliminate the use of verb or action 
word synonyms, statements 1340, 1360, 
1370. 1390, 1400, etc. Also refer to state- 
ments 4660 through 4800 for use of syno- 
nyms. 

4. Following the full program listing is a 
partial program listing which replaces 
statements 7500 through 9042. These 
employ shortened location descriptions 
and require the following program modif- 
ications: 

10 DIM T$40 (60) 
130 FOR 1=1 TO 60 

560 LET M(2.8)=M(2,7)+ 1 
3760 LET M(2.8)=M(2,7) 



^ 



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CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
144 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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G 




G 




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Tr 8 f J 




Survival, continued. 



Conclusion 

This program, unlike other Adventures, 
contains no random events. The emphasis 
is on determining optimum move scenarios, 
resulting in minimum times and resource 
use. Each location described corresponds 
to an actual moon location taken from a 
National Geographic map of the moon. 

The author wishes you many happy 
hours of exploration. As a benchmark, 
the author's best survival time is 385 min- 
utes, with a four-item carry limit. Here's 
to your survival! □ 



Listing I. 



Conversion to Other Basics 

Conversion will be required in the manipulation of the 
definition and manipulation of the string variables: T$, C$, 
B$ and D$, depending on the manufacturer's Basic. The 
variables have the following string lengths: T$. 40, C$. 3, B$, 
18 (default); and D$, 1. Refer to statements 10, 40, 50, 1060, 
2370. 2690, 4590-4640. For example, the following, on statement 
4640, references the J+l character (from the left) of the 
string B$. for a length of 3: 

LETC$=STR(B$J + 1.3l 
Suggested changes to convert "Survival" to TRS-80 Level 
II and Disk Basic. 

10 CLEAR 2000 : DIM TS (47) 

40 REM * OMIT THIS LINE * 

50 REM * OMIT THIS LINE * 

90 CLS : PRINT-WELCOME TO THE GAME OF SURVIVAL. WOULD* 

110 DS-INKEY$:IF DS-" THEN 110 ELSE PRINT D$ 

650 CLS : PRINT-ELAPSED TIME: -;T1;" MINUTES* 

690 IF 0(11)«99 AND Pl>5 THEN Pl-Pl-5 

700 IF 0(14) =99 AND P2>5 THEN P2-P2-5 

710 IF 0(11)=99 AND P1=0 THEN 3680 

720 IF 0(14) «99 AND P2*0 THEN 3680 

1320 LET C$-LEFT$(B$,3) 

2220 PRINT "I DON'T RECOGNIZE *; RIGHTS (B$,LEN(BSW) ;*.* 

2370 PRINT THERE IS NO ■; RIGHT$(B$,LEN(BS)-J) ;* HERE!* 

2690 PRINT "YOU DON'T HAVE "; RIGHTS(B$,LEN(B$)-J) ;"!" 

3000 D$=INKEY$:IF D$=" THEN 3000 ELSE PRINT DS 

4600 IF MID$(B$,J,1)«" " THEN 4640 

4640 LET C$-MID$(B$,J+1,3) 

In lines 4660 to 4840. change all single quotes (') to double 
quotes ("). 

4980 PRINTTOU DON'T HAVE • S RIGm$(B$,LEN(BS)-J) ; "I" 

Suggested changes to convert "Survival" to Applesoft Basic 
(Apple II owners may also have to shorten or reformat some 
of the screen text lines that extend beyond 40 characters.) 

10 TEXT : HOME : DIM TS(47) 

40 REM * OMIT THIS LINE * 

50 REM * OMIT THIS LINE * 

110 GET DS : PRINT DS 

650 HOME : PRINT* ELAPSED TIME: ";T1;* MINUTES* 

690 IF 0(11)=99 AND Pl>5 THEN Pl-Pl-5 

700 IF 0(14)=99 AND P2>5 THEN P2-P2-5 

710 IF 0(11)«99 AND Pl-0 THEN 3680 

720 IF 0(14)=99 AND P2=0 THEN 3680 

1320 LET CS=LEFTS(B$,3) 

2220 PRINT "I DON'T RECOGNIZE *; RIGHTS (BS.LEN(BS)-J) ;"." 

2370 PRINT THERE IS NO *; RIGHTS(BS,LEN(BS)-J) ;* HERE!* 

2690 PRINT TOU DON'T HAVE "; RIGHTS (B$,LEN(BSW) ;*!" 

3000 GET DS : PRINT DS 

4600 IF MIDS(B$,J,1)«" " THEN 4640 

4640 LET C$=MIDS(B$,J+1,3) 

In lines 4660 to 4840. change all single quotes (') to double 
quotes ("). 
4980 PRINTTOU DON'T HAVE *;RIGHTS(B$,LEN(B$)-J) ; "!" 



10 Dill T*9» (47) 
20 DIM MC42.8) _ 

30 DIM 0(14) (Jfi 

40 DIM n4dr gg}0 
50 DIM "**T " 



60 REM «««»«««««)ii(«li«»««««« ««««« «»«■«««»««»»««»»«««•«« 

70 REM «» INITIALIZE TEXT AND MOVE MATRICES 

80 REM ««« «««»«k»««k««»«»««««««»ii>i«»««««»«»»««««««»«»«»" 

90 PRINT "WELCOME TO THE GAME OF SURVIVAL. WOULD" 
100 PRINT "YOU LIKE INSTRUCTIONS'" 
110 INPUT D» 

120 IF D*="Y" THEN G0SUB 5050 
130 FOR 1=1 TO 47 
140 READ TS(I) 
150 NEXT I 
160 FOR 1=1 TO 42 
FOR J = l TO 8 
READ MCI, J) 
NEXT J 
NEXT I 

210 REM »)<l<l<»««««»)<»««««««««««»«»»««»»«»««»«»«««»""»»"»"""""' , """"" 
220 REM »» INITIALIZE OTHER PROGRAM VARIABLES 
230 REM «» 

P = CURRENT POSITION C 
Tl = CURRENT ELAPSED TIME F4 
T2 = OXYGEN REMAINING Fl 
FO = OXYGEN IN USE FLAG F2 
V = VISITS TO C0MP ROOM F7 
PI ■ PWR IN POWER UNIT T9 
P2 = PWR IN POWER PACK 

310 REM »««»««« ««.K»K»««««««»»»»n«»»»««»»»««»««»»»»«'<»«»»»»»» 

320 LET P = l 



170 
180 
190 
200 



240 REM «» 
250 REM »« 
260 REM »« 
270 REM »« 
280 REM «» 
290 REM «» 
300 REM «« 



NO. OF ITEMS CARRIED 
ILLUMINATOR ON FLAG 
METEOR SHOWER FLAG 
OPEN SHED FLAG 
BOMB DEACTIVATED FLAG 
OXYGEN RE«'D IN STATION 



330 LET C = 2 
340 LET T1=0 
350 LET T2=185 
360 LET Pl=230 
370 LET P2=50 
LET V=0 
LET F0 = 1 
LET 0(1)=21 
LET 0(2)=19 
420 LET 0(3>=99 
430 LET 0(4)=6 
440 LET 0(5)=32 
450 LET 0(6>=0 
460 LET 0(7)=38 



380 
390 
400 

410 



470 LET 0(8)=35 

480 LET 0(»)=0 

490 LET O(10)=35 

500 LET 0(U) = 99 

510 LET 0(12)=33 

520 LET 0(13)=J4 

530 LET 0(14>=37 

540 LET M(14.4>=0 

550 LET H(14,8)=M(14,7)*I 

560 LET M(2,8)=M(2,7>»1 

570 LET F1=0 

580 LET F2=0 

590 LET F4 = 

600 LET F7 = 

610 LET F9 = 
620 REM ««««««»«•««»»««»»»««»»»««»«*«»«»»•»««»«»»*««»«»«««««'«« 
630 REM «« DISPLAY CURRENT STATUS AND LOCATION INFO 

REM MMMMMKHMMMHMHKMHMMMHMMMMWMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMHMMMMHMMM 

PRINT "ELAPSED TIME: "; Tl; "MINUTES" 
IF 0(11>=99 THEN PRINT "POWER UNIT: "; PU "UNITS" 
IF 0(141=99 THEN PRINT "POWER PACK: "; P2; "UNITS" 
LET T1=T1*5 

Pl>5 THEN LET Pl=Pl-5 

P2>5 THEN LET P2=P2-5 

P1=0 THEN 3680 

P2=0 THEN 3680 



640 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 
700 
710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
790 
800 
810 
820 
830 
840 
850 



IF 0(11)=99 

IF 0(14)=99 

IF 0(ll)=99 

IF 0(141=99 

IF Tl>400 THEN 2960 

IF Tl>350 THEN 3840 

IF Tl>200 THEN 3740 

IF F0=1 THEN LET T2=T2-5 

IF T2<0 THEN LET T2=0 

IF F0=0 THEN 800 

IF T2>0 THEN 840 

IF F9=0 THEN 820 

IF P>21 THEN 2900 

IF P<18 THEN 2900 

IF P=38 THEN 1700 

IF P=38 THEN 3590 

IF F0=1 THEN PRINT "OXYGEN REMAINING: "; T2; "MINUTES" 
860 PRINT "PRESENT LOCATION STATUS: YOU ARE" 
870 FOR I = M(P.7) TO M(P,8) 
880 PRINT T*(I> 
890 NEXT I 
900 PRINT "tl" 

910 REM «»«««»«»»»«i<«»«»«««««««»«ii««««»»i>»«««»«»«»««»««»«««»«« 
920 REM »« DISPLAY ANY OBJECTS PRESENT 

930 REM ««««««»«»««»«»»««*««»»»«««i<«««««»«««»»»«»»i««»»««»««»«» 
940 IF P=2 THEN 1920 
950 FOR I = 1 TO 1* 
960 IF 0(IX>P THEN 990 
970 GOSUB 4410 

980 PRINT "THERE IS "; »»J " HERE." 
990 NEXT I 



146 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, I L 61820 
(2171 359-8482 

L . Msfistr- Aoole u the registered trfcjeniirt of Apple Computet in 

Telex 206995 



JMU>h»m 



JANUARY 1982 



CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

147 



Survival, continued... 



1000 GOTO 2000 

1010 REM «««»««i<«i<«»««*««»«««i<«»»»«««»»i<»»«»»«)<»««»»«»«««i<i<»»«» 

1020 REM «* READ AND PROCESS KEYBOARD RESPONSE 

1030 REM HHMMHHMHHHMMMHHMMMMMKMMMMNMllHKIIMMMHMMMMMIfHMIIHHHMIIKMMHH 

1040 INPUT 1* 

1050 LET 1=0 

1060 IF LEN(BS)<>1 GOTO 1320 

1070 IF B«="N" THEN LET 1=1 

1080 IF »»="S" THEN IET 1=2 

1090 IF B*="E" THEN LET 1=3 

1100 IF B*="W" THEN LET 1=4 

IF B»="U" THEN LET I=S 

IF B$="D" THEN LET 1=6 

IF B»="9" THEN 6200 

IF 1=0 THEN 1S70 

IF n(P,I)=0 THEN 1270 
1160 IF M(P,I>=99 THEN 2940 
1170 LET q=ri(P.i> 
1180 IF P=12 THEN 3060 
1190 IF P=13 THEH 3180 
1200 IF P=22 THEH 3310 
1210 IF P=23 THEH 3420 
1220 IF P=29 THEN 3470 
1230 LET R=P 
1240 LET P=Q 

1250 IF P=35 THEN LET V=V*1 
1260 GOTO 650 

1270 PRINT "YOU CANNOT GO IN THAT DIRECTION!" 
1280 GOTO 1040 

1290 REM IIMHMHKKHMHMMHHMHMHMHNMMHMMMIIMMMKMMHHHHHIIKHHKMMMHIIffHIflfMH 
1300 REM «« PROCESS 2 OR MORE CHARACTER COMMANDS 

1310 REM MHMMHMMMHHMMMMMHHMMHHHMMNH M Nj( HHMHHHMHHMNMHMHMMHHHMMMHHIi 

1320 LE4-6t^BS (K *■ *** ^ " ' ' 

IF C«="LOO" THEN 6S0 



1110 
1120 
1130 
1140 

1150 



NMMJI* 



1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 



IF C«="DES" THEN 650 

IF C*="GET" THEN 2190 

IF C$="TAK" THEH 2190 

IF C*="KEE" THEN 2190 

IF C$="DRO" THEN 2580 

IF C«="LEA" THEN 2580 

IF C«="PUT" THEN 2580 

IF C«="INV" THEN 2780 

IF C«="9UI" THEN 6200 

IF C*="EHD" THEN 6200 

1440 IF Ct="TRA" THEN 1750 



1450 IF C»="DIG" THEN 1860 

1460 IF C«="DEB" THEN 1610 

1470 IF C»="FUE" THEN 4030 

1480 IF C$="REA" THEN 4250 

1490 IF C$="DEA" THEN 3890 

1500 IF C«="BLA^ THEN 4110 
1' 




1570 PRINT "INVALID COMMAND!" 

1580 GOTO 1040 

1590 PRINT "I CANNOT PROCESS YOUR REQUEST!" 

1600 GOTO 1040 

1610 PRINT "ENTER LOCATION" 

1620 INPUT P 

1630 GOTO 650 

1*40 LET Ut-H~ 

v&ift_t«-«T=TW 

1660 GOTO 1070 

1670 REM ««««««««»«i<««««»««««i<»»«»«««»«»«««»»»«ii»«««»»«»«i<>i«««»« 

1680 REM II PROCESS ENTRY TO HANGER FROM AIR LOCK 

1690 REM HHMMNMMMMHMHHHHMMMMIiMIIIIHKKXIIMMMKMMKKHMHHKHNIIMKKIIMIIIfMMMk 

1700 IF R<>39 THEH 2900 

1710 GOTO 840 

1720 REM »»»«««»«««»»««»«««»«««««»»»««»ii»>i»«»»»»»i<»««««»»ii«i<>«»»» 

1730 REM II PROCESS TRAHSPORT COMMAND 

1740 REM «««««««««««»««»««««ii«>i««i<»»i<»i<«ii»»«»««»«i<»««»»»i(»ii»««»« 

1750 IF P<>36 THEN 1800 

1760 IF 0(81=99 THEN 1590 

1770 LET P=0(8) 

1780 PRINT "BEAMING IN PROCESS." 

1790 GOTO 650 

1800 IF POOH] THEN 1590 

1810 LET P=36 

1820 GOTO 1780 

1830 REM »««»»»«»««»»»«»«««k»«*«»k»««»««>(»««««««!«>i«»>i«»«ii»»««»i<» 

1840 REM «« PROCESS DIG COMMAND 

1850 REM «««»»««««««»««i<««»«««»«««««»««ii««i<»«ii«»«»»ii«««»»««»«»»» 

1860 IF Poll THEN 1590 

1870 LET 0(91=10 

1880 GOTO 940 

1890 REM ««««»«.««»««««««»«««»««««»«««»««»»»««««»«»»«»!i«»»«««i(i<« 

1900 REM II DROP ILLUMINATOR IF AT OVERLOOK 

1910 REM ««««»«««»«««»»»«»«»»»»«««»»««»««*»«*«««««»»m««««»«»i.««» 

1920 IF 0(4)099 THEN 950 

1930 LET O(4)=100 

1940 PRIHT "YOU DROPPED YOUR ILLUMINATOR! YOU" 

1950 PRINT "CANNOT RETRIEVE IT." 

1960 GOTO 951 



1970 REM MMMHKMHMMMKMMMHMVMMXMMKMMMKHKHMMMMMMMHiiHHHMHKMHHKMMIIMM 

1980 REM «« PROCESS ROBOT 

1990 REM »»»»»«««»«««>i»«l<»»««»«ll««««««««i'«««l<»<«»»»««»««««»«««« 

2000 IF 0(51=28 THEN LET 0(51=35 

2010 IF 0(5)=42 THEN LET 0(51=28 

2020 IF 0(5>=41 THEN LET 0(51=42 

2030 IF 0(51=27 THEN LET 0(51=41 

2040 IF 0(51=25 THEN LET 0(51=27 

2050 IF 0(5)035 THEN 2090 

2060 IF P<>28 THEN 1010 

2070 LET M(28. 11=35 

2080 GOTO 1010 

2090 IF 0(5)032 THEN 1010 

2100 IF P<>32 THEH 1010 

2110 LET 0(51=25 

2120-IF 0(131=99 THEH 1010 

2130 PRIHT "ROBOT FAILS TO RECOGHIZE YOU. IT" 

2140 PRIHT "FIRES A PHASOR WEAPON AT YOU!" 

2150 GOTO 2980 

2160 REM *««««««««»««««»»«»«»«»»««»»»«|<»«»»><«»»««1<««»«»«»««»»«« 

2170 REM x* PROCESS GET OR TAKE COMMAND 

2180 REM »««««««»«»»«««««»«»««»««»»»«)i«»¥»»»iii<««iiii»«««»««« 

2190 GOSUB 4590 

2200 IF I>0 THEN 2260 

2210 IF I<0 THEN 2240 

2220 PRINT "I DON'T RECOGNIZE "; STR(B«.J«1 > ; "." 

2230 GOTO 1040 

2240 PRINT "WHAT ITEM?" 

2250 GOTO 1040 

2260 IF OdIOP THEH 2370 

2270 IF C>3 THEH 2390 

2280 IF 1=5 THEN 2410 

2290 IF 1=10 THEH 2430 

2300 IF 1=11 THEN 2460 

2310 IF 1=14 THEN 2490 

2320 LET C=C*1 

2330 0(11=99 

2340 IF 1=3 THEN LET F0=1 

2350 PRINT "O.K." 

2360 GOTO 1040 

2370 PRINT "THERE IS NO "1 STR(BS , JM ) ; " HERE!" 

2380 GOTO 1040 

2390 PRIHT "YOU CANT CARRY ANY MORE!" 

2400 GOTO 1040 

2410 PRINT "YOU CAN T CARRY A ROBOT!" 

2420 GOTO 1040 

2430 PRINT "YOU CANT GET THE MESSAGE. IT'S" 

2440 PRIHT "ON THE TERMINAL SCREEN." 

2450 GOTO 1040 

2460 IF 0(141=99 THEN 2520 

2470 0(111=99 

2480 GOTO 2320 

2490 IF 0(111=99 THEN 2520 

2500 0(141=99 

2510 GOTO 2320 

2520 PRINT "YOU CAN'T HAVE MORE THAN ONE" 

2530 PRINT "POUER SUPPLY." 

2540 GOTO 1040 

2550 REM «««»«»»«»««««««»»«»«»»»««i<i<»««li««»»»»»»»»»««i>«««»««««« 

2560 REM II PROCESS DROP OR LEAVE COMMAND 

2570 REM MMMMHKMttMMMMHMMMMMMHMNKMMMHMHHMMMMMMIfMMMMMHMMNHMMIIMMMM 

2580 GOSUB 4590 

2590 IF I>0 THEN 2620 

2600 IF KD THEH 2240 

2610 GOTO 2220 

2620 IF 0(11099 THEH 2690 

2630 LET C=C-1 

2640 0(I1=P 

2650 IF 1=3 THEN LET F0=0 

2660 IF 1=11 THEN 2710 

2670 IF 1=14 THEN 2710 

2680 GOTO 2350 

2690 PRINT "YOU DON'T HAVE "; STR(Bt,J«l); "!" 

2700 GOTO 1040 

2710 IF P<22 THEN 2870 

2720 IF P=38 THEN 2870 

2730 IF F9=l THEN 2870 

2740 GOTO 2350 

2750 REM «»«»«««««»»»«»«««»»«»«l<«»»«««»»i'«»»»»«««*««»»«>>««»«i<»« 

2760 REM «« PROCESS INVEHTORY COMMAND 

2770 REM «««»»««««««»««»««»»»««»»««»««»«««««»«>i««»»»«»»«»«»»»»« 

2780 FOR 1=1 TO 14 

2790 IF 0(1)099 THEH 2820 

2800 GOSUB 4410 

2810 PRIHT "YOU HAVE "; B«; "." 

2820 HEXT I 

2830 GOTO 1040 

2840 REM ««•«««»»««»«»»««««««»»«««««««»«»«»»««»■»■«»««»«»»»««»« 

2850 REM II PROGRAM TERMINATION PROCESSING 

2860 REM HMMMMHMMMHHMMMMMMKMMKMHHHMHMHMMMMMHMHHHMMMMKMMMMMMIIHMM 



148 



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CIRCLE 137 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Survival, continued 




2870 PRINT "YOU HAVE NO POWER OR POWER PACK." 

2880 PRINT "YOU HAVE FROZEN TO DEATH." 

2890 GOTO 2980 

2900 PRINT "OXYGEN REQUIRED HERE. NONE AVAILABLE." 

2910 GOTO 2980 

2920 PRINT "A NUCLEAR DETONATION HAS JUST OCCURRED." 

2930 GOTO 2980 

2940 PRINT "YOU HAVE FALLEH TO YOUR DEATH." 

2950 GOTO 2980 

2952 PRIHT "YOU HAVE BEEH ZAPPED BY THE LASER." 

2954 GOTO 2980 

2960 PRIHT "THE MOON BASE HAS JUST BEEN DESTROYED" 

2970 PRIHT "BY A LARGE ASTEROID." 

2980 PRINT "YOU HAVE FAILED TO SURVIVE." 

2990 PRIHT "DO YOU WISH TO TRY AGAIH?" 

5000 INPUT DO 

3010 IF DS="Y" THEN 320 

3020 GOTO 6200 

3030 REM ********************************************************* 

3040 REM «« PROCESS METEOR SHOWER 

3050 REM »«»«»««»«k«»««»«»«»«»ki<««»»«i'»*««««»«''«««««»»««««»»««««»» 

3060 IF M(P,IX>13 THEN 1230 

3070 IF F2=l THEH 1230 

3080 PRIHT "THERE IS A METEOR SHOWER. YOUR SPACE" 

3090 PRINT "SUIT HAS DEVELOPED A LEAK!" 

3100 GOSUB 4890 

3110 IF I<>2 THEH 2980 

3120 PRIHT "YOUR SUIT IS NOW SEALED." 

3130 LET F2 = l 

3140 GOTO 1230 

3150 REM ««»«««»«««»»«««»»«»»«»«»««««»««»«««»»«««»«i<««««*««««»«««« 

3160 REM M PROCESS LOCKED SHED 

3170 REM ««»»«*»«»«»«»«»»«»»»«»•«»«»••««"«««"«»»•»«»««««»»««»«»»«« 

3180 IF M(P.I><>22 THEH 1230 

3190 IF Fl = l THEN 1230 

3200 PRINT "THE SHED IS LOCKED!" 

3210 GOSUB 4890 

3220 IF KM THEH 3260 

3230 PRINT "YOU ARE IN THE SHED AIR LOCK." 

3240 LET Fl=l 

3250 GOTO 1230 

3260 PRIHT "YOUR ATTEMPT FAILS." 

3270 GOTO 1040 

3280 REM »»»»»»«»»» »««■•«««««««»«»»»««««»»»»««««««»««»«««»««««»»»« 

3290 REM ■■ PROCESS DARK VEHTILATOR SHAFT 

3300 REM ««»»»«»»»»«.«««««»»««««««««»««>i»«»«»«««»«««»«««»«»»*««»«» 

3310 IF M<P.I)<>23 THEN 1230 

3320 IF F4=l THEH 1230 

3330 PRINT "IT IS DANGEROUS TO PROCEED IN THE DARK!" 

3340 GOSUB 4890 

3350 IF I<>4 THEH 2940 

3360 PRIHT "THE SHAFT IS HOW ILLUMINATED." 

3370 LET F4=l 

3380 GOTO 1230 

3390 REM •»««««««»«««««*«»»«'•««»»•»#»»«««««««»»««««««»«»»«»««««»»« 

3400 REM «» PROCESS SHAFT WITH NO ILLUMINATOR 

3410 REM »»««»«»»««»»»»h«««»ii«ii>(»«»«««»«««i«««»»«»«««»»««««»««««»«« 

3420 IF 0(4)099 THEN 2940 

3430 GOTO 1230 

3440 REM ********************************************************* 

3450 REM «« PROCESS LASER BEAM 

3460 REM »»»««««»««««*«««»»«»»»»»«»«*««••»••"•»••■»•-••"■•••••••-- 

3470 IF M(P,I)<>37 THEH 1230 

3480 IF F3=l THEH 1230 

3490 PRINT "THERE IS A LASER BEAM HERE. PASSAGE NOT" 

3500 PRINT "POSSIBLE WITH BEAM PRESEHT." 

3510 GOSUB 4890 

3520 IF I<>12 THEH 2952 

3530 PRIHT "THE BEAM IS NOW DEFLECTED." 

3540 LET F3 = l 

3550 GOTO 1230 

3560 REM ******************************************»********•*•"* 

3570 REM »« PROCESS BLOWN SEAL IN SPACE STATION 

3580 REM ********************************************************* 

3590 IF R<>29 THEH 850 

3600 IF F9M THEH 850 

3610 LET F9=l 

3620 PRIHT "YOU HAVE JUST BLOWN AIR SEAL IN" 

3630 PRINT "SPACE STATION." 

3640 GOTO 850 

3650 REM »»«»«««»«ii»««»«««»««»«««»«««»»««««««»«»»i<«»«««»««»i«««»««« 

3660 REM ** POWER REQUIRED TESTING 

36 7 REM «*»«««»««»»««««««k»«»««i<»«««««!I«k»»»»«««»»««»«»»»««»»«»»» 

3680 IF P<22 THEN 2870 

3690 IF MM THEH 2870 

3700 GOTO 730 

3710 REM «««»«»•••..•...•••••.••••.•..•■■«•«»■«»«»««»«««»«««»»«»»« 



3720 REM «« EXPOSE DEACTIVATOR 

3730 REM .«««««»««««««. *********** « 

3740 IF F5=l THEH 760 

3750 LET 0(6)=14 

3760 LET M(2,8)=M(2,7) 

3770 LET N(14.8)=M(14,7> 

3780 LET M(14.4)=2 

3790 LET F5=l 

3800 GOTO 760 

3810 REM ****»*************•'"•••"■••••■••'■•••■••••■■■•■■•■■••• 

3820 REM «» DETONATE BOMB 

3830 REM «««»»««»»«»««««•««»»»««««««»»»»»«««•«««•»»««»•»««»«»«»••» 

3840 IF F7=0 THEN 2920 
3850 GOTO 760 

3860 REM ««»»««««li«li«i<««««««««««»««l<»««««»«»«»««"«««««» ««»«»» 

3870 REM «» DEACTIVATE BOMB 

3880 REM MHKMMMMMMKMMMKHMMMMMMHMMMMHMMMiiMHMMMMMMOMMMOMMMHMMK » 

3890 IF 0(6)<>99 THEH 3940 

3900 IF 0(7)099 THEH 3980 

3910 LET F7=l 

3920 PRIHT "BOMB IS HOW DEACTIVATED." 

3930 GOTO 1040 

3940 PRINT "YOU HAVE NOTHIHG TO DO IT WITH!" 

3950 GOTO 1040 

3960 PRIHT "THERE IS HOTHIHG TO DO IT TO!" 

3970 GOTO 1040 

3980 PRIHT "YOU CAH'T DO IT FROM HERE!" 

3990 GOTO 1040 

40 00 REM »«««»«««>i««i<«»««««i««««»««««««»«»««««««»««»««««»«»««»»»»»» 

4010 REM ** FUEL ROCKET 

4 020 REM *****************************•*"•*••••••••••■•'•••••■■■• 

4030 IF P<>19 THEH 3980 

4040 IF 0(9)099 THEN 3940 

4050 LET 0(9)=98 

4060 PRINT "FUEL IS NOW LOADED." 

4070 GOTO 1040 

4080 REM MMMMMMMMMKHMMMMMMMH »«««««»«« »««««««»)<«««»«««««« «««» 

4090 REM »« BLASTOFF PROCESSING 

4100 REM ******* ****,****»**,**,,,**,,******•***••••••••••■• 

4110 IF P<>21 THEH 3980 

4120 IF 0(9)098 THEN 4200 

4130 IF F7=l THEH 4160 

4140 PRIHT "REPAIRS HOT YET COMPLETE." 

4150 GOTO 1040 

4160 PRINT "CONGRATULATIOHS. YOU HAVE JUST BLASTED" 

4170 PRIHT "OFF AHD ARE OH YOUR WAY TO EARTH." 

4180 PRIHT "YOUR ESCAPE TIME:"; Tl; "MINUTES." 

4190 GOTO 2990 

4200 PRIHT "YOU'RE SPACE CRAFT HAS NO FUEL!" 

4210 GOTO 1040 

4220 REM «»««»««*««•«««««»><»»«<'«««««««»»«»««•«■»•«»''"'«"*•••••••••• 

4230 REM M COMPUTER READOUT PROCESSIHG 

4240 REM «»»»«««>i««»«««i<i<«»»««««»««««»»»««"-- - "--"'"---""--- - 

4250 IF P<>35 THEN 3980 

4260 GOSUB 4590 

4270 IF IO10 THEN 3960 

4280 IF VOO THEH 4320 

4290 PRIHT "BOMB DE-ACTIVATOR LOCATED SOMEWHERE EAST" 

4300 PRINT "OF SPACE STATION. ON MOON'S SURFACE." 

4310 GOTO 4360 

4320 IF Vol THEH 4350 

4330 PRIHT "LOCAL FUEL SOURCE: DILITHIUM CRYSTAL." 

4340 GOTO 4360 

4350 PRIHT "DILITHIUM FOUND IH SOFT SURFACES." 

4360 IF F7=l THEN PRIHT "SPACECRAFT REPAIRS COMPLETED." 

4370 GOTO 1040 

4 380 REM «««»«»«» ************************************************* 



4390 
4400 
4410 
4420 
4430 
4440 
4450 
4460 
4470 
4480 
4490 
4500 
4510 
4520 
4530 
4540 
4550 
4560 
4570 
4580 
4590 
4600 



REM 
REM ««« 
IF 1= 1 
IF I 
IF I 



IF 1 = 

IF 1 = 

IF 1 = 

IF 1 = 

IF 1 = 

IF 1 = 



IF 1= 1 
IF 1= 1 
RETURN 
REM «»« 
REM »« 
REM ««» 
FOR JM 
IF <TR( 



SUBROUT 
******* 

THEH L 

THEH 

THEH 

THEN 

THEH 

THEN 

THEH 

THEN 

THEN 

THEH 

1 THEH 

2 THEH 

3 THEN 

4 THEN 



INE TO DESCRIBE ITEMS AT LOCATION 

ET BS="AN ELECTRONIC KEY" 

ET BS="SEALANT" 

ET B«="AH OXYGEN MODULE" 

ET B*="AN ILLUMINATOR" 

ET B«="A ROBOT" 

ET B«="A DEACTIVATOR" 

ET B« = "A NUCLEAR BOMB" 

ET B»»"A TRANSPORTER UNIT" 

ET B»="DILITHIUM CRYSTALS" 

LET B*="A COMPUTER MESSAGE" 

LET B»="A POWER UHIT" 

LET B»="A MIRROR" 

LET !•«■« CODED BADGE" 

LET B*="A POWER PACK" 



«»««««««H)<>l»««l<»«ll«««l<««««»«lll<ll«»»««««««»««««««»«»«««» 

SUBROUTIHE TO COKVERT AH ITEM TO A HUMERIC VALUE 

«»»|(K»««I<«»«««»««»««1I«««»I>»«»»«»«»««»»»«««»»««»«««»'»» 

TO LEN(BS) 
B*.J.1>=" " THEH 4640 



150 



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C. 




EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80* • ATARI* • APPLE* • PET* • 

•IRS-M k i t u dtraark i.l the Ratio Stuck Ditiuon o( Tjndy Corp. - 'ATARI k i tradmurk ol AUrl Inc. - 'Apple k j trtdenurli o< Apple Corp. ■ -Prt it i Irtrfrnurk o( Commodore 

BUSINESS PAC 100 

100 Ready-To-Run 
Business Programs 




-»hin 24-Hou»* 
« A» Sr*" """EST ^.™»l« "" *i_| 



(ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE).„..lncludes 110 Page Users Manual 5 Cassettes (Or Diskettes) 

Inventory Control Payroll. — Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations. 

Checkbook Maintenance.....Accounts Receivable.. ...Accounts Payable..... 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM LIST 



1 RULE78 


2 ANNU1 


3 DATE 


4 DAYYEAR 


5 LEASEIMT 


6 BREAKEVN 


7 DEPRSL 


8 DEPRSY 


9 DEPRDB 


10 DEPRDDB 


11 TAXDEP 


12 CHECK2 


13 CHECKBK1 


14 MORTGAGE/ A 


15 MULTMON 


16 SALVAGE 


17 RRVAR1N 


18 RRCONST 


19 EFFECT 


20 FVAL 


21 PVAL 


22 LOANPAY 


23 REGWTTH 


24 SIMPDISK 


25 DATEVAL 


26 ANNUDEF 


27 MARKUP 


28 STNKFUND 


29 BONDVAL 


30 DEPLETE 


31 BLACKSH 


32 STOCVAL1 


33 WARVAL 


34 BOMDVAL2 


35 EPSEST 


36 BETAALPH 


37 SHARPE1 


MOPTWRfTE 


39 RTVAL 


40 EXPVAL 


41 BAYES 


42 VALPWNF 


43 VALADfNF 


44 UTUTY 


45 SIMPLEX 


46 TRAMS 


47 EOQ 


48 QUEUE 1 


49 CVP 


50 CONDPROF 


51 OPTLOSS 


52 FQ0OQ 


NAME 


53 FQEOWSH 


54 FQEOQPB 


55 OUEUECB 


56 NCFANAL 


57 PROF1ND 


58 CAP1 


JANUARY 1982 



Interest Apportionment by Rule of the 78 s 

Annuity computation program 

Time betwee n dates 

Day of year a particular date falls on 

Merest rate on lease 

Breakeven analysis 

Straightine depreciation 

Sum of the digits depreciation 

Declining balance depreciation 

Double declining balance depreciation 

Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

Prints NEBS checks along with daily register 

Checkbook maintenance program 

Mortgage amortization table 

Computes time needed for money to double, triple. 

Determines salvage value of an investment 

Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

Effective interest rate of a loan 

Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

Present value of a future amount 

Amount of payment on a loan 

Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

Simple discount analysis 

Equivalent & nonequivalent dated values for obbg. 

Present value of deferred annuities 

% Markup analysis for items 

Sinking fund amortization program 

Value of a bond 

Depletion analysis 

Black Scholes options analysis 

Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

Value of a warrant 

Value of a bond 

Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

Portfolio selection model ie what stocks to hold 

Option writing computations 

Value of a right 

Expected value analysis 

Bayesian decisions 

Value of perfect information 

Value of additional information 

Derives utility function 

Linear programming solution by simplex method 

Transportation method tor linear programming 

Economic order quantity inventory model 

Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

Cost volume-profit analysis 

Conditional profit tables 

Opportunity loss tables 

Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

61 DISCBAL True rate on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 F1NRAT Financial ratios for a firm 

64 NPV Net present value of project 

65 PRfMDLAS Laspeyres price index 

66 PRINDPA Paasche price Index 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 TTMETR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 T1MEMOV Time series analysis moving average trend 

70 FUPRNF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 MALPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system links with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABELl Shipping label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 BCJSBUD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 T1MECLCK Computes weeks total hours from timeclock info 

78 ACCTPAY In memory accounts payable system storage permitted 

79 INVOICE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 INVENT2 In memory inventory control system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 TIMUSAN Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitrage computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZONE Fmds UPS zones from zip code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope including return address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 INSrTLE Insurance poecy fife 

94 PAYROLL2 ri memory payrol system 

95 DILANAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase price for rental property 

98 SALELEAS Sale-leaseback analysis 

99 RRCONVBD Investor's rate of return on convertible bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



As above but with shortages permitted 

As above but with quantity price b r e a k s 

Cost-benefit waiting line analysis 

Net cash-flow analysis for simple investment 

Profitability index of a project 

Cap. Asset Pr. Model analysis of project 



D CASSETTE VERSION S99.95 

O DISKETTE VERSION $99.95 

D TRS-80* MODEL D VERSION 9149.95 



Jvevv 



toll. 



?* D ER 



ADO $2.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
ADD $3.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $4.00 OUTSIDE U.S.A. CANADA & MEXICO 

•CQMPLITnQMCSi 



^ofj-'we 



MAnaMTCAi A#VUL«rc?« SC«*>CS ' 



SO N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




HOUR 
O A ORDER 
^ LINE 




(914) 



425-1535 



151 



jrvival, continue 



4610 
4620 
4630 
4640 
4650 
4660 
4670 
4680 
4690 
4700 
47J0 
4720 
47J0 
4740 
4750 
4760 
4770 
4780 
4790 
4800 
4810 
4820 
4850 
4840 
4850 
4860 
4870 
4880 
4890 
4900 
4910 
4920 
4910 
4940 
4950 
4960 
4970 
4980 
4990 
5000 
5010 
5020 
5050 
5040 
5050 
5060 
5070 
5080 
5090 
5100 
5110 
5120 
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5140 
5150 
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5230 
5240 
5250 
5260 
5270 
5280 
5290 
5300 
5310 
5320 
5330 
5340 
5350 
5360 
5370 
5380 
5390 
5400 
5410 
5420 
5430 
5440 
5450 
5460 
5470 
5480 



THEN 


LET 


1 = 1 


THEN 


LET 


1=1 


THEH 


LET 


1=2 


THEN 


LET 


1=3 


THEN 


LET 


1=3 


THEN 


LET 


1=4 


THEH 


LET 


1=5 


THEH 


LET 


1=6 


THEH 


LET 


1=7 


THEH 


LET 


1=7 


THEN 


LET 


1=8 


THEH 


LET 


1=9 


THEH 


LET 


1=9 


THEN 


LET 


1 = 10 


THEN 


LET 


1 = 10 


THEN 


LET 


1 = 11 


THEN 


LET 


1 = 12 


THEH 


LET 


1 = 13 


THEN 


LET 


1 = 14 



NEXT J 

RETURN <4fi> 

LET C$=S$»(B*.J«1.3> 

LET 1=0 

IF C»='ELE' 

IF C«='KEY' 

IF C«='SEA' 

IF C$='OXY' 

IF C»='M0D' 

IF CS='ILL' 

IF C»='ROB' 

IF C«='DEA' 

IF C*='NUC' 

IF CS='BOM' 

IF C$='TRA' 

IF CS='DIL' 

IF CS='CRY' 

IF C»='COM' 

IF C$='MES' 

IF C«='UNI' 

IF C«='MIR' 

IF CS='BAO' 

IF CS = 'PAC 

RETURH 

REM n«««««i<m<««««««««»«««»««il»«ii«»«ll«»««««««»ll»»««ii««««««««»ii« 

REM «> SUBROUTIHE TO PROCESS TRY COMMAND 

REM »««««««««««««l<»»»»«»i(»«»»l<«»«»»«l<«««»»«»»«««li«««»»«««»«««« 

IHPUT B» 

LET CS = BS 

IF C«="TRY" 

IF C»=-USE" 

I=-l 

RETURH 

OOSUB 4590 

IF Kl THEN 5050 

IF 0(I)=99 THEH RETURN 

PRIHT "YOU DON'T HAVE "; STR(B«,J*1>; "!" 

GOTO 4930 

PRIHT "YOU'RE ATTEMPT FAILS!" 

GOTO 4930 

REM «»«»««»«»»«««««««««««««««M«««»«»««»«l<»«»«li«««»««««««»»»»«» 

REM «« PRINT INSTRUCTIONS 

REM HHHMMMHMMMHHHHHHMHMMHHMMHHMMMHHHMMMMMHKIiHNKMMHMMNMMMMMKMHM 

PRINT "YOU HAVE CRASH LANDED OH THE " 

PRINT "EARTH'S MOOH. YOU HAVE LIMITED" 

PRINT "SUPPLIES AND TIME IN WHICH TO " 

PRINT "SURVIVE. TO TRAVEL, YOU MAY " 

PRINT "ENTER DIRECTIVES SUCH AS NORTH" 

PRINT "OR N. AS WELL AS S, E, U AND " 

PRIHT "U. AND D (UP AND DOWN). YOU " 

PRINT "WILL ENCOUNTER VARIOUS ITEMS " 

PRINT "AND SITUATIONS DURING YOUR " 

PRINT "TRAVELS. TO COMMUNICATE, EHTER" 

PRINT "COMMANDS (VERBS). FOLLOWED BY " 

PRINT "OBJECT HAMES, IF APPLICABLE. " 

"FOR EXAMPLE, GET XXX, LEAVE, " 

"USE, AHD INVENTORY." 



THEN 4950 
THEH 4950 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



ONCE YOU HAVE SURVIVED, THE " 

OBJECT THEH IS TO ACHIEVE THE " 
PRIHT "OPTIMUM SURVIVAL TIME. GOOD " 
PRINT "LUCK!!!" 
RETURN 

REM IIHMMHMMMMMHMMHMNMMMHMMMKMMMHNMHHMMMMHMMMKHNMIIMMNMMMIfNMKIIMH 
REM «« TEXT LOCATION DESCRIPTIONS 

REM ********************************************************** 
DATA "AT MARE SERENITATIS . " 
DATA "ON RIM OF POSIDONIUS." 
DATA "TOTAL DARKNESS TO E." 
DATA "TWIXT DAWES ( PLINIUS." 
DATA "AT PASS IH HAEMUS MTHS." 
DATA "AT CRATER MAHILUS." 
DATA "AT MARE VAPORUM." 
DATA "AT MT. EUDOXUS." 
DATA "INSIDE ARISTOTELES." 
DATA "IH CHANGING AREA." 
DATA "IH LACUS SOMHIORUM." 
DATA "AT LACUS MORTIS." 
DATA "THE SURFACE IS VERY SOFT HERE." 
DATA "AT E. SIDE OF MARE IMBRIUM." 
DATA "AT THE BASE OF PLATO CRATER. A" 
DATA "SHIHY OBJECT IS SEEN W." 
DATA "BEFORE A METAL SHED. A" 
DATA "SIGN READS VENT. SHAFT 12." 
DATA "E. OF HARE SERENITATIS." 
DATA "THERE IS TOTAL DARKNESS." 
DATA "AT CRASH SITE OF A SPACE CRAFT." 



5490 

5500 

5510 

5520 

5530 

5540 

5550 

5560 

5570 

5580 

5590 

5600 

5610 

5620 

5630 

5640 

5650 

5660 

5670 

5680 

5690 

5700 

5710 

5720 

5730 

5740 

5750 

5760 

5770 

5780 

5790 

5800 

5810 

5820 

5830 

5840 

5850 

5860 

5870 

5880 

5890 

5900 

5910 

5920 

5930 

5940 

5950 

5960 

5970 

5980 

5990 

6000 

6010 

6020 

6030 

6040 

6050 

6060 

6070 

6080 

6090 

6100 

6110 

6120 

6130 

6140 

6150 

6160 

6170 

6180 

6190 

6200 



DATA "THE SHIP EHTRAHCE IS BEFORE YOU." 

DATA "AT THE CEHTER OF MARE IMBRIUM." 

DATA "IH THE AIR LOCK CHAMBER OF THE SHIP." 

DATA "IH THE AFT CARGO AHD FUEL STORAGE ROOM." 

DATA "IN THE ENGINE ROOM OF THE SPACECRAFT." 

DATA "IN THE SHIP'S CONTROL ROOM." 

DATA "IN AN AIR LOCK CHAMBER." 

DATA "INSIDE A VEHTILLATOR SHED. A LADDER" 

DATA "LEADS DOWH IHTO A LARGE METAL SHAFT." 

DATA "IH A VEHTILLATOR PASSAGE." 

DATA "AT A VENTILLATOR OPENIHG. THROUGH THE" 

DATA "OPENING A LIT PASSAGEWAY CAN BE SEEN." 

DATA "IN A LIGHTED SPACE STATION CORRIDOR." 

DATA "IN THE SPACE STATIOH IHFIRMARY." 

DATA "IH THE RECREATIOH ROOM AHD LIBRARY." 

DATA "IH THE MESS HALL. ABAHDOHED FOOD TRAYS" 

DATA "ARE STILL ON THE TABLES." 

DATA "IN THE STORAGE ROOM AND SUPPLY AREA." 

DATA "IN THE SLEEPIHG QUARTERS." 

DATA "IN AN ELEVATOR AT SUBSURFACE LEVEL." 

DATA "IN AN ELEVATOR AT SURFACE LEVEL." 

DATA "IN THE STATIOH CONTROL CENTER." 

DATA "IH THE TRAHSPORTER ROOM." 

DATA "IH THE SPACE STATION LABORATORY." 

DATA "IN THE HANGAR AREA. THE LAUHCH AREA" 

DATA "IS JUST SOUTH OF HERE." 

REM «« 

REM »« MOVEMENT AND TEXT POINTER MATRIX 

REM K* 

04, 02, 15, 00, 00. 01, 01 
03. 14, 01. 00, 00, 02. 03 

05, 14, 04, 00, 00, 04, 04 
05, 03. 00, 00, 00. 05, 05 
00. 03, 06. 00, 00. 06. 06 

00, 05. 00. 00, 00, 07, 07 

01, 09. 11. 00, 00, 08, OS 
07, 10. 00. 00, 00, 09. 09 

02, 14. 07, 00, 00. 11. 11 
09, 14, 08. 00. 00. 12. 13 

15. 07. 16. 00. 00, 14, 14 
11. 00. 13, 00, 00, 15, 16 

16, 12. 22. 00, 00, 17, 18 
99, 99, 99, 00, 00, 19, 20 

18, 01. 00, 00. 00. 21, 22 

16, 07. 16. 00. 00. 23. 23 

17, 11, 17, 00, 00, 23. 23 

19. 00. 00. 00. 00. 24. 24 
00, 20, 00, 00. 00, 25, 25 
00, 00, 19, 21, 00. 26, 26 
00, 00, 00, 00, 20, 27, 27 
00, 13, 00, 00, 23, 29, 30 
00, 00, 00. 22. 00. 31. 31 
23, 00, 00, 00. 00. 32, 33 

26, 33, 32, 24, 00, 34, 34 
00. 30. 31, 00, 00. 34, 34 
25, 41, 00, 00, 00. 34, 34 
29. 42, 36, 00. 00. 34, 34 

38, 40, 37. 00. 00. 34. 34 
00. 00, 26, 00, 00. 35, 35 
00, 26. 00. 00, 00, 36, 36 
00, 25, 00, 00, 00. 37. 38 
00. 00. 25. 00, 00, 40, 40 

27, 00, 00, 00, 00, 39. 39 

28, 00. 00. 24. 00. 43. 43 
00, 28. 00. 00. 00. 44. 44 
00. 29, 00, 00, 00, 45, 45 
00, 39. 00. 00. 00, 46, 47 
00, 00, 38, 00, 00, 28, 28 

39, 00, 29, 00, 00, 10, 10 
00, 00, 27. 42, 00. 41, 41 
00, 00, 28, 00, 41, 42, 42 



DATA 07, 
DATA 09. 
DATA 02. 
DATA 01, 
DATA 04, 
DATA 00, 
DATA 08. 
DATA 00. 
DATA 10. 
DATA 00, 
DATA 12, 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00. 
DATA 99. 
DATA 11, 
DATA 17, 
DATA 16, 
DATA 15. 
DATA 18. 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 24, 
DATA 25, 
DATA 27, 
DATA 25, 
DATA 34. 
DATA 00. 
DATA 28. 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00. 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00. 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00. 
DATA 29. 
DATA 40, 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00, 
DATA 00, 
END 



00. 
00, 
00, 



152 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Listing 2. Option for Shortened Text. 



5250 REM ii««i<«kii»)<»«««»«i<i<«i(»««»«i<i(«««««»mi<««««)(»ii«k«m«. ........... 

52*0 REM «« TEXT LOCATION DESCRIPTIONS - SHORTENED FORM 

5270 REM ««««««»«»««>i«»i<««»»»««««»««»««««»«««»«i<i<m««i<i<«««««««i<««««« 

5280 DAT* -AT MARE SERENITATIS. " 

5290 DATA "ON Rill OF POSIDONIUS." 

5300 DATA "TOTAL DARKNESS TO E." 

5310 DATA "TUIXT DAUES t PLINIUS." 

5320 DATA "AT PASS IN HAEMUS MTNS." 

5330 DATA "AT CRATER MANUUS." 

5340 DATA "AT MARE VAPORUM." 

5350 DATA "AT MT . EUD0XUS." 

5360 DATA "INSIDE ARISTOTELES. " 

5370 DATA "IN CHANGING AREA." 

5380 DATA "IN LACUS SOMNIORUM." 

5390 DATA "AT LACUS MORTIS." 

5400 DATA "THE SURFACE IS VERY SOFT HERE." 

5410 DATA "AT E. SIDE OF MARE IMBRIUM." 

5420 DATA "AT THE BASE OF PLATO CRATER. A" 

5430 DATA "SHIHY OBJECT IS SEEN U." 

5440 DATA "BEFORE A METAL SHED. A" 

5450 DATA "SIGN READS VENT. SHAFT 12." 

5460 DATA "E. OF MARE SERENITATIS." 

5470 DATA "THERE IS TOTAL DARKNESS." 

5480 DATA "AT CRASH SITE OF A SPACE CRAFT." 

5490 DATA "THE SHIP ENTRANCE IS BEFORE YOU." 

5500 DATA "AT THE CENTER OF HARE IMBRIUM." 

5510 DATA "IN THE AIR LOCK CHAMBER OF THE SHIP." 

5520 DATA "IN THE AFT CARGO AND FUEL STORAGE ROOM." 

5530 DATA "IH THE ENGINE ROOM OF THE SPACECRAFT." 

5540 DATA "IN THE SHIP'S CONTROL ROOM." 

5550 DATA "IN AN AIR LOCK CHAMBER." 

5560 DATA "INSIDE A VENTILLATOR SHED. A LADDER" 

5570 DATA "LEADS DOWN INTO A LARGE METAL SHAFT." 

5580 DATA "IN A VENTILLATOR PASSAGE." 

5590 DATA "AT A VENTILLATOR OPENING. THROUGH THE" 

5600 DATA "OPENING A LIT PASSAGEWAY CAN BE SEEN." 

5610 DATA "IN A LIGHTED SPACE STATION CORRIDOR." 

5620 DATA "IN THE SPACE STATION INFIRMARY." 

5630 DATA "IN THE RECREATION ROOM AND LIBRARY." 

5640 DATA "IN THE MESS HALL. ABAHDONED FOOD TRAYS" 

5650 DATA "ARE STILL ON THE TABLES." 

5660 DATA "IH THE STORAGE ROOM AHD SUPPLY AREA." 

5670 DATA "IN THE SLEEPING QUARTERS." 

5680 DATA "IN AN ELEVATOR AT SUBSURFACE LEVEL." 

5690 DATA "IN AN ELEVATOR AT SURFACE LEVEL." 

5700 DATA "IN THE STATION CONTROL CENTER." 

5710 DATA "IN THE TRANSPORTER ROOM." 

5720 DATA "IN THE SPACE STATION LABORATORY." 

5730 DATA "IN THE HAHGAR AREA. THE LAUNCH AREA" 

5740 DATA "IS JUST SOUTH OF HERE." 

5750 REM «* 

5760 REM »» MOVEMENT AND TEXT POINTER MATRIX FOR SHORTENED TEXT 

5770 REM «» 

5780 DATA 07. 04. 02. IS, 00, 00, 01. 01 

5790 DATA 09, 03, 14, 01, 00. 00, 02. 03 




5800 


DATA 


02. 


05, 


14, 


04. 


00, 


00 


04. 


04 


5810 


DATA 


01, 


05, 


03, 


00. 


00, 


00, 


05. 


05 


5820 


DATA 


04, 


00, 


03, 


06. 


00, 


00, 


06. 


06 


5830 


OATA 


00, 


00, 


05, 


00. 


00, 


00. 


07. 


07 


5840 


DATA 


08, 


01. 


09, 


11. 


00, 


00. 


08. 


08 


5850 


DATA 


00, 


07, 


10, 


00, 


00, 


00. 


09, 


09 


5860 


DATA 


10. 


02, 


14. 


07. 


00, 


00. 


11, 


11 


5870 


DATA 


00. 


09. 


14. 


08. 


00, 


00. 


12, 


13 


5880 


DATA 


12, 


15. 


07, 


16, 


00, 


00, 


14, 


14 


5890 


DATA 


00. 


11. 


00, 


13, 


00. 


00. 


15, 


16 


S400 


DATA 


00. 


16, 


12. 


22, 


00, 


00, 


17, 


18 


5910 


DATA 


99, 


99, 


99, 


99. 


00, 


00, 


19, 


20 


5920 


DATA 


11, 


18. 


01, 


00. 


00. 


00, 


21. 


22 


5930 


DATA 


17, 


16. 


07, 


16. 


00, 


00. 


23. 


23 


5940 


DATA 


16, 


17, 


11. 


17, 


00. 


00. 


23. 


23 


5950 


DATA 


15, 


19, 


00. 


00, 


00, 


00, 


24, 


24 


5960 


DATA 


18, 


00. 


20. 


00, 


00. 


00. 


25, 


25 


5970 


DATA 


00, 


00, 


00, 


19, 


21. 


00. 


26, 


26 


5980 


DATA 


00, 


00. 


00. 


00. 


00, 


20. 


27, 


27 


5990 


DATA 


00, 


00. 


13. 


00, 


00, 


23, 


29, 


30 


6000 


DATA 


24, 


00. 


00. 


00, 


22, 


00, 


31, 


31 


6010 


DATA 


25, 


23. 


00, 


00, 


00. 


00, 


32, 


33 


6020 


DATA 


27, 


26. 


33, 


32, 


24. 


00, 


34, 


34 


6030 


DATA 


25, 


00. 


30, 


31. 


00. 


00. 


34, 


34 


6040 


DATA 


34, 


25, 


41, 


00. 


00. 


00, 


34, 


34 


6050 


DATA 


00, 


29, 


42, 


36. 


00, 


00, 


34, 


34 


6060 


DATA 


28, 


38, 


40, 


37, 


00, 


00. 


34, 


34 


6070 


DATA 


00. 


00. 


00, 


26, 


00, 


00. 


35, 


35 


6080 


DATA 


00. 


00. 


26, 


00, 


00, 


00. 


36, 


36 


6090 


DATA 


00. 


00. 


25, 


00, 


00. 


00. 


37. 


38 


6100 


DATA 


00. 


00. 


00. 


25, 


00, 


00. 


40. 


40 


6110 


DATA 


00. 


27. 


00. 


00, 


00, 


00, 


39. 


39 


6120 


DATA 


00. 


28. 


00, 


00. 


24, 


00, 


43. 


43 


6130 


DATA 


00. 


00, 


28. 


00. 


00. 


00. 


44. 


44 


6140 


DATA 


00. 


00, 


29, 


00. 


00, 


00, 


45, 


45 


6150 


DATA 


29, 


00, 


39. 


00. 


00, 


00, 


46, 


47 


6160 


DATA 


40. 


00, 


00. 


38. 


00. 


00. 


28, 


28 


6170 


DATA 


00, 


39, 


00, 


29, 


00, 


00. 


10, 


10 


6180 


DATA 


00, 


00, 


00, 


27. 


42, 


00. 


41, 


41 


6190 


DATA 


00, 


00. 


00, 


28. 


00, 


41. 


42, 


42 



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LIST permits listings and uses TAB. WIDTH. LINES and WRAP for 
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"W" and "R" switches plus an "E" switch for query on existing files, 
STAT with ambiguous, unambiguous and exclusive listings and produ- 
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space used and unused. START-END allows for copying contiguous 
data files, and RENAME as usual plus ambiguous renames. Other 
commands include: QT. DATE. TIME and SETIT (for the QT clock 
board) plus CLEAR. RESET. HELP and TYPE. Disk copies can even be 
continued after a disk full condition by simply inserting a new disk. All 
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CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1982 



153 



How to Solve It - With the Computer 



The Second Annual 
International Computer 
Problem Solving Contest 



Donald T. Piele 



It is time once again to extend an invitation to schools 
throughout the United States and around the world to participate 
in the Annual International Computer Problem Solving Contest 
sponsored by the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. This contest 
is a team competition for elementary and secondary school 
students that emphasizes the role of problem solving in computer 
programming. 

It is a timed competition that challenges each team to solve 
five problems within a two hour time limit. The results are 
judged locally at each school or contest site with the aid of a 
set of sample solutions that we provide. Each program must 
run correctly using the test data supplied in the problem to 
receive any points. The local contest results that are returned 
to us will be analyzed further to determine a world wide 
ranking of the top ten teams. 

The contest problems are available free of charge to any 
school or organization that sends in an application before 
March 27, 1982. The date of this year's contest has been set 
for Saturday, April 17, 1982. Here is how you can get 
involved. 

Registration 

To become a local contest site, a school or organization 
should complete the application form shown here. Each local 
contest should have a contest director and a contest duplicator. 
The contest director is the person responsible for organizing 
and running the local contest. The contest duplicator is the 
one responsible for making the required number of copies of 
the problems for the local contest. This person should be 
someone who is not involved in the teaching or coaching of 
students entered in the contest. 

About three weeks before April 17— the day of the contest— 
we mail one copy of the contest problems. Other than the 
contest duplicator, no one may see the problems before April 
17. On the day of the contest, they are to be delivered to the 
contest director who may share them with the judges before 
the contest begins. 

All applications should be accompanied by a large (9x12 
inch) envelope addressed to the contest duplicator. If the 

Donald T. Piele. Department of Mathematics, The University ol Wisconiit- 
Parkside. Kenosha. Wl 53141. 



entry is from a school or organization inside the United 
States, please include four 20-cent stamps. We will provide 
the postage for entries from outside the United States. Send 
to: 

Dr. D.T. Piele 

The University of Wisconsin-Parkside 

P.O. Box 2000 

Kenosha. WI 53141 

Previous Contest Problems 

This is the sixth year that we have held a local contest and 
the second year for the international event. As a result, we 
now have six Junior and six Senior contest problem sets that 
we have used. Since this is the first year for the Elementary 
Division, we do not have any problems at this level. For those 
who would like to see what kinds of problems have been used 
before, the problem sets for the last three contests can be 
found in Creative Computing (Sept. 1979, p. 152-153; Feb. 
1981, p. 86-92; Oct. 1981. p. 140-148). If you would like to 
receive the complete set of all twelve problem sets, please 
send a self-addressed 9x1 2 envelope with four 20-cent stamps. 



John Rompel- 

Junior Division 

Winner. 

Piedmont Middle 

School. 

Piedmont. CA. 




I 



! 



154 



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CIRCLE 171 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






How to Solve it, continued. 

The University of Wisconsin - Parkside 
Second Annual International Computer Problem Solving Contest 

April 17, 1982 
RULES 



Divisions: 



Senior SR: Grades 

Junior JR: Grades 

Elementary EL: Grades 



10-12 
7-9 
4-6 



(age < 18) 
<ase < 15) 
<age < 12) 



All students should be classified by grade or grade equivalent. 
The ages are listed to help assist schools outside North America 
establish equivalents. 



Team Size: A team consists of one, tw< 



or three students. 



Computer System: Any computer system or computer language may be 
used; however, each team may use only one input device 
(keyboard/terminal). A printer must be available for listing the 
programs and the sample runs. 



Each team has exactly two hours to write five 
save them to disk or tape. After the two hour- 
team is allowed time to list their programs .and 
the printer. No changes in any program are a VI owed 
except those changes in the PRINT or INPUT 

statements that may be necessary to get a hard copy. 15 minutes 

should be plenty of time for this Job. 



Time Limits: 

programs and 
period, each 
sample runs to 
at this time 



Grading Procedure: It is the responsibility of each local 
director to arrange for grading of the local contest. Sample 
solutions will be provided. Each program may be awarded 20 
points. These points are broken down as follows: 

1) 15 points for each program that runs correctly. 
No partial credit is possible here. 

20 If it runs correctly, then 1 to 5 additional 
points mav be given for design and ease of reading. 
No points are given if the program does not run 
correct 1 y. 

General: No outside help is allowed during the contest, including 
books, programs, or students not on the team. However, questions 
concerning the operation of the computer system or terminals, mav 
be answered by the those conducting the contest. Any language 
reference book or pocket guide of commands and statements is also 
allowed. Time may be taken before the contest to familiarize the 
contestants with the computer system. Standard programming 
languages inherent to the processor of the computer should be 
used. 



156 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



University of Wisconsin - Parkside 
Second Annual International Computer Problem Solving Contest 

April 17, 1982 
REGISTRATION FORM 



Instructions! 



Please fill out the enclosed form and mail it 



along with ; 1) a large 9x12 envelope addressed to the Contest 
Duplicator. Please affix four lS-cent stamps if you are mailing from 
within the United States; 2) a postcard addressed to the Contest 
Director if you wish to have Your registration confirmed. 



1. School or Organization 



2. Address 



Cit- 



State, Zip (USA) 



4. City, Country (non-USA) _. 



5. Contest Director 



6. Contest Duplicator 



Ph 



Ph 



7. Contest Problems requested for EL) JR) SR) divisions, 



We expect t 



o g i ve 



th- 



■ntest to approximately ELi 



._JR, 



and SR teams, 



As contest duplicator, I agree to keep the contest problems 



and 



the sample solutions sent to me. confidential until April 17 when 
I will turn them over to the contest director. I am not involved 
in any way in the preparation of student teams for the contest. 



Contest Duplicator's signature 

As contest director, I have read the rules of the contest 
and agree to follow them. I realize that I am responsible for 
conducting the local contest, having the results graded or 
ranked, and returning a completed Results Sheet supplied with the 
probl ems. 



Contest Director's signature 



JANUARY 1982 



157 



Sourcebook 
off Ideas 

Many mathematics ideas can be better illustrated 
with a computer than with a text book. 




ki Mathematics: 

A! 

Edited by D.vh) ► 




Grcjtiw Computing Pkm 



Consider Baseball cards. If there are 50 
cards in a set. how many packs of bubble 
gum must be purchased to obtain a complete 
set of players? Many students will guess 
over 1 million packs yet on average it's only 
329 

The formula to solve this problem is not 
easy. The computer simulation is. Yet you 
as a teacher probably don't have time to 
devise programs to illustrate concepts like 
this. 

Between grades 1 and 1 2 there are 1 42 
mathematical concepts in which the com- 
puter can play an important role. Things 
like arithmetic practice. X-Y coordinates, 
proving geometic theorems, probability, 
compounding and computation of pi by 
inscribed polygons. 

Endorsed by NCTM 

The National Council of Teachers of 
Mathematics has strongly endorsed the use 
of computers in the classroom. Unfortunately 
most textbooks have not yet responded to 
this endorsement and do not include pro- 
grams or computer teaching techniques. 
You probably don t have the time to develop 
all these ideas either. What to do? 

For the past six years. Creative Computing 
magazine has been running two or three 
articles per issue written by math teachers. 
These are classroom proven, tested ideas 
complete with flowcharts, programs and 
sample runs 

Teachers have been ordering back issues 
with those applications for years However. 



many of these issues are now sold out or in 
very short supply. 

So we took the most popular 1 34 articles 
and applications and reprinted them in a 
giant 224-page book called Computers in 
Mathematics: A Sourcebook of Ideas. 

Ready-to-use-material 

This book contains pragmatic, ready to 
use, classroom tested ideas on everything 
from simply binary counting to advanced 
techniques like multiple regression analysis 
and differential equations. 

The book includes many activities that 
don't require a computer. And if you re 
considering expanding your computer 
facilities, you II find a section on how to 
select a computer complete with an invalu- 
able microcomputer comparison chart. 

Another section presents over 250 
problems, puzzles, and programming ideas, 
more than are found in most "problem collec- 
tion" books. 

Computers in Mathematics: A Sourcebook 
of Ideas is edited by David Ahl. one of the 
pioneers in computer education and the 
founder of Creative Computing. 

The book is not cheap. It costs $15.95. 
However if you were to order just half of the 
back issues from which articles were drawn, 
they would cost you over $30. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed 

If you are teaching mathematics in any 
grade between 1 and 12, we're convinced 
you'll find this book of tremendous value. If. 
after receiving it and using it for 30 days 
you do not agree, you may return it for a full 
refund plus your return postage. 

To order, send your check for $15.95 
plus $ 1 .00 postage and handling to Creative 
Computing Press. Morris Plains, NJ 07950. 
Visa. MasterCard, and American Express 
orders may be called in toll-free to 800- 
631-8112 (in NJ 201-540-0445) School 
purchase orders should add an additional 
$1 .00 billing fee for a total of $ 1 7.95. 

Don't put it off. Order this valuable source- 
book today. 

creative 
GompafciRg 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




158 



The world is full 

of intriguing problems 

that never got into 

a textbook. 



Problems for Computer Solution 

by Stephen Rogowski 

Ninety intriguing and fascinating prob- 
lems, each thoroughly discussed and ref- 
erenced, make an excellent source of 
exercises in research and preliminary 
investigation. Eleven types of problems 
are provided in the following areas: arith- 
metic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, 
number theory, probability, statistics, cal- 
culus and science. Author Stephen 
Rogowski of SUNY-Albany has included 
several problems which have never been 
solved. He feels that some research and 
an attempt to solve these will sharpen 
students insight and awareness 

Some of the problems are not new like 
the one asking how much the $24 the 
Indians were paid for Manhattan would be 
worth today had it been deposited in a 
bank However, this problem was revised 
to have a variable interest rate so it would 
be a challenge to program. Of course, 
many of the problems are new and have 
never been in print before 

The student edition has 106 pages and 
includes all 90 problems (with variations). 
7 appendices and a complete bibliog- 
raphy Cost is $4 95 

The 182-page teacher edition contains 
solutions to the problems, each with a 
complete listing in Basic, sample runs, and 
in-depth analyses explaining the 
algorithms and theory involved. Cost is 
$995 

To get one or both books send payment 
plus $2 00 shipping and handling per 
order to Creative Computing Credit card 
orders may be called in toll-free to the 
number below 

Order yours today If you are not com- 
pletely satisfied, return it for a full refund 
plus your return postage 

creative 
computing 

Morns Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

^ CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD y 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



How to Solve it, continued. 



<t_l >^|iy 


ml 1 



77ie traveling trophies awarded to the winning Junior and 
Senior Division teams. The school and team member names 
are engraved on each trophy. 



My Mailbox 

One of the truly pleasant experiences associated with con- 
ducting the International Programming Contest last year was 
reading the letters that I received from several of the high 
ranking teams. Any thoughts that I may have subconsciously 
harbored that tended to classify exceptional computer pro- 
grammers as keyboard junkies with tunnel vision were com- 
pletely dispelled. Here are two letters that I received that told 
me much about the kinds of young students around the world 
who are being challenged by computers. 

Dear Mr. Piele. 

Thank you for your letter of congratulations regarding my 
ranking of "third" in the Junior Division of the First International 
Computer Problem Solving Contest. 

This spring I also received a gold medal at the Long Island 
Math Fair (level 14) and placed first in the Junior Computer 
Division of the Long Island Science Congress. 

Although I am only a 10th grader in high school, I have 
spent hundreds of hours at my computer mastering computer 
programming. Only through working at odd jobs have I been 
able to buy my present system which consists of a 16K 
Commodore computer, a tractor feed printer, sound box and 
cassette deck. 

Through experimentation. I was able to use my computer 
to control a robot I constructed by myself. In the future I 
plan to program EPROM chips and sell computer software. 

In school, I conducted informal classes in computer pro- 
gramming for the faculty as well as the students. 

My biggest problem with my computer research is financing 
my experimentation. I would like to know where to write for 
funds or some type of grant to help me continue my research 
into the field of computers. 

Thank you for your time and trouble. 

Craig Cohen 

78 Frankel Blvd. 

Merrick, Long Island 11566 



Dear Dr. Piele, 

I am writing to you on behalf of Karen Eller, Peter Fraser 
and myself acknowledging the congratulations you sent to us 
on achieving second placing in the senior division of the First 
International Computer Problem Solving Contest sponsored 
by your University. 

All three of us were thrilled with the news. 

Early last month after receiving the news of our success, 
our school prganized a special assembly at which two repre- 
sentatives of Hewlett Packard presented each of us with an 
HP 41C programmable calculator. In addition, the nine students 
from our other three teams which participated in the contest, 
received an encouragement award in the form of a book 
presented by the Regional Director of Education. The assembly 
was televised by our local TV station and excerpts were 
shown on the evening news. 

At present we are all very busy preparing our entries for a 
State Science Talent Search. Greg Parrent, Nigel Edwards 
and myself have entered a computer-driven solar tracker. 
Mark McConnel has done a project on "Velocity Tolerance 
of a Bar-Code Scanner." and Debbie Eller is working on a 
Computer Simulation of Mendel's Experiments. 

With the end of our academic year drawing ever-closer, 
Karen Eller and Peter Fraser, who are two academic years 
ahead of me, are very busy preparing for their final examina- 
tions. 

Thank you once again for your congratulations, and in 
particular thank you for the opportunity given to us to participate 
in the contest. 

Bruce M. Edwards 

Terang High School 

P.O. Box 124 

Terang, Victoria 3264 

Australia 

Solutions To Last Month's Problems 

Six problems were presented last month that dealt with the 
generation and study of prime and related numbers. The 
problems were called; Prime Factorization, Prime Numbers, 
The Sieve of Eratosthenes, Random Primes, and Lucky 
Numbers. Following is a set of solutions. (Page 61) 

Program Remarks 

Last month. I invited interested readers to find their fastest 
Basic algorithm for generating the prime numbers between 2 
and 1000. The Super Fast Sieve of Eratosthenes listed below 
is our best effort. The time that it takes this program to 
generate the 168 prime numbers between 2 and 1000 and 
print them out on the screen was recorded for a variety of 
microcomputers. 



Microcomputer 

TRS-80 Level II 

Atari 

TRS-80 Color Computer 

PET/CBM 

Apple II (Applesoft) 

North Star Horizon 

Microsoft Basic on N.S. 



Time ( Seconds ) 

11 
10 
10 
9 
8 
5 
5 



Can anyone do better? If so. send it along. I would like to 
share the news with others in a future article. 

Two other programs— Lucky Numbers and Random Primes- 
could stand a great deal of improvement. As written, they are 
very slow. There must be faster implementations of the sieve 
algorithm for generating Lucky and Random Prime 
Numbers. D 



JANUARY 1982 



159 



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CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




ANNOUNCING! 



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a 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



low to Solve it, continued.. 

Problem Solutions 



10 PRINT "PRIME FACTORIZATION" 

20 PRINT 

30 PRINT "This rrofru takes an integer N and factor* it 

4i.i PRINT "into its prime factors." 

50 PRINT 




70 

1 00 
110 

1 20 

1 X> : 
140 

1 60 

170 



INPUT "Enter an inteaer ";N 
PRINT N! "="! 

F-l 

F=F+1 

:■■ THEN F-F + l 
IF N/FOINT<N/F> THEN 100 

PRINT F! 

N^N/I 

IF N=l THEN END 

PRINT ">"; 



180 GOTO 

PRIME FACTORIZATION 

This program tales an integer N and factors it 
Into its prime factors. 

Er.t^r an inteier 
234 -2x3x3 

l-r.ttr an integer 30030 

3 x 5 x 7 x 11 x 13 

10 PRINT "PRIME NUMBERS - TRADITIONAL " 

20 PRINT 

30 PRINT "This program generates the prime numbers from " 

40 PRINT "2 to 1000 br checking each number for divisors using" 

50 PRINT "odd numbers." 

60 PRINT 

70 PRINT 2 i 

80 FOR P-3 TO 1000 STEP 2 

90 FOR 1-3 TO SOR(P) STEP 2 

1O0 X-P/I 

110 IF X=INT<X) THEN 140 

120 NEXT I 

130 PRINT P. 

140 NEXT P 

150 END 



'P-POSS1BLE PRIME 
'TEST FOR ODD DIVISORS 
UP TO SQUARE ROOT OF P. 



10 PRINT 

20 PRINT 

30 PRINT 

40 PRINT 

50 PRINT 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 END 



"PRIME NUMBERS - MODIFIED TRADITIONAL" 
"This program generates the prime numbers from" 
"2 to 1000 b. checking each number for divisors' 
"using the previous primes." 



DIM A<200) 

PRINT 2.3. 

M-21 A(2)-3 

FOR P-3 TO 1000 STEP 2 

FOR 1=2 TO M»(M<12)+12»( 1 
X-P/AC I ) 

IF X=INT(X) THEN 170 
NEXT I 
PRINT P. 
M=M+1 
A ( M > =P 
NEXT P 



'P=possible prime. 
'Test for prime 



'of 31 and last prim*. 



PRIME NUMBERS - MODIFIED TRADITIONAL 
This program generates the prime numbers from 
2 to 1000 bv checking each number for divisors 
using the previous primes. 



2 


3 


5 


7 


11 


13 


17 


19 


23 


29 


31 


37 


41 


43 


47 


53 


59 


61 


67 


71 


73 


79 


83 


89 


97 


101 


103 


107 


109 


113 


127 


131 


137 


139 


149 


151 


157 


163 


167 


173 


179 


181 


191 


193 


197 


199 


211 


223 


227 


229 


233 


239 


241 


251 


257 


263 


269 


271 


277 


281 


283 


293 


307 


311 


313 


317 


331 


337 


347 


349 


353 


359 


367 


373 


379 


36 3 


389 


397 


401 


409 


419 


421 


431 


433 


439 


443 


449 


457 


461 


463 


467 


479 


487 


491 


499 


303 


509 


521 


523 


541 


547 


557 


563 


569 


571 


577 


587 


593 


599 


601 


607 


613 


617 


619 


631 


641 


643 


647 


653 


659 


661 


673 


677 


683 


691 


701 


709 


719 


727 


733 


739 


743 


751 


757 


761 


769 


773 


787 


797 


909 


811 


821 


323 


827 


829 


839 


853 


857 


859 


863 


877 


881 


883 


887 


907 


^■'11 


919 


929 


937 


941 


947 


953 


967 


971 


977 


983 


991 


997 



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C/RCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Survival, continued. 



10 PRINT 
20 PRINT 
f-RINT 
40 PRINT 
50 PRINT 
60 
70 
80 

100 : 

110 

130 
140 
150 

160 
170 : 
1 60 
1 90 
200 
210 END 



"SIEVE OF ERATOSTHENES - STANDARD" 

"This program generates the prim* numbers between" 
"2 and 1000 bv using the Sieve of Eratosthenes." 



DIM X(IOOO) 
FOR 1=1 TO 1000 

X(I)=I 
NEXT I 

P=2 
PRINT P. 

IF P»P>1000 THEN 180 

FOR I=P»P TO 1000 STEP P 

X ( 1 ) -0 
NEXT I 



Initial ize an array 
with the numbers from 
'1 to 1000. 



'Sieve is complete. 
'Delete the multiples 
'of P. 



FOR J=P+1 TO 1000 

IF X(J)O0 THEN P=J I GOTO 120 
NEXT J 



'Print out primes. 



10 PRINT "SIEVE OF ERATOSTHENES - SUPER FAST" 

20 PRINT 

The pros-ram generates the prime numbers between 
2 and 1000 using a super fast Sieve Method." 



30 PRINT 

40 PRINT 

50 PRINT 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 END 



DIM NV.( 1000) 
PRINT 2. 

FOR P=3 TO 997 STEP 2 
IF NV.'P) THEN 150 
IF P>31 THEN 140 
FOR D=P»P TO 997 i 

N7.<D> = 1 
NEXT D 
PRINT P, 
NEXT P 



No initialization needed. 



TEP 2»P 

Delete multiples of P. 



10 PRINT 


"RANDOM PRIMES" 








20 PRINT 










30 PRINT 


"This program generates 


a set 


of 


Random Prime numbers" 


40 PRINT 


"between 1 and 1000." 








50 PRINT 










60 


DIM X(IOOO) 








70 


R-2 








80 


f>RINT R. 








90 


FOR 1=1 TO 1000 








100 


IF X(I)=1 THEN 130 






'Skip the ones deleted 


110 


X=INT(RND( 1 )*R) 






'Pick a random number. 


120 


IF X=0 THEN X<I)=1 






'Delete 1 out of R 


130 


NEXT I 






'on the average. 


140 : 










150 


FOR J-R+l TO 1000 






'Search for next 


160 


IF X(J)=0 THEN R=J 


! GOTO 


80 


'Random Prime. 


170 


NEXT J 








130 END 











RANDOM PRIMES 

This program generates a set of Random Prime numbers 
between 1 and 1000. 



2 


3 


10 


13 


15 


21 


23 


25 


27 


30 


31 


35 


51 


53 


62 


67 


71 


81 


84 


87 


88 


102 


103 


113 


121 


133 


139 


146 


149 


150 


155 


157 


165 


170 


177 


185 


190 


192 


199 


202 


213 


223 


224 


227 


238 


240 


253 


267 


278 


283 


292 


304 


307 


312 


327 


341 


352 


355 


361 


364 


381 


385 


391 


392 


393 


401 


422 


425 


430 


437 


439 


448 


450 


456 


462 


463 


464 


465 


469 


470 


475 


476 


487 


516 


521 


528 


536 


563 


57* 


579 


583 


598 


599 


601 


602 


608 


611 


633 


634 


635 


645 


646 


657 


660 


671 


679 


682 


692 


714 


719 


725 


726 


728 


729 


734 


739 


742 


745 


747 


753 


760 


766 


781 


789 


791 


806 


311 


814 


816 


832 


843 


851 


859 


864 


873 


874 


881 


891 


899 


901 


903 


905 


910 


922 


928 


932 


940 


947 


958 


979 


982 


983 


985 


991 


997 





162 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



10 PRINT "LUCKY NUMBERS " 

20 PRINT 

30 PRINT "This program »«ri«rat«» 

40 PRINT "I and 1000." 

45 PRINT 



th* Lucky Numbers between" 



50 




DIM X(IOOO) 




60 




PRINT 1. 




70 




L»3 




80 




PRINT L. 




90 




C=0 




100 




FOR 1=1 TO 1000 STEP 2 




110 




IF XII )=0 THEN OC+1 


'Count the terms and 


120 




IF C/L=INT(C/L) THEN X(I)»1 


delete every Lth one 


1 30 




NEXT I 




140 


: 






150 




FOR J»L+2 TO 1000 STEP 2 


Search for next 


160 




IF X(J)=0 THEN L=J : GOTO SO 


Lucky Number. 


170 




NEXT J 




t 90 


END 







LUCKY 


NUMBERS 






















This 


program senerat 


es th 


e Luc 


i . Numbers 


between 








1 and 


1000 


• 
























1 


3 


7 


9 


13 


15 


21 


25 


31 


33 


37 


43 




49 


51 


63 


67 


69 


73 


75 


79 


87 


93 


99 


105 




111 


115 


127 


129 


133 


135 


141 


151 


159 


163 


169 


171 




139 


193 


195 


201 


205 


211 


219 


223 


231 


238 


237 


241 




259 


261 


267 


273 


283 


285 


289 


297 


303 


307 


319 


321. 




327 


331 


339 


349 


357 


361 


367 


385 


391 


393 


399 


409 




415 


421 


427 


429 


433 


451 


463 


475 


477 


483 


487 


489 




495 


511 


517 


519 




535 


537 


541 


553 


559 


577 


579 




583 


591 


601 


613 


615 


619 


621 


631 


639 


643 


645 


651 




655 


673 


679 


685 


693 


699 


717 


723 


727 


729 


735 


739 




741 


745 


769 


777 


781 


7S7 


801 


805 


819 


823 


331 


841 




S55 


867 


873 


883 


B8S 


895 


397 


903 


925 


927 


931 


933 




937 


957 


96 1 


978 


979 


931 


991 


993 


997 









PublishpT Perish? 

An exaggeration of course 1 Out your 
choice of a software publisher con 
maKe the difference between success 
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SFVA a subsidiary of IDM and a leading 
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CIRCLE 1140N READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



images...ibm images-ibm imagi 



Will Fastie 



In which Will reveals the mystical 
secrets of how. where, and why to buy 
your own... 



Welcome to my column. I'm glad to be 
here. 

I'm going to do my best to make this 
interesting reading every month. I'll try 
hard to give you quality as well as quantity, 
and III try to keep the information content 
high. Creative and I will welcome your 
comments, criticisms, and ideas. I'll also 
be looking for your help, in the form of 
information. For obvious reasons, I would 
like to learn anything you know or learn 
about the IBM Personal Computer and 
associated matters. I'm going to be most 
interested in software. I'll be hungry for 
the earliest possible news about product 
developments— vendors take note! 

About replies: this column is my forum, 
and I'll try to answer you here, sooner or 
later. If you really want a direct response 
from me, please send a stamped, self- 
addressed envelope along. I promise to 
do my best to reply, as my time permits. 
Writing this column only pays the computer 
bills— I have a real job too! 

Since this is an inaugural column, it is 
only appropriate that we deal with an 
inaugural subject. I'll tell you where and 
how to buy the IBM Personal Computer, 
and why you should (or shouldn't). "Bal- 
derdash," you say? "Why aren't we hearing 
some heavy technical junk?" you ask. Well, 
my friends, take a close look at Photo 1 . 
See the IBM Personal Computer sitting 
on the table next to my inaugural bottle 
of champagne? You don't? Well see, here's 
the thing. When I took the picture for 
this column there was no computer on 
that table. However, these is now, right 
this minute, even as you read. Isn't time 
travel wonderful? 



W. H. Fastie. 7110 Sheffield Rd.. Ballimore. MD 
21212. 




Down to Business 

The where and how of buying the 
Personal Computer are somewhat inter- 
related. "Where" is who sells them, and 
"how" is what kind of money they accept. 
We'll talk about "why" later. 

There are, at the moment, four ways 
you can buy the IBM Personal Computer. 
The first is through an IBM Product Center. 
The second is also from IBM, but through 
the Data Processing Division (DPD) if the 
quantity you require is sufficiently high. 
The third is in one of the new Sears 
Business Systems Centers. The last, but 
most likely for most of you, is in a 
Computerland store. 
164 



IBM Product Centers 

The odds are this won't work for you. 
It does for me because I happen to live in 
Baltimore, the location of one of only 
three Product Centers. The other two are 
located in Philadelphia and San Francisco. 
These stores are simply manufacturer's 
retail outlets, selling only products made 
by IBM. The stores carry office equipment, 
like the Selectric typewriters, and small 
systems. The systems sold before the 
Personal Computer were the IBM 5120 
and the DisplayWriter word processor. 
The "Datamaster" System 23 was intro- 
duced about the same time as the Personal 
Computer. 

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IBM, continued. 

These centers are standard retail stores. 
You walk in and, assuming you can pay, 
you walk out with your equipment. For 
all equipment, including the Personal 
Computer, you can pay cash, use a com- 
pany purchase order, or buy on the IBM 
installment plan. The installment plan is 
25% down, one point above prime for the 
interest rate, and up to 36 months to pay. 
The Product Centers will also accept 
American Express, Diners Club, Master- 
Card, and Visa credit cards. 

The Product Centers also carry supplies 
for the Personal Computer, including 
diskettes, printer ribbons, and printer paper. 
Repair service is available at all centers, 
as well as at service locations in Los 
Angeles, Seattle. Houston. Dallas. Boston. 
New York, Chicago, Detroit, and Wash- 
ington. The product centers will not carry 
replacement heads for the printer, but 
will be able to order them. I mention this 
because the Epson MX80 print head is 
user-replaceable. 

I'm sure it will come as no surprise to 
learn that IBM will sell the system at list 
price. No wheelin' and dealin' with IBM. 
folks. The standard price schedule is shown 
in Table 1. 



IBM DPD 

For customers of the Data Processing 
Division, or those wishing to purchase 
twenty or more systems, IBM will sell 
through a sub-organization within DPD. 
In essence, this means IBM will call on 
you to sell the machine, and that you can 
get a discount of from five to fifteen percent 
for quantities of from 20 to 150 units. The 
buyer must execute a one year Volume 
Purchase Agreement (VPA) with IBM and 
buy at least the minimum configuration, 
shown in Table 2. An Educational Allow- 
ance is available for qualifying educational 
institutions, provided that a VPA has been 
executed and that the allowance is greater 
than the VPA discount percentage. 

IBM Service 

When you buy your IBM Personal 
Computer, you get a 90-day warranty. A 
system which needs repair while under 
warranty must be delivered to one of IBM's 
designated service locations or IBM's 
National Support Center in Greencastle, 
IN. IBM's objective is to repair or replace 
the unit in one to two days, exclusive of 
shipping time. IBM will repair or replace 
at its option; the customer may request 
repair, but an additional fee is charged. 

After the warranty period you're on 
your own unless you purchase what I like 
to call computer life insurance. The IBM 
service agreement costs about 13% of the 
purchase price of the computer per year. 
The exact figures for each component 
are shown in Table 1. One advantage of 
the service agreement is that IBM will 
arrange to have the unit picked up for 
repair and will deliver a replacement unit 
to the customer. IBM's objective is to 



Table 1. IBM Personal Computer Price List. 

Component 

System Unit, Keyboard, 16K RAM 
16K RAM Expansion Kit 
32K RAM Expansion Board 
64K RAM Expansion Board 
Monochrome Display & Printer Adapter 
IBM Monochrome Display 
IBM 80 cps Matrix Printer 
Color/Graphics Monitor Adapter 
5 1/4" Diskette Drive Adapter 
5 1/4" Diskette Drive, 160K 
Asynchronous Communications Adapter 
Game Control Adapter 
Printer Cable 
Printer Stand 

Software 

IBM Personal Computer DOS 

IBM Personal Computer Pascal Compiler 

Asynchronous Communications Support 

VisiCalc 

EasyWriter 

Peachtree Software 

General Ledger 

Accounts Receivable 

Accounts Payable 
Microsoft Adventure 
Advanced Diagnostics Package 

Note: Maintenance price's shown are for the "Annual Option" and represent 
the cost of service for a 12 month period. A "Warranty Extension" option-is 
available at about 75% of the prices shown which extends the three month 
warranty to twelve months and which is only available in the first year of 
ownership. Service under either option is identical. 



Price 


Maintenance 


$1,265.00 


$112.00 


90.00 


8.00 


325.00 


40.50 


540.00 


122.00 


335.00 


20.00 


345.00 


66.50 


755.00 


179.00 


300.00 


41.00 


220.00 


6.00 


570.00 


62.00 


150.00 


8.00 


55.00 


1.50 


55.00 


- 


55.00 




$ 40.00 




300.00 




40.00 




200.00 




175.00 




595.00 




595.00 




595.00 




30.00 




155.00 





Table 2. Data Processing Division VPA Minimum Configuration. 


Component 


Price 


Maintenance 


System Unit, Keyboard, 16K RAM 


$1,265.00 


$112.00 


16K RAM Expansion Kit (2 each) 


180.00 


16.00 


Monochrome Display & Printer Adapter 


335.00 


20.00 


IBM Monochrome Display 


345.00 


66.50 


5 1/4" Diskette Adapter 


220.00 


6.00 


5 1/4" Diskette Drive, 160K 


570.00 


62.00 


Asynchronous Communications Adapter 


150.00 


8.00 


IBM Personal Computer DOS 
Total 


40.00 




$3,105.00 


$290.50 



deliver the replacement unit within 24 
hours of receipt of the malfunctioning 
unit. Upon customer request, IBM will 
repair the unit, their objective being one 
to two days for repair. Pickup and delivery 
service is available in the service areas 
mentioned previously, within a 30-mile 
radius. 166 



Customers outside the service radius 
can either carry their systems to the service 
location or ship them to the National 
Support Center. IBM's objective is to ship 
a replacement unit within 24 hours of 
receipt, or a repaired unit within two 
days. 

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CIRCLE 290 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Sears Business Systems Center. 



Personal Computers sent to IBM for 
repair must have all non-IBM "devices or 
features" removed. IBM wants the systems 
properly shipped, either in the original 
carton or an equivalent, and they will sell 
you replacement shipping containers for 
this purpose. 

If you elect not to buy a service agree- 
ment and your machine dies, you can 
obtain "time and materials" service, but 
only from the National Support Center. 
Labor, parts, and transportation will be 
billed. Now I know it's tempting to take a 
chance— $400 to $600 seems like a lot of 
money for "life insurance." Take my word 
for it — if your machine has any serious 
problems you could easily spend twice 
the bucks in T&M. 

Sears Business Systems Centers 

The odds are that this won't work for 
most of you either, since there are only 
Ave stores in existence so far. Sears opened 
its firstt wo Business Systems Centers this 
past October 7 in the Chicago suburbs of 
Arlington Heights and Villa Park, and 
followed them a week later with two more 
in Prestonwood and Caruth Shopping Mall 
in Dallas. The fifth store in Boston, was 
scheduled for mid to late November and 
should be open now. All five stores carry 
both Sears and national brands of computer 
systems, software, typewriters, word pro- 
cessors, printers, copiers, calculators, 
dictation and communications equipment, 
and supplies. The IBM Personal Computer 
is being sold along with the NEC PC- 
8000, Vector 2600 and 3005 systems, and 
the WangWriter 5503 word processor. 
Three Okidata dot matrix printers and 
two NEC Spinwriters are also available. 

Sears is orienting these stores directly 
toward the small business and professional 
markets. Even their appearance, as shown 
in Figure 2. suggests this. Systems may be 
paid for with cash, on a "Net 30" invoice, 
on up to a three year installment plan, or 
with the Sears Credit Card. (This last 
means Sears isn't completely ignoring the 
consumer market, even though Atari 



computers were recently dropped from 
the catalog and the retail stores.) Sears 
will also provide service, both under 
warranty and under their own maintenance 
programs. They intend to do this work 
themselves and not use IBM resources 
such as the National Support Center. 

Sears' pricing of the IBM Personal 
Computer is not available to me as I write 
this column. However, a Sears spokesman 
told me that they would not necessarily 
use the IBM price structure. I assume 
(hope?) this means that the individual stores 
are empowered to negotiate price, and 
not that Sears will charge more. 

The Sears Business Systems Centers 
are a test. If they are successful. Sears 
plans to open a network of them nation- 
wide. This is a very interesting possibility. 
Sears can bring several strengths to this 
new business. Its service network, although 
new to computer system repair, simply 
cannot be underestimated and is of enor- 
mous importance and value in today's 
more mature small business computer 
market. Nonetheless, Sears is the Johnny- 
come-lately in this business, and they have 
a tough, uphill battle, as you are about to 
see. 

Computerland 

The odds are that this will work for 
you! Computerland stores are individually 
owned and operated computer stores in a 
franchised network. The franchises are 
sold by Computerland Corporation of San 
Leandro, CA, which provides many services 
to its member stores. This network is very 
large. In October there were between 160 
and 170 stores in the United States and 
another 40 in foreign countries. Compu- 
terland Corporation expects to close 1981 
with 230 stores (15 openings per month!) 
and plans to add another 100 by the end 
of 1982. 

I talked with Marion Murphy, the VP 
of operations, whose excitement about 
Computerland is contagious even over 
the telephone. What I learned was very 
interesting. Computerland gives a great 
168 



deal of flexibility to the dealer while strongly 
influencing the overall style and strategy. 
Individual stores can do just about anything 
they please. They can carry whatever 
products they choose. They can refuse to 
carry products offered by the corporation. 
They are perfectly free to sell local third- 
party software. They can purchase outside 
Computerland Corporation. 

However, for an 8% cut of the gross 
store sales, the corporation provides 
advantages, the most important of which 
is that Computerland buys products in 
volume and ships them to the stores at 
cost. This gives each dealer the same 
leverage as the entire network! It also 
gives the dealers a breadth of product 
that they otherwise could not afford to 
offer. This breadth of product includes 
Apple, Atari, Commodore, Northstar, 
Cromemco. Dynabyte, Xerox, Wang- 
Writer, Vector Graphic, and now IBM. 
Most stores usually carry at least Apple. 
Atari, Xerox, and Vector Graphic. About 
the only thing a store owner is discouraged 
from doing is mail order business. 

Computerland stores accept cash, Mas- 
terCard, Visa, and American Express credit 
cards. Leasing programs are provided 
nationally and some stores have local 
leasing and financing arrangements. 

One thing the stores must do to retain 
their franchise is service what they sell, 
and they must provide this service at the 
store location. Typical turnaround is one 
day if the system is under service contract 
and two to three days if it is not. A 
"Passport" program has been put into effect 
that identifies the bearer as a customer of 
Computerland and allows the customer 
to obtain the same level and speed of 
service at any Computerland store. I asked 
if the repair time objectives were met, 
and was told that they were typically being 
exceeded, as many repairs involved either 
quick adjustment or component swapping. 
The IBM Personal Computer will be 
serviced by the stores, although dealers 
are not discouraged from telling customers 
about IBM as an alternate service source. 

Computerland has a central corporate 
program to certify new products, including 
software. A committee reviews suggestions 
from all sources, including stores. If a 
new product is approved by the committee, 
it is stocked and distributed to the stores 
from San Leandro. 1 think this is a very 
strong program because it means that 
cottage industry products, especially soft- 
ware, can percolate up to Computerland 
Corporation and out to a much broader 
audience than might otherwise be possible. 
This kind of thing can make a big difference 
during the early life of the IBM system. 

Supplies are certainly no problem for 
Computerland, but IBM diskettes and 
ribbons will be carried nonetheless. 

I learned some new things during my 
talk with Computerland. First, Computer- 
land Stores will be getting something called 
the "spare parts kit" from IBM. I got this 
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CIRCLE 149 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IBM, continued... 

information in answer to my question about 
stocking the Epson printer head for cus- 
tomer replacement. Computerland assumes 
the head will be part of this kit. although 
they couldn't say for sure. One thing is 
certain — they don't currently have the 
printer parts on hand because they don't 
sell Epson printers. (Sounds like heresy 
to me!) Computerland will also be selling 
an RF Modulator, which is needed to 
connect a standard TV set to the Color/ 
Graphics adapter. And here's the next 
thing I learned: they claim (they are quite 
sure) that the one they have been selling 
all along for the Apple will work on the 
IBM machine. 

There are some things that IBM does 
not offer that are needed by the consumer 
market. I had hoped Computerland would 
fill in this void with more than just the RF 
Modulator, but alas, no luck. They say 
they will have joysticks and paddles 
someday, as soon as they find a source. I 
didn't ask, but I'm sure the do have cassette 
recorders and cables. I'll keep you posted 
on developments in these areas and will 
publish the specifications for these devices 
as soon as I have them. 

Computerland declined to give me a 
pricing structure. What they said, however, 
was that each independent dealer estab- 
lishes his pricing and is able to negotiate. 
Careful now— I didn't say they would, 
just that they could. They could just as 
easily sell at list, firm. 

Where Should I Buy Mine? 

Now that you know who sells them, 
how do you decide how to choose your 
source? I think the answer is simple: you 
walk out of your home and go to your 
nearest computer store that sells the IBM 
Personal Computer. There is a 95% chance 
that it will be a Computerland Store. 

If you have a choice, choose the least 
expensive store after you have determined 
that the store is fit to service your system. 

Why Should 1 Buy One? 

There is only one reason to buy a small 
computer nowadays. It's a reason that 
was "discovered" when VisiCalc was first 
published. It's a reason that has been 
printed between these covers many, many 
times. You buy a computer because you 
have found a piece of software that has 
some value to you and that software just 
happens to run on the computer you are 
buying. 

Okay, so much for the sermon. Let's 
get serious about this. 

"Why Should 1 Buy One?" Asked the Small 
Businessman 

Please see above. Yep, that's right — the 
sermon was for you. If you want a computer 
system to help you in your business you 
had better know right up front what you 
expect it to do for you. You. more than 
most, must find the software you need 
and buy the machine to match it. If you 



can't find the software you need, one of 
two things is wrong: either what you need 
really isn't available "off-the-shelf," or you 
don't know what you need. The latter is 
more probable— go get yourself some help 
if you're still serious, but don V buy that 
computer yet\ 

If you read my evaluation of the IBM 
Personal Computer in last month's Creative. 
you know I think the machine is the cat's 
meow. But that doesn't mean a thing to 
you if you can't get the function you need 
out of it. Don't be seduced. Just think of 
$6,000 sitting on the shelf getting dusty. 
That six grand could mean a lot more to 
your business in other ways, maybe more 
than you should risk without knowing what 
your expected return will be. 



the hands of the worker. Just now, however, 
a single piece of software is focusing much 
attention on a particular segment of larger 
organizations: the accounting and financial 
departments. The software, of course, is 
VisiCalc. 

The IBM Personal Computer is kind of 
an ultimate VisiCalc machine. Its great 
memory capacity means that large, com- 
plex models can be constructed. I have a 
rule of thumb which says that the VisiCalc 
worksheet has about 10,000 cells on a 
machine with 192K of main memory. That's 
enough for all but the largest, most 
demanding applications. 

So VisiCalc, coupled with the fact that 
the IBM Personal Computer is easily 
integrated into the mainstream of data 
processing in most organizations, is the 
reason bigger businesses will buy. 

I'd like to interject one comment about 
the IBM Personal Computer version of 
VisiCalc. At the time of writing, VisiCalc 




Am I saying not to buy the IBM Personal 
Computer for small businesses? Not at 
all. If the general accounting software 
and VisiCalc will be useful, the capacities 
of the system suit your business, and the 
new way of doing things will be cost 
effective, I think it's a fine choice. But if 
you can't find useful software, look else- 
where. By the way. this situation will 
improve slowly as a body of software is 
developed for the machine. It takes a 
while— you may have to be very patient. 

"Why Should I Buy One?" Asked the Big 
Businessman 

The small business is usually after a 
general purpose computing system, one 
which can keep the books but also do 
other things. Larger businesses already 
have loads of equipment for those purposes. 
The trend now, and one which will have a 
lasting influence on the way we work, is 
the distribution of computing power into 
170 



still has the memory limitations I described 
in my evaluation article, which is to say 
that it does not use all available memory 
if more than 96K of memory is installed. I 
have not been able to learn when the new 
version will be available. Besides supporting 
extended memory, the new release will 
most likely be bug free and tuned, and 
may even incorporate a new feature or 
two. My advice: wait for it, or make sure 
you don't have to buy it all oveY again 
when the new release is made. 

"Why Should I Buy One?" Asked the 
Ordinary, Everyday Consumer 

We haven't yet reached the point at 
which the everyday consumer casually 
buys a computer. The question would be 
more appropriate if worded "Now that 
I've decided to buy a personal computer, 
which one should I get?" I can't answer 
that for you without knowing, in too much 
detail thank you. what you want to do 
with it. However, let me take a moment 
CREATIVE COMPUTING 



WVIWVU i»Wl IV 1/ 



Apple and turned instead to the IBM 
Personal Computer. 

I spent a considerable amount of time 
looking around at what was available in 
the market over the last year. I found 
myself frustrated because I couldn't find 
a single computer that gave me everything 
I wanted. Finally. I worked up a configur- 
ation of an Apple II that I thought would 
suit. My "ultimate Apple" priced out at 
over $12,000. or about $5,000 without the 
Corvus hard disk and the Malibu Dual 
Mode 200 printer. How did I come up 
with a $5,000 Apple? My big problem was 
my ground rule that the system support 
word processing, and I knew I could not 
settle for a display screen size of less than 
24 lines of 80 characters. On the other 
hand. I love computer games and I did 
not want to sacrifice spiffy graphics. So 
my Apple found itself full of Videx equip- 
ment to stretch the screen display and 
give the keyboard lower case letters. My 
second problem was some specific software 
I wanted that ran in CP/M. Enter, of 
course, the Microsoft Z80 Softcard. 

So why didn't I buy it? Well, if you can 
accept this, it just didn't feel right. I was 
losing the Apple II under a pile of "subor- 
dinate" equipment — Rube Goldberg had 
nothing on that system. I just couldn't 
bring myself to start buying toward that 
end. 



i iitiiiMuiiy . i tt.iN pui oui oi my misery 
by the IBM announcement. The reason 
the Personal Computer is my salvation is 
that everything I want is there, and it's 
integrated*. I don't have to sacrifice color 
graphics for a good text display, or vice 
versa. I don't have to adapt the machine 
to speak lower case. I won't have to worry 
about whether software will talk properly 
to this device or the other. And the best 
of all. I don't have to buy a huge configur- 
ation to get these things— they come in 
every configuration. 

Most of you probably know that love 
hurts. In the case of the IBM Personal 
Computer, it's worse than that, it's agony. 
There is virtually no software. No Raster 
Blaster or Invaders or Dancing Demon or 
Star Raiders. No checkbook program. No 
home finance system. No Air Traffic 
Controller. Yes, the list of software that's 
missing from this system is endless. That's 
the price you pay for being on the leading 
edge. You wait. 

I don't think we'll have to wait too 
long. I think the Personal Computer will 
sell relatively well in the home market for 
two reasons. The first is the name and 
image of IBM. There's a great deal of 
computer shock out there, and the com- 
pany whose name is virtually synonymous 
with the word "computer" is going to 
overcome some of that. A legendary 
reputation for reliability won't hurt either. 



i ne omer reason is mat tne iti.vi system 
holds up pretty well in a head-to-head 
comparison with the Apple II/II + . The 
IBM is more expensive, but you do get 
something for that extra money. 

IBM vs Apple II 

I came up with a quick comparison for 
my own purposes that I'd like to pass on. 
I've included the complete IBM price list 
in Table 1 so you can do your own 
configuration studies. 

What I considered was an Apple 11 + 
with 48K RAM against an IBM with 32K 
RAM and the Color/Graphics Adapter. 
The price of the Apple II is $1,530; the 
IBM is $1,655. Surprised? The reason I 
allowed the IBM to have less main memory 
is because the Color/Graphics adapter 
has 16K of RAM onboard for the display 
memory, while the Apple must sacrifice 
some of its program space for display 
memory. If the IBM is increased to 48K. 
its price rises to $1,745. For that $2 15 you 
get a better keyboard; upper and lower 
case; 24 by 80 display capability; a steel, 
rather than plastic, housing for the system; 
tremendous memory expandability; and 
more. To be completely fair, a $55 Game 
Control Adapter is required to allow 
connection of joysticks, or game paddles 
to the IBM. I won't bore you with my 
(obvious) conclusion. 

Thanks for reading. I'll see you next 
month. □ 



PLAIN TALK ABOUT "COPY PROTECTION' 



A lot lias been said and written about copy 
protection and software p ■ made 

Locksmith available to Apple II users cartel this 
year We have been accused of encouraging illegal 
copying oi copyrighted software. Software 
publishers have threatened lo boycott magazines 
which carry our advert ising, and the pros and c< ins i i 
Lot kstnitb <ind copy protection devices have been 
debated SI Apple forums throughout the country 
But we at Omega haven't really told you. the Apple 
ii side of the 

I ocksmith was oriajnally developed as an intellectual 

exert ise t-v, an Apple user OVCI .i year .ig< > And we 

suspect that sufficient information about the Apple 
DOS and the way information is stored on a disk has 
been long available to the general pubic, so tliat 
ANYONE who was REALLY interested, and who 
wished lo spend a LOT of time, could have written a 
program that does many of the things that 
Loc ks m it h does. Similarly, there is really DO "secret" 
to writing data base programs, adventure programs, 
en spread sheet programs. The literature is 
there il you want lo look for it. Bui H takes a lot of 
hard work to devek>p any software package that 
works in all CBSes, that is crashproof, lh.it intei 

eassy with .1 non-experienced computer user, and 
that is well documented A LOT of hard work 

But even before Locksmith was available to us. we, 
as Apple users, recognized a definite problem with 
the software we were buying and using. Much of it 
worked well. But it was very aggravating to not be 
able to make a backup copy of certain "copy 
protected" programs. Most software pubishers 
didn't supply backups of their programs, and those 
that had any policy required signing opressive 
agreements or paying questionably high yearly fees 
for presumed, but not guaranteed, updates. Among 
1 hose who did not offer back up was one who 'sold' 



us a new copy (when we returned our crashed disk). 
Although they advertised the importance <>l having 
their program running every day. they made us wait 
up to 6 weeks to get the replacement. Most vendors 
just ignored the problem We, .is consumers, were 
simply taken advantage of In many cases we relied 
so much on a particular program, that it becan 
costly to have to watt weeks or more to rt ; 
blown disk Software publishers were just not 
responsive lO the users problems caused by "copy 

protection". 

When we first became aware of Locksmith, we 
tigated the state of the law, and discovered that 
no one knew whether the owner of a program couM 
copy it for backup. And for quite a while we debated 
whether we should market Locksmith. 

On December 12. 1980. a change was made lo the 
Copyright Act which resolved these questions. It is 
now the law of the United States that the existeru eui 
a copyright notice on a computer program does 
NOT make it illegal for the legitimate owner of that 
program to copy it for arc -nival purposes. Backups 
are now clearly legal. (Of course, when you sell your 
purchased program, you must destroy the backups 
you have made). Only after such use clearly became 
legal did we decide to sell Locksmith. 

Now with the new copyright law, which for the first 
time gave software publishers clear rights that were 
enforceable in court, but which also gave "backup" 
rights to software purchasers, and with the 
demonstration that Locksmith could and would 
provide back-up for the user, we assumed that 
software publishers would drop their copy 
protection schemes and educate the public as to 
their rights and responsibilities. Even the use of 
hardware protection that gives copy-ability to the 
software would be acceptable. Unfortunately, their 

CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



response has been lo pressure magazine pub 

into refusing our advertising, and to invent new copy 

protect t< 

Well, the word about Locksmith was impossible to 
stop We couldn't advertise, but we have 
gratifymgly large number of pr o gr a ms. As to new 
copy protection schemes, th. ksmith 

(version 4.0) will adjust to them, and copy virtually 
anything protected that way But please f< M 
yourselves, and for t he entire indust ry . 1 ise 
Locksmith only for its intended k*gal purp< - 

The new version is more than just the best copy 
program a v ailabl e . There are also four additional 
utilities included. A disk speed prograi 
degauasser, a nibble editor and a media surface 
analyzer are included And we stand behind our 
products. Our customer servic e department is 
available (and anxious) to help with problems 

Locksmith 4.0 is available from us. or your local 
dealer Visa and Mastercard users 1 al Tol f 
800835 2246 Kansas residents call 1 800 362 2421 
or send $99.95 (Registered owners of prior w 
can obtain an update for only $20. If you haven't 
received a letter from us. please 1 all I 

Another Quality Product from 
Omega MicroWare, Inc. 

(formerly Onvj.1 Software 
Products. Inc.! 

222 So Riverside Plaza 
Chicago. IL 60606 
Phone 312 648 1944 



HW 



9 



« 1981 Omega MicroWare. lnt 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc 



JANUARY 1982 



171 



Harold Novick 



m...softw9pe legal fopum...si 



The comments and opinions of the 
author are given for education pur- 
poses only and are not meant to be 
legal advice. Specific legal questions 
should be referred to your personal 
attorney. 



Now that Midway Manufacturing Co. 
has literally shot down every infringer of 
its coin-operated game "Galaxian," just 
as a player shoots down the invading aliens, 
others in the field have joined the fracas 
to establish their own turf. For example. 
Atari. Inc. has announced their intentions 
to the trade, in general, and to numerous 
software dealers, software houses, and 
software producers, in particular, that they 
will take aim against all copiers of their 
copyrighted games. Their position has been 
further strengthened as a result of a recent 
court decision holding that duplication of 
a ROM storing a copyrighted computer 
program is a copyright infringement. 

As a quick update, in the October, 1981 
Software Legal Forum, there was a discus- 
sion of the attempts by Midway to protect 
its "Galaxian" game. Midway was con- 
fronted with no less than twenty copied 
variations of its game being imported into 
the United States. Midway filed an action 
in early 1980 before the International Trade 
Commission to stop these infringers. The 
action was based on common-law trade- 
mark infringement, passing off, imitation 
of trade dress, and false designation of 
origin. Five months later, on October 8, 
1980, the action was amended to add 
copyright infringement. After hearing 
arguments, the Commission issued its order 
on June 25, 1981 to exclude the "certain 
coin-operated audio-visual games, kits and 
components thereof which infringe Mid- 
way's) attract mode and the first few 
moments of the play mode before the 
player takes control of the game...." (In 
the Matter of Coin-Operated Audio- Visual 
Games and Components Thereof, United 
States International Trade Commission 
Investigation No. 337-TA-87). 

The "Galaxian" game has an "attract 
mode" and a "play mode." The attract 

Harold L Novick. Patent Attorney. Larson & Taylor. 
Arlinmon. VA 22202. 



mode is a short sequence of images 
designed to attract potential players to 
the game and to encourage them to play 
it. About one-third of the attract mode is 
a randomly selected, non-repeatable simu- 
lated game that ends with the destruction 
of the rocket base's defense ship. The 
play mode begins when a player inserts a 
coin into the game. When a coin is inserted 
and before the player's controls are acti- 
vated the screen is first blanked and then 
the top half is sequentially filled with an 
attacking array of aliens. As soon as the 
aliens are in position, the player can control 
the lateral movement of the defense ship 
and fire missiles at the array of stationary 
aliens or a group of aliens that peel off 
from the group and attack the defense 
ship. 

The interesting legal issues in the 
Galaxian case arise because Midway did 
not register any copyright claim to the 
computer program. Instead, it videotaped 
the attract mode with a particular one of 
the simulated games and videotaped an 
entire game played by a player. Midway 
then obtained registrations of its claims 
to copyrights on these "audio-visual works." 
The infringers probably never saw the 
copyrighted tapes, and some accused 
infringers wrote their own computer 
program and did not copy the Galaxian 
ROM. Thus, if an infringer never had 
access to the copyrighted work (the video 
tapes), how could there be an infringement? 
What did Midway copyright anyway? Also, 
if the player constitutes an active partici- 
pant in the play mode, the player may be 
a co-author of an original work resulting 
in the displayed audiovisual presentation. 
As a co-author, the player is not liable for 
infringement. The game manufacturer may 
also not be liable. 

The International Trade Commission 
only discussed some of these points in its 
decision. A crucial point, however, is that 
none of the respondents participated in 
the proceeding. All Midway had to do to 
win, which it did, was to prove its prima 
facie case. The ITC held that Midway 
made the dual requisite for copyright 
infringement of ownership of the copyright 
in question and copying by the respondents. 



Thus the Commission held there was 
copyright infringement. 

More specifically, the ITC found that 
Midway established ownership by showing 
that: 

1. Originality was in the author (Namco 
Ltd. of Japan); 

2. The subject matter was copyright- 
able; 

3. The author had the necessary citizen- 
ship so as to permit a claim of copyright: 

4. There was a compliance with the 
statutory formalities (application, fee, 
deposit of a copy); 

5. Midway was a valid copyright claimant 
as a result of a transfer of rights from the 
author. 

The only questionable contention under 
the ownership element of infringement 
appears to be copyrightability of the subject 
matter. By law (The Copyright Act of 
1976 S 410(c)), the certificate of registration 
constitutes a rebuttable presumption that 
the copyright is valid. There being no 
rebutting evidence, the ITC had to find 
that the subject matter was copyrightable. 
There is no argument so far. Disagreement 
enters, however, when one asks what is 
that subject matter? The certificates of 
copyright registration (one for the attract 
mode and one for the play mode) recite 
that the claim of copyright extends to all 
audiovisual or cinematographic works. This 
is not a computer program! This is not a 
computer video game! 

In any event, the Commission recognized 
the limitations in this proceeding because 
there was no defense. Thus they specifically 
said there were some significant issues 
that were left unresolved. These issues 
included: 

1. Whether an audiovisual work is an 
"original work of authorship" or whether 
it is derived from another original work. 

2. Whether the videotapes are a fixation 
of the original work of authorship or 
whether they are a "photograph" of a 
fixed copy of the original work. 

3. For purposes of determining the 
proper form of deposit and registration, 
whether the work was first published in 
Japan or the United States. 

The other half of the copyright infringe- 



172 



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Legal Forum, continued... 
ment proof is a showing that the copy- 
righted work was copied by the respon- 
dents. In the absence of direct evidence 
of copying (e.g. the respondents admit it. 
or someone testifies that they witnessed 
the copying), an inference of copying can 
be created by proving the respondents 
had access to the copyrighted work and 
there is a substantial similarity between 
the two works. Again, because the respon- 
dents did not respond, the ITC held that 
Midway had won because it had established 
inference. 

The ITC held that respondents had 
access because the game (not the video- 
tapes) had been displayed at two trade 
shows and had been available in the 
marketplace for some time. Then, in a 
non sequitur, the ITC held that the 
respondents "had access to the com- 
plainant's work." That holding seems to 
say that the game is copyrightable, which 
according to numerous court cases it 
cannot be. 

The element of "substantial similarity" 
was found because "the attract modes of 
each of the alleged infringing games except 
Moon Alien are almost identical to the 
attract mode of complainant's Galaxian 
game." The ITC applied the ordinary 
observer test used in fabric design copyright 
cases: "Would an ordinary observer, who 
is not attempting to discover disparities, 
be disposed to overlook them and regard 
their aesthetic appeal as the same?" The 
ITC also applied two. two step applications 
of the test. They said that 1) the respon- 
dents copied the work and that copying 
constituted appropriation; and 2) there 
was a substantial similarity between the 
"general ideas" of the two works and that 
similarity of general ideas constituted 
infringement upon analysis of the response 
of an ordinary reasonable person. 

With respect to the Moon Alien game, 
the ITC also held there was substantial 
copying, even though it has its own "original 



works of authorship which are apparently 
unique." However, the Moon Alien game 
had enough similar significant aspects so 
as to constitute the same aesthetic appeal 
when overlooking the disparities. These 
are as follows: 

1. The rolling star background: 

2. The shape and color of the aliens in 
the simulated game; 

3. The formation of the aliens in the 
simulated game and its placement on the 
display screen; 

4. The movement of the aliens both 
while in formation and while swooping 
down in attack: and 

5. The scoring table, including the 
manner in which it is brought into display 
on the screen, the wording contained, 
and the flashing score values. 

The second aspect of this Forum com- 
plements the Galaxian case: A judge in 
the Northern District of California held 
that the ROM's of plaintiff can be con- 
sidered copies of copyrighted computer 
programs. Therefore, when defendants 
duplicated the program and only changed 
some minor items that specifically identified 
the owner of the program, they infringed 
the copyright. (Tandy Corp. v. Personal 
Micro Computers, Inc., 546 PTCJ (9-17- 
81) A-4 (N.D. Calif. 1981)). The judge 
specifically disagreed with the Chicago 
judge in the Data Cash Systems case (the 
Compuchess case discussed in several 
earlier Software Legal Forums.) Specifi- 
cally, the judge said as follows: 

There is no dispute that the court is to 
initially look to the Copyright Act which 
was passed by Congress in 1976 and went 
into effect on January 1. 1978. Looking 
first to sections 101 and 102 of that Act, 
17 U.S.C. tt 101. S102, the court is 
convinced that under those provisions ( 1 ) 
a computer program is a "work of author- 
ship" subject to copyright, and (2) that a 
silicon chip is "tangible medium of expres- 



sion," within the meaning of the statute, 
such as to make a program fixed in that 
forum subject to the copyright laws. 

Section 117, as it existed in the 1976 
act |, 117 was amended in 1980, does not 
mandate a different result. Section 117| 
was not intended to provide a loophole 
by which someone could duplicate a 
computer program fixed on a silicon chip. 
It did not refer to the unauthorized 
duplication of a silicon chip upon which a 
properly copyrighted computer program 
is imprinted. ..| A |ny other interpretation 
would render the theoretical ability to 
copyright computer programs virtually 
meaningless. 

With these two decisions and the active 
litigating interest of other software game 
owners, it seems that all copiers of video 
games better beware. One can no longer 
view the play of one copyrighted video 
game, write his or her own program to 
closely copy the game, sell the computer 
program, and expect to get off scot-free. 
Although it is believed that the legal 
reasoning may be muddy or even incorrect, 
it is clear that the legal consequences will 
favor the game originator. 

P.S.: On October 16th, 1981, the Patent 
Trademark Office announced that it was 
accepting and granting patents on computer 
programs that were novel and unobvious 
according to the guidelines set down by 
the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals. 
These guidelines were discussed in earlier 
Software Legal Forums. Basically, the 
Patent and Trademark Office is applying 
the two-step test of In re Freeman as 
modified by the decision in In re Waller. 
The two-step test basically asks whether 
the computer program is merely solving a 
mathematical equation. Finally, the Patent 
and Trademark Office has given up its 
prior restrictive position. More about this 
in subsequent Forums. □ 



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CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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175 



CIRCLE 210 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




As the curtain goes up on the 36th 
performance of the TRS-80 Follies (where 
did those three years go so fast?), we see 
that most of the show is about graphics, 
starting with a program that creates a 
wandering pattern in both B&W and color, 
goes into a subroutine for storing graphics, 
shows how to create blank lines between 
program lines, reviews Sketch-80, and rings 
down the curtain with pretty patterns 
created by a four-way random-graphics 
shorty. 

Graphics: Wandering Pixel 

Although many of the graphics programs 
that create symmetrical patterns can be 
fascinatingly hypnotic, the patterns are 
usually predictable enough so that even- 
tually you may lose interest in them. 

Here's a simple program that lets a pixel 
(graphics-block picture element) wander 
completely at random, all over the screen, 
in Rorschach-like figures you may find 
even more hypnotic than regular pat- 
terns. 

100 CLS: REM — WANDERING PIXEL — 

110 X=RND(128>-1 

120 Y«RNDM8>-1 

130 SET(X.Y) 

140 A-RNOM) 

150 ON A GOTO 160.170.180.190 

160 X-X+U GOTO 200 

170 Y=Y+i: GOTO 200 

ieo x=x-i: goto 200 

190 Y-=Y-1 

200 IF X<0 THEN X-127: GOTO 130 
210 IF X-127 THEN X"0: GOTO 130 
220 IF Y<0 THEN Y = 57: GOTO 130 
230 IF Y>47 THEN Y=0t GOTO 130 
210 GOTO 130 



Stephen B. Gray 



Lines 160-190 can be made more efficient. 
Can you see how? 

To make this pattern four-way symme- 
trical, change or add the following lines: 



110 X»RND<64>-1 
120 Y=RND<2*>-1 

131 SET<X,47-Y> 

132 SET(127-X.Y) 

133 SET<127-Xt47-Y> 

200 IF X<0 "HEX X»63: GOTO 130 

210 IF X>63 THEN X»0: GOTO 130 

220 IF Y<0 THEN Y=23: GOTO 130 

230 IF Y>23 THEN Y-0t GOTO 130 

These programs are only a start. See if 
you can change them so they will: 

• Turn off any lighted pixel they meet up 
with; 

• Clear the screen after filling it fairly 
full, and start over; 

• Create a continuous path, without the 
wraparounds used here (lines 200-230); 

• Create a "wandering graphics character" 
program, using either the solid six-pixel 
block (code 191) or randomly selecting 
from among the 63 characters; 

• Start the pattern near the center of the 
graphics area, and/or confine it to a smaller 
area; 

• Change the randomness of the pattern 
by adding to the ON/GOTO section. 



This wandering-pixel program usually 
creates patterns that are predominantly 
in the center portion of the graphics area. 
For patterns that are often created around 
the periphery of the graphics area, change 
lines 200-230 to 

200 IF X<0 THEN X=X+128: GOTO 130 
210 IF X>127 THEN X=X-128: GOTO 130 
220 IF Y<0 THEN Y-Y-M8: GOTO 130 
230 IF Y>57 THEN Y=Y-*8: GOTO 130 

Can you figure out why the patterns 
created with these two sets of lines 200- 
230 are often so different? 

CC Changes 

Frederick Cunningham of Stamford, CT 
asks "When you publish a TRS-80 program 
could you include the necessary changes 
to run on the Color Computer? A few 
simple changes of the program in the July 
issue produced a program that my children 
have named City." 

To run that July 1981 (p. 212) program: 

• Change CLS to CLS 

• Change the graphics-area limits from 
128 and 48. to 64 and 32 

• Add 165C=RND<8) 

• Change line 200 to SET(J,K,C). 

The CLS turns the screen black instead 
of green, and the added line makes each 
random rectangle a random color. 

Wandering Color-Pixel 

For those who are just starting in with 
the color Computer, here's the basic 
Wandering Pixel program in color: 



176 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Investment Analysis 

CS-3305 Cassette (32K) $24 9S 

This program was originally 
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Programs in this package include 
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1. Bar Graph 

Bar Graph plots graphs for up 
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routines Regression routines 
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function 



Advanced Statistics 




CS-3303 Cassette (16K I $24 gs 

This package may be the 
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Attractively packaged in a vinyl 
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booklet. Advanced Statistics 
will provide you with the ability 
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before available on small com- 
puters. Its cassette based data 
file system allows you to store, 
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files for use in several different 
tests. 

1. Tape Manager 

Tape Manager, the heart of 
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selectively copy records Up to 
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Descriptive Statistics com- 
putes the mean, standard devi- 
ation, standard error of esti- 
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tosis, range, median, and quar- 
tiles for a variable and con- 
structs a histogram for each 
value. A test scoring option for 
conversion of raw scores into 
percentiles is included. 

3. Two Variable 
Statistics 

This program calculates de- 
scriptive statistics for each 
variable. It performs a t-test for 
the difference of means, com- 
puting the product-moment 
correlation coefficient and its 
associated significance level. In 
addition, it performs linear 
regression and computes stand- 
ard error of estimate for Y. 

4. Crosstabulation 

This program constructs con- 
tingency tables for displaying 
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and table-wide percentages for 
each cell. It computes the Chi- 
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and gamma statistics. Tables as 
large as 10x10 may be evaluated 



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5. Regression-Trend 
Analysis 

This program computes least- 
squares regression coefficients 
from time-series or paired data for 
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bolic, hyperbolic, logarithmic, 
power, exponential and cubic 
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7. Correlation Analysis 

Computes product-moment cor- 
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8. Analysis of Variance 

This program performs one-way 
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include the mean and standard 
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Order Today 



To order any ot these software packages 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains NJ 07950 Visa MasterCard 
and American E x press orders may be called 
in toll free 



Order today at no risk It you are not 
completely satisfied your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 

Creative Computing Software 

Morris Plains NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800431 -81 12 

In NJ 201-5400445 



creative coneputiRg software 



TflS-00 ■* V* r*eit»rrM tno*>m«f n of TanOy Corp 

JANUARY 1982 



177 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80, continued... 



100 


CLS 0: '—WANDERING COLOR — 


110 


X=RND<61>-1 


120 


Y-RND<32>-1 


130 


SET<X,Y.C> 


135 


C*RND<8> 


HO 


A=RND<1> 


ISO 


ON A GOTO 160fl70.180.190 


160 


x-x+i: GOTO 200 


170 


Y=Y+i: GOTO 200 


18C 


x=x-i: GOTO 200 


190 


Y=Y-1 


ZOO 


IF X<0 THEN X=63: GOTO 130 


210 


IF X>63 THEN X=0: GOTO 130 


2Z0 


IF Y<0 THEN Y=3i: GOTO 130 


230 


IF Y>63 THEN Y=0: GOTO 130 


210 


GOTO 130 



Note that the differences are the same 
as for the City program: the CLS statement 
needs a zero; the graphics area is smaller; 
you add another RND function, for random 
color; and you insert the color factor in 
the SET line. 

Although this has the nice effect of 
changing the color of blocks previously 
set. you may be interested in looking at 
the black-and-white version. For an approx- 
imation, delete line 135. make line 130 
read 

130SET<X,Y,0) 
and set the color controls so the display is 
in black and white. You may find this 
more interesting at the higher resolutions, 
if you have 16K of memory and Extended 
Basic, and can rewrite the program 
accordingly. 

As for what can be added to this basic 
program, there's sound, elimination of the 
wraparound, changing the basic random- 
pattern movements, etc. 

Storing Graphics 

One of the problems with programs 
that create patterns using randomly-located 
pixels is that, if the program creates a 
particularly interesting pattern at a par- 
ticular moment, you can't make the pro- 
gram repeat that pattern. 

But there's a way of storing the coordi- 
nates of the pixels for "playing back" a 
particular pattern later. W.A. Fronek. of 
Houston, TX sent this: 

"Purpose: At times it is useful to dupli- 
cate, at a later date, graphics that have 
been randomly generated or algorithmieally 
generated. This subroutine will store the 
X,Y coordinates of any lit graphic block 
and later, when needed, will duplicate or 
'reproduce' these graphics. Duplication is 
very fast compared to the speed of the 
original method of generation. 

"For example, '3D Plot' (Sept. 1980. p. 
186) takes 3 minutes, 1 5 seconds to generate 
the entire pattern. This subroutine can 
'copy' (re-draw) this pattern in 35 
seconds. 

"The subroutine can be easily modified 
for reading/writing the array data to/from 
disk or cassette. 



5999 REM SCAN SCREEN - TEST FOR 
GRAPHICS BLOCKS - 

X.Y COORDINATES 

IN ARRAYS X(A) AND Y(B) 

6000 DIM X(1000>: DIM Y(IOOO) 
6005 A=0: B-0 

6010 FOR X=0 TO 127 

6020 FOR Y-0 TO 17 

6030 IF POINT(X.Y) THEN GOSUB 6060 

6010 NEXT: NEXT 

6050 GOTO 7000 

6060 A=A+1! B»B+1 

6070 X<A)=X: Y(B)=Y 

6080 M=M+1 

6090 RETURN 

6999 REM SET GRAPHICS BLOCKS FROM 
COORDINATES TAKEN FROM 
ARRAYS X(C) AND Y(D> 

7000 CLS 

7010 C*C+lt D-D+l 

7020 SET(X(C).Y<D)> 

7030 IF C=M THEN 7010 ELSE 7010 

7010 GOTO 7010 



"Function: Invisibly scans the screen 
and tests for graphics blocks (6000-6090). 
Keeps count (6080) of the number of 
graphics blocks that have been seen by 
the POINT statement (6030). 

"As written, the subroutine will then 
clear the screen and set graphics blocks 
using the coordinates 'stored' in the arrays 
(7000-7040). Line 7030 terminates the loop 
when the array size equals the number 
(M) of graphics blocks that were seen by 
the POINT statement. This will also prevent 
a Subscript Out Of Range error. 

"Arrays must be DIMensioned to cover 
at least the number of graphics blocks to 
be scanned." 

Storing the Wanderer 

As an example of storing graphics, 
combine Fronek's subroutine with the 
wandering-pixel program, and add 

135 B»=INKEY«: IF B»=" 
THEN 110 ELSE 5999 

If and when the graphics program creates 
a pattern you want to store, simply press 
any key, which will call up the storage 




"There's nothing on worth watching tonight. What's 
on the computer?" 



subroutine. The screen-scan takes just over 
a minute to scan all 6144 points, so if 
nothing happens for a while, don't assume 
the program isn't working. 

Fronek's original subroutine didn't con- 
tain line 6005. To find out why it's needed, 
run the program several times without it, 
and then try to figure out what happened. 

Graphics and Cassette I/O 

If you know how to use cassette input/ 
output statements INPUT* and PRINT*, 
or the corresponding disk statements, and 
how to keep track of the number of pixels 
involved, you can try writing the modifi- 
cations suggested by Fronek. 

If you've never used these I/O state- 
ments, you may prefer to follow along, 
with TRS-80 in hand, as we look into 
them. 

Delete line 7040, and change the pre- 
ceding line to: 

7030 IF C«M THEN B000 ELSE 7010 

and add these lines to Fronek's subroutine: 
8000 c=i: o-i 

8010 PRINT C!X(C)fY<D). 

8020 IF C-M THEN 9000 

8030 C-C+l! D=D+i: GOTO 8010 

Line 8000 resets the C and D counters. 
Line 8010 prints the number and coordi- 
nates of each pixel in the displayed figure; 
this can be eliminated later (along with 
lines 8020-8030). but is useful at this point 
to show the contents of the arrays. 

Lines 8020 and 8030 keep count of the 
number of pixels, by comparing array size 
with M, which was created in 7030. M is 
important later, when the computer reads 
the stored pixel coordinates from tape or 
disk, to signal when the full count has 
been reached. 

But if you try to use M in the read 
routine, it won't work if you're counting 
on M to carry over from the write routine. 
It should work; after all, there's 7030. 
with C=M. Yet when you later try to use 
M, something is wrong. If you wonder 
what happened to the value of M, you 
might insert a line in your read routine to 
display it, and you may be surprised to 
see that it's zero. 

How come? M had a non-zero value in 
7030, so what happened between then 
and the RUN of your read routine? The 
answer is in the RUN. Look it up in your 
manual, and you'll find something like 
"Whenever RUN is executed, computer 
also executes a CLEAR," which resets all 
numeric variables to zero. 

Carry Over The Count 

So how do you carry M over the gap 
between write and read? Probably the 
easiest way (can you think of any other?) 
is simply to record it on the tape or disk, 
ahead of the pixel coordinates. 



178 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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TRS-80,continued... 

9000 PRINT*-ltM 

9010 C-lt D = l 

9020 PRINT«-l.X(C)fY<D> 

9025 IF C«H THEN 90*0 

9030 OC+i: D-0*i: GOTO 9020 

90*0 STOP 

Line 9000 stores the M value, and 9020- 
9030 store the pixel coordinates. 

PRINT # takes a long time to store 
data on cassette: several feet of tape for a 
few dozen pixels. When they're all 
recorded, you rewind the cassette to the 
beginning of the data, and RUN 9050 to 
read the stored data: 

90S0 c-i: D=l 

9052 DIM XdOOOK DIM Y(IOOO) 

9055 INPUT4-1.M 

9057 PRINT *M *'JM 

9060 INPUT«-liX(C)tY(D) 

9070 PRINT C;X<C)SY<D)t 

9075 IF C=H THEN 9090 

9080 OC+i: D = D + 1! GOTO 9060 

Line 9055 picks off the value of M. and 
line 9057 prints it. Line 9060 reads the 
pixel coordinates, which are printed by 
9070. Lines 9057 and 9070 can be elmi- 
nated. but are useful here for seeing how 
the routine works. 

If you're wondering why 9052 is neces- 
sary, leave it out and see what happens. 

Lines 9075 and 9080 use the M value to 
keep track of the number of pixels involved. 
When the count reaches M, control moves 
to 9090: 

9090 C-lt D«l 

9100 SET(X<C>tY<0>> 

9110 IF OH THEN 9130 

9120 C-C+1S 0«D+i: GOTO 9100 

9130 END 

which resets the counters once more, and 
the subsequent lines re-create the original 
graphics display from the stored pixel 
coordinates, again using M to keep track 
of them. 

If you'd like to see the pixels displayed 
one at a time as they're read from tape or 
disk, use RUN 10000 (instead of RUN 9050) 
when the tape has been rewound: 

10000 CLS 

10010 C-U D-i: 

10015 INPUT#-1.M 

10020 INPUT«-lfX(C>.Y(D> 

10025 PRINT S 0. CiX(C)iY<D) 

10030 SET(X(C)>Y(0)) 

10040 IF C"H THEN 10060 

10050 c=c+i: d=d+i: goto 10020 

10060 END 

Each pixel is displayed to the accompany- 
ing faint click of the cassette relay in the 
computer, because INPUTS turns the tape 
machine on and off for each pixel coordi- 
nate. See the manual for details. 

If you have more than a small number 
of pixels, you'll get a BS error with this 
routine. Can you figure out what's 
missing? 



Line 10025, which can be eliminated, 
displays the number and coordinates of 
each pixel just before it's popped onto 
the screen. If you want to keep track of 
how many pixels are in the original, add 

10017 print e Ot # m= ';m 

and change the zero in 10025 to 64, to 
print on the following CRT line. 

Now that you know how the program 
works, you can delete all the lines that 
display pixel numbers and coordinates, 
and rewrite the rest into a tighter and 
more elegant program. 

Blank Program Lines 

You probably noticed the blank lines 
in Fronek's subroutine. They're one of 
the easiest ways to separate program 
sections. If you haven't been able to figure 
out how to create these blank lines, you'll 
kick yourself when you And out how simple 
it is. I did. 

After you write a program line, don't 
press ENTER. Space with the right-arrow 
key until the cursor moves down to the 
next line. Then press either the right- 
arrow key or the space bar to move the 
cursor past the first column, and press 
ENTER. 

If you want to add blank lines to a 
program you've already written, get into 
EDIT mode, and press X to move the 
cursor to the end of the line. Then press 
the space bar (the right-arrow key is 
inoperative in EDIT mode) until the cursor 
moves down to the next line, and press 
ENTER. 

That's all there is to it. Just remember 
to move the cursor past the first column 
of the second line (reserved for the greater- 
than sign, unless you're in EDIT mode), 
and into the line-number columns, or you 
won't get a blank line. 




"Thai's right Mildred. Mrs. Jones started stepping 
out with Mr. Smith on June third. " 



Try to print this out, and you may be in 
for a surprise, because your printer may 
ignore the blank lines and act just as 
though they weren't there. 

No problem: when writing or editing 
the program, just put two blank lines 
between program lines you want to 
separate. Both will show up on the screen, 
but only one will appear on the printer. 

When all else fails, you can space 
between printed lines by manually spacing 
between LLISTs of groups of lines. It 
ain't elegant, but it's fast and easy. 

Sketch-80 

The Sketch-80 program generates screen 
graphics for the 16K Level-II TRS-80. and 
can be used with or without a light pen. 
It's $14.95 on cassette from Quality Soft- 
ware (6660 Reseda Blvd., Suite 105, Reseda. 
CA 91335). 

According to the fairly extensive 12- 
page manual, Sketch-80 will work with 
several different light pens, including the 
QS pen manufactured by Micro Matrix 
(March 1980, p. 155), which uses the 
amplifier in your tape recorder and is 
thus cheaper than most other light pens, 
which have built-in amplifiers. 

Enter the machine-language program, 
and you get a display of five words across 
the top of the screen, each with a square 
to the left of it: WRITE, ERASE. CLEAR. 
STORE, RECALL. 

Point the pen at the square beside 
WRITE, wait until the square turns into 
an X, then point the pen elsewhere on the 
screen. The computer then finds where 
you're pointing, and turns on a large (3 x 
3) rectangle of graphics blocks at that 
place on the screen. 

Move the pen slowly across the screen, 
and a line of rectangles is lit. To erase the 
line, or any part of it. you do the same 
thing, but first get into ERASE mode. To 
wipe out the display, activate CLEAR. 

To store the image you've created, aim 
at the STORE block, then keyboard a 
number from to 4. To bring back the 
image later, use the RECALL block, then 
hit the same number. 

To store the image in reduced size, 
one-third as large as the original you've 
created, store it by typing a letter from A 
to C. (A greater number of images can be 
stored on 32K or 48K systems.) You can 
store a reduced image in any one of nine 
buffers: when the image is recalled it will 
be displayed in one of nine corresponding 
sections of the screen: three across the 
width of the screen, and three down, each 
40 x 15 pixels (graphics blocks) in size. 

All graphics are constructed in the 
Enlarged Screen Mode, which "helps the 
artist see the detail of his work and enables 
the light pen to work more effectively." 
the manual says. According to Bob Chris- 
tiansen of Quality Software. "The TRS- 
80 video monitor has serious limitations 



180 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



when it comes to the use of a light pen. in 
the way of flicker, reflection, screen 
curvature, and distortion. The latter two 
problems make it difficult for the user to 
place the pen exactly on a small dot. For 
this reason we decided on the enlarged 
screen method of drawing with a light 
pen. Even this takes some getting used to, 
but one can develop a skill for it with a 
little practice." 

When you're working with the reduced 
image, the first two top-of-the-screen words 
are DUMP and TEXT, rather than WRITE 
and ERASE. DUMP displays the address 
and graphics-character codes for your 
image, which you can use with POKE or 
CHR$ routines to create the image in 
Basic. 

Using TEXT, you can mix normal-sized 
text with your graphic image. Images can 
also be saved on disk or tape. 

Sketch-80 is much faster without a light 
pen, using the keyboard: W for write, E 
for erase, C for clear, the four arrows for 
moving the cursor or the entire reduced 
image, etc. This mode would be even 
faster if the keys had an auto-repeat feature. 

Using letter keys, images can be mani- 
pulated so that, using RECALL and letter 
A, for instance, you can display a single 
image, or nine of the same image, or nine 



different images, all at the same time on 
the screen. This would be one way of 
creating animation graphics for entering 
into a Basic program, since you can see 
up to nine frames at a time (although 
each frame is no more than 40 x 15 pixels 
in size). 

Many interesting and complex effects 
can be created by using a combination of 
the simple commands of Sketch-80. 

Short Program #25: 4-Way Random 
Draw 

In looking for a short program to end 
this column. I found one that I soon realized 
had been my subconscious inspiration for 
the wandering-pixel program. Can you 
figure out why it creates different patterns 
than the wandering-pixel program? 

Gerald Jervis wrote from Chickasha. 
OK, "Enclosed is a listing which I have 
written, called Random Draw. It will make 
random lines which you could call op art. 
It uses four lines working together and it 
is always mirror-imaged. 

"Oh! A final note: a touch of the 
spacebar will halt the drawing, wait a few 
seconds, then CLS and start again." 

The CLS is automatic, after a wait caused 
by the loop in line 170. Delete that line 
and the restart is immediate. □ 



o 
l 

z 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

10 

20 

22 

25 

27 

30 

40 

50 

60 

65 

70 

73 

77 

80 

BS 

90 

95 

97 

100 

105 

110 

115 

117 

120 

125 

130 

135 

140 

1« 

150 

155 

160 

170 

180 



Hum imiiiii 

«» RANDOM DRAWING »s 
*" BY ill 

*« GERALD K. JERVIS xxa 
i«m CHICKASHA. OKLA. mx* 
> mi i 

■B HIT SPACE BAR i* 
*« TO START AGAIN » 

CLS: RANDOM 

M=64t N=24: SET(MtN) 

X=64: Y-24: SET(X.Y) 

P«64: 0=2*: SET(P.O) 

R=64: s=24: setcRfS) 
random: a=rnd(4> 

FOR B=l TO RND(S) 
ON A GOTO 60.80.100,120 
X=X+i: IF X>127 THEN X-127 
R=R*i: IF R>127 THEN R=127 
M=M-i: IF M<1 THEN M=0 
P=P-i: IF P<1 THEN P=0 
GOTO 140 

X=X-i: IF X<1 THEN X = 
R=R-lt IF R<1 THEN R=0 
M-M+i: IF M>127 THEN 11=127 
P-P+i: IF P>127 THEN P-127 
GOTO 140 
Y=Y+i: IF Y>47 THEN Y=47 
S»S-i: IF S<1 THEN S=l 
N=N-i: IF N<1 THEN N=l 
0=0+1 : IF 0>47 THEN 0=47 
COTO 140 

Y=Y-i: IF Y<1 THEN Y-l 
S=S+i: IF S>47 THEN S=47 
N«N+i: IF N>47 THEN N=47 
0=0-i: IF 0<1 THEN 0=1 
SET(X.Y): SET(MtN) 
SET(PfO>: SET(RtS) 
X«=INKEY» 
IF X»=« 
GOTO 30 

FOR C=l TO IOOO: NEXT C 
GOTO 10 



THEN 170 ELSE NEXT B 



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DSM Mod I $75.00. Mod II $150.00, Mad III $90.00 

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JANUARY 1 982 181 CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



intelligent computer games... 



Correspondence is welcome. Letters 
with interesting questions and ideas 
will be used in the column along with 
a response. No personal replies can he 
made. Send to: David Lew. 104 Ham- 
ilton Terrace, London NWH 9UP, 
England. 



SHOGI 

This month I wish to introduce readers 
to a game which they will almost cer- 
tainly never have come across. It is 
related to chess, but has an added 
dimension of complexity which can 
result in exciting sequences being sus- 
tained for very many more moves than 
in chess. This game is so popular in its 
country of origin (there are some 19 
million players) that those who excel at 
the game often become millionaires, and 
are held in greater esteem than Bjorn 
Borg in Sweden or Kevin Keegan in 
England. I am referring to shogi, or 
Japanese chess, and I can recommend 
the game very highly to anyone who 
enjoys 'western' chess. My shogi-playing 
friends have been trying to persuade me 
for some time that 'western' chess is an 
inferior form of the game and, although 
I have yet to be firmly convinced by 
their arguments, I must confess that 
shogi does have enormous appeal. Since 
it is well known that computer pro- 
grammers usually show great aptitude 
tor chess, it is likely that among the 
readers of this magazine there are many 
potential shogi masters (or dans as they 
are known in Japan), and many thou- 
sands who would enjoy the game if they 
took an hour or so to learn how to play 
it. 

Japan is the Mecca of shogi, but 
during the past few years an organi- 
sation has grown up in the western 
world whose aim is to popularise the 
game outside its native country. The 



David Levy 

Shogi Association, PO Box 77, Brom- 
ley, Kent, England welcomes new mem- 
bers and will supply shogi sets and 
elementary literature to those who 
cannot find them elsewhere. It also 
publishes a regular magazine and holds 
meetings in London. Through the 
efforts of the Shogi Association there 
have been shogi tournaments held in 
London, for which leading Japanese 
players have flown half way round the 
globe, and in last year's tournament I 
was able to see my colleague Larry 
Kaufman, an International Chess Master 
from the USA who seems to have 
abandoned the 'inferior' form of the 
game for its Japanese counterpart. I 
understand that he has now become 
completely addicted, to the extent of 
travelling to Japan in the hope of 
becoming a professional shogi player. 

How to Play Shogi 

The best way to learn the game of shogi 
is to buy a copy of How to Play Shogi 
by John Fairbairn, and to study this 
slim volume with a shogi set in front of 
you. Although shogi sets normally have 
the pieces inscribed in Japanese charac- 
ters, the Shogi Association imports sets 
in which the pieces also have 
westernised lettering as well as arrows to 
show you how each of them moves. It 
should take no longer to learn the 
moves at shogi than to learn how to 
play western chess, and I am reliably 
informed that one can even get used to 
the Japanese symbols rather more 
quickly than one might suspect. Since 
the main point of this article is to en- 
able the reader to write his own shogi- 
playing program, I must begin with a 
precis of the rules and moves of the 
game. 

Each player starts the game with 20 
pieces made of wood or plastic. These 
pieces are uniform in colour, but for the 
sake of convenience we call them Black 
and White, as in chess. The game is 



played on a 9 x 9 board (does anyone 
know of a 9-bit processor?) with the 
two armies set up in the following 
starting position: 



1 


N 


s 


* 




4 

3 


X 
s 


N 


1 


a 




4 

a 












8 




b 


d 


\ 

a 


1 

a 


1 

a 


1 

a 


a 


1 

a 


d 


i 

a 


c 




















d 




















a 




















1 


p 
t 


p 
t 


p 
t 




t 


p 
t 


p 
t 


p 
t 


P 
t 


p 
t 


9 




B 












* 




h 


L 

t 


N 

Y 


S 

X 


G 


K 


G 


s 
X 


N 

Y 


L 
t 


I 



Figure I. The starting position in shogi. 

The Pieces and Their Moves 

KING: Each player has one king and, as 
in chess, the object of the game is to 
checkmate the opposing king. As in 
chess the king can move one square in 
any direction (horizontal, vertical or 
diagonal). 

GOLD GENERAL: At the start of a 
game each player has two golds. The 
gold moves one square at a time, verti- 
cally, horizontally, or diagonally for- 
wards. It may not move diagonally 
backwards. 

SILVER GENERAL: Each player has 
two silvers. The silver moves one square 
at a time, diagonally or forwards. It may 
not move sideways and it may not move 
straight backwards. 

KNIGHT: Each player has two knights, 
whose move has the same form as the 
knight in chess but with the restriction 
that it may only move two squares for- 
wards and then one square to the left or 
right. So whereas a chess knight has 



182 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



If you own or use a micro-computer, then chances are that 
from time to time, you've wished that someone could simplify 
programming. 

Because as useful as micro-computers are, they can only ever 
be as good as the programs they run. 

Well then, how does this sound? 

No more program-coding. No more debugging. And no more 
time wasting. 

Arguably more comprehensive and advanced than anything else 
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By asking you questions in plain English about what you want 
your program to do, The Last One uses your answers to generate a 
ready-to-use program in BASIC. 

What's more, with The Last One, you can change or modify 
your program as often as you wish. Without effort, fuss or any 
additional cost. So as your requirements change, your programs 
can too. 

And if, because of the difficulties and costs of buying, writing 
and customising software, you've put off purchasing a computer 
system up to now, you need delay no longer. 

Available now. 

The Last One costs $600 plus local taxes where applicable and is 
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For further information, write to D.J. 'AT Systems Ltd., 
Two Century Plaza, Suite 480, 
2049 Century Park East, 
Los Angeles, C A 90067. 
Tel: (213) 203 0851. 



THEMSTONE 



• 



JANUARY 1982 



CIRCLE 343 OS READER SERVICE CARD 
183 



Games, continued... 

eight moves at its disposal from a 
central square on an empty board, a 
shogi knight will have only two possible 
moves, but as in chess it may jump. 
LANCE: Each of the two lances moves 
straight forwards as far as it likes, but it 
may not jump. 

ROOK: The shogi rook moves exactly 
like its counterpart in western chess, in 
a straight line as many squares as it 
wishes. There is no queen in shogi, so 
the rook is usually regarded as the most 
powerful piece. 

BISHOP: Again this piece moves just 
like a chess bishop — any number of 
squares in a diagonal direction. 
PAWN: As in chess, the initial shogi 
position has a row of pawns across the 
board. Since shogi is played on a 9 x 9 
board, each player begins the game with 
nine pawns, which can move one square 
forwards. There is no double pawn 
move when a pawn makes its first move; 
there is no diagonal capturing move; and 
there is no such thing as an en passant 
capture. 

Promoted Pieces 

One of the most interesting aspects of 
shogi, as compared to chess, is the fact 
that whereas in chess only the pawns 
can promote to a piece of higher value, 
in shogi some of the other pieces can 
also promote. A promotion move is 
made by moving a piece partly or 
wholly within your promotion zone 
(the last three ranks or rows furthest 
from you). Promotion takes place at 
the conclusion of the promoting move, 
and it is important to remember that in 
shogi it is not always compulsory to 
promote, as we shall see. The following 
pieces have the ability to promote: 
SILVER: The promoted silver moves 
exactly like a gold. On your shogi set 
the silver can be turned over and on the 
reverse side you will see the symbol for 
a promoted silver. 

KNIGHT: The promoted knight also 
moves exactly like a gold. 
LANCE: The promoted lance moves 
exactly like a gold. 

PAWN: The promoted pawn moves 
exactly like a gold. 

ROOK: When the rook is promoted it 
retains its original ability to move any 
number of squares horizontally or ver- 
tically, and acquires the extra ability to 
move one square in a diagonal direction. 
BISHOP: Similarly, when the bishop is 
promoted, its original move is retained 
and it has the new ability to move one 
square vertically or horizontally. 

If a pawn or lance moves to the last 
rank, or if a knight moves to either of 
the last two ranks, promotion is com- 
pulsory. At all other times, promotion is 
optional. 

Capturing 

If a player moves one of his pieces onto 
a square that is occupied by one of his 
opponent's men, the opponent's piece is 



captured as in chess. But here lies one 
essential difference between the two 
games, and it is this difference that adds 
an extra dimension to the game of 
shogi. 

In chess, when you capture one of 
your opponent's pieces it is removed 
from the board forever. In shogi you 
keep this piece 'in hand', and later in 
the game you may drop it onto any 
vacant square (subject to a few restric- 
tions). The drop is made instead of 
moving a piece from one square to 
another, and it is important to remem- 
ber that a piece may only be dropped in 
its unpromoted state, even if it had been 
promoted before it was captured. When 
you drop a captured piece onto the 
board it becomes your own piece, and 
for this reason the capture of an enemy 
piece has a double significance. One 
interesting aspect of the drop is the fact 
that you might well decide to sacrifice a 
valuable piece on one part of the board 
in return for an inferior one, simply 
because you want to be able to drop 
that inferior piece on another part of 
the board within the next few moves. 




Check and Checkmate 

When a king is attacked it is said to be 
in check, just as in chess, and the player 
who is in check must take evasive 
action ifnmediately — moving his own 
king, capturing the checking piece, or 
interposing a piece between the two. If 
the king is attacked and there is no way 
to save it, the player has been check- 
mated. Since all of the pieces are, in 
practical terms, in play throughout the 
game, it is extremely rare for a game of 
shogi to end in a draw. In chess the 
number of the pieces on the board is 
gradually reduced as the game pro- 
gresses, and when sufficient reduction 
has taken place the game will inevitably 
end in a draw. Those who find master 
chess games boring because too many of 
them (some 55 percent or more) are 
drawn, need have no such fear regarding 
shogi. 

How to Program Shogi 

There is no reason why most of the 
principles that apply to chess pro- 



gramming cannot also be applied to 
shogi programming. Growing and 
searching a game tree is the obvious 
approach, the most serious problem 
being the large branching factor caused 
by the increased number of pieces (40 
instead of a maximum of 32) and the 
possibility of the drop. If you hold just 
one type of captured piece 'in hand' 
you will have 42 or more squares on 
which it may be dropped. It is easy to 
see how the number of legal moves at 
one's disposal can easily increase to 150 
or 200, once two or three enemy pieces 
have been captured. Clearly it is 
necessary to find some way of reducing 
the list of legal moves to produce a list 
of plausible moves which is of manage- 
able size. The answer to this problem 
lies in the use of intelligent shogi 
heuristics, or 'proverbs' as they are 
known in the trade. 

Anyone who is interested in writing a 
chess program need only refer to the 
enormous wealth of chess literature in 
order to find a number of heuristics 
which can be employed in a plausible 
move generator or an evaluation 
mechanism. A lot has also been written 
about shogi, but unfortunately for most 
readers of this article it is almost 
entirely published in Japanese, and if 
your Japanese is anywhere near as bad 
as mine is you will not relish the 
thought of ploughing through tomes of 
mysterious symbols. Here I have space 
for only a very small number of heuris- 
tics, and I must recommend the reader 
to take a look at the extensive list which 
can be found at the back of Fairbairn's 
booklet. In addition, those of you who 
would like to make your shogi pro- 
grams as strong as possible ought to join 
the Shogi Association and try to obtain 
all the back numbers of Shogi magazine 
(issue 1 is sold out — Ed.), in which the 
most important proverbs are explained. 
Once you understand a proverb, it is 
an easy matter to convert it to 
numerical form so that it can form 
part of the evaluation/plausibility 
mechanism. 

Shogi Openings 

The exact order in which the opening 
moves are played does not appear to be 
so critical in shogi as it is in chess. The 
most important aspect of opening play 
in shogi seems to be the squares on 
which one places one's pieces, and not 
the exact order in which they are 
moved there. The only source of shogi 
openings that I can find in any language 
other than Japanese is, once again, that 
published by the Shogi Association. 

Since it is not necessary for your 
shogi program to have access to large 
tables of opening variations, you need 
only devise some method of 
encouraging the program to make moves 
that will lead to its pieces being on the 
right squares. A simple method of ac- 
complishing this is to examine each of 
the pieces in a desired formation and 



184 



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Games, continued... 

determine how many moves away from 
its target square it is at the moment. 
The 'opening' feature in the evaluation 
function can then be penalised by (say) 
1 point for each piece that is one move 
away from its target square, 2 points for 
each piece that is two moves away, and 
so on. This method, or any similar 
pattern-matching process, will provide a 
useful measure as to the degree to which 
a desired opening formation has been 
achieved. 



The Middle Game— a Few Heuristics 

As in chess, the middle game in shogi 
sees most of the manoeuvring and 
struggling fo^a strategic advantage. This 
is the part of the game for which an 
evaluation function will be of the 
greatest use. The players must fight for 
control of important squares, and in 
particular for control of the area near 
their opponent's king. In shogi the 
initiative is just as important as it is in 
chess, and by building up a strong 
attack in the area near the enemy king, 
a player may develop an initiative which 
can later be converted into a win. Many 
of the heuristics that you will find in 
Shogi magazine will relate to the in- 
itiative and to the concepts of king 
attack and king safety. 

Perhaps the most difficult problem 
that you will encounter when writing a 
shogi program is that nobody has 
written one before you, so there is 
absolutely no published literature on 
the subject. In order to convert a shogi 
heuristic into a feature for your evalu- 
ation function you will therefore be 
compelled to make various guesses and 
estimates, and then improve the weight- 
ings of your function in the light of 
experience. 

Possibly the most surprising aspect of 
shogi heuristics is the fact that there is 
no recognised scale of values for the 
pieces themselves. Almost every school- 
boy knows that in chess a bishop or 
knight is worth roughly three pawns, a 
rook five .pawns, and a queen nine 
pawns, but to the best of my know- 
ledge there is nothing reliable in the 
shogi literature to compare. (Readers 
should be warned that in one book, 
published in English, the rook is said to 
be more valuable than the king ignore 
this book and, probably, anything else 
not published by the Shogi Association.) 

Those of you who have read my 
articles on chess will know that the 
second most important feature, after 
material, is mobility. In fact the chess 
pieces have material values which are 
not entirely disproportionate to their 
average mobilities, so it would be pos- 
sible to write a chess program that was 
governed by present and potential 
mobility, rather than by material and 
present mobility. In shogi, since 
material values cannot be defined in the 
same way as they can in chess, mobility 
is possibly the most important feature. 
We define mobility in shogi in the same 



way as we do in chess — the number of 
squares attacked by a piece. 

The attack on the enemy king is of 
greater importance in shogi than it is in 
chess. For this reason, two features 
which are employed in many chess pro- 
grams are absolutely vital in a shogi 
program: King Attack and King Safety. 
A primitive measure for King Attack is 
found by adding 2 points for every 
attack on a square which is not more 
than three squares distant from the 
enemy king, and 1 point for every pos- 
sible move to a square from which such 
an attack can be made. The sum of 
these attacks and potential attacks pro- 
vides a measure of the extent to which a 
player's pieces can operate within the 
vicinity of the enemy king, and the 
extent to which they control possible 
flight squares that might be used by the 
enemy king to escape from a strong 
attack. 

King Safety can best be measured by 
taking into account the number, nature 
and proximity of friendly pieces that 
are situated near the king. If your king 
is surrounded by many of its own pieces 




it will be much safer from attack than if 
it is in an exposed part of the board, 
with few of its own pieces nearby. As in 
chess, it often pays in shogi to keep the 
pawns in front of your own king as 
defensive pieces, obstructing the attack 
of the advancing enemy. In addition, it 
is useful to have two or three generals 
(golds and silvers) near your king for 
added protection. The different shogi 
openings usually define a particular 
defensive formation for the king, so by 
reading about the openings you will 
learn the various defensive formations 
and you can design a feature for your 
evaluation function based on giving 
bonus points for having your own king 
well protected by the correct piece. 

Gaining material in a game of shogi 
is useful for two reasons, and some 
method must be found to reflect this 
fact in your evaluation function. When 
you capture an enemy piece you deprive 
his king of a certain measure of pro- 
tection if the captured piece was near 
to the king this protection will be much 
greater than if the piece was many 
squares away from the king. You also 
have an extra piece 'in hand which may 
be used later in the game to achieve 



some strategic aim or to expose the 
enemy king still further during the 
blistering attack which you launch prior 
to checkmate. One way in which your 
program can measure the value of a 
captured piece lies in the loss of 
mobility experienced by your opponent 
when you capture one of his pieces. 
Another way is simply to add a certain 
number of points for every piece that 
you hold in hand. 

So far, we have discussed only a very 
small proportion of the total number of 
shogi principles, but these are among 
the most important. A computer pro- 
gram which takes into consideration 
mobility, king attack, king safety and 
the number of pieces held 'in hand' 
would be able to play a game better 
than the novice who has just learned the 
rules of the game. One very important 
aspect of shogi is the mating attack, and 
this is one area in, which your program 
will be able to play better than many 
humans, because it requires pure cal- 
culation. 

The Mating Attack 

In shogi there is no endgame in the same 
sense as there is in chess. Because cap- 
tured pieces can reappear on the board, 
it is rare for a shogi game to end when 
the board is almost completely devoid 
of material. To win at shogi you must 
launch a successful mating attack. We 
have already discussed two of the evalu- 
ation features which can help a program 
set up and develop an attack against the 
enemy king. The tactical phase that 
ends the game will often contain a long, 
forcing sequence of moves that is diffi- 
cult for many human players to spot. A 
computer program should have no such 
problems, provided that it is looking 
along the correct path of the tree. 

The answer lies in knowing when to 
search for a mating continuation, and in 
ignoring all other factors when looking 
for a mate. It is normally sufficient to 
have four of your own pieces attacking 
the enemy king area, so your mating 
routine can be triggered by a test which 
counts the number of your own pieces 
which impinge on any of the squares 
which are within (say) three squares of 
the enemy king. If this test provides a 
positive result, the program can then 
look along all variations in which its 
own moves are checking moves. During 
this phase of the game all other moves 
may be ignored, on the assumption that 
if he is given a single move s respite, 
your opponent will be able to bring 
another piece to the defence of his king, 
or will move his king to a safer square. 
The routine which searches for mate 
should therefore be single-minded, and 
by ignoring all moves other than checks 
it ought to be able to search 7 or 9-ply 
deep, or even further. If no mate is 
found within some predetermined 
horizon, the program simply reverts to 
the middle-game search algorithm and 
looks for a move which improves its 
strategic control of the position. 



186 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






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Games, continued... 

How to Deal with Drops 

As I mentioned earlier, one of the most 
serious problems in writing a strong 
shogi program is the very large branch- 
ing factor caused by being able to drop 
a captured piece onto almost any 
vacant square on the board. (In fact you 
may drop onto any vacant square 
provided that (a) you are not dropping a 
pawn, lance or knight onto a square 
from which it will never be able to move; 
(b) you will not have two unpromoted 
pawns on the same file at the same time; 
and (c) you do not drop a pawn in such 
a way as to give checkmate on the 
move.) How can we reduce the branch- 
ing factor without ignoring most of the 
better drops? 

The answer lies in identifying a num- 
ber of key vacant squares (say ten) and 
examining drops only onto those key 
squares. This can be accomplished by 
using the evaluation function to 
measure the improvement in score that 
could be achieved by dropping a hypo- 
thetical piece (a 'genie') onto each 
vacant square. The genie has the power 




of all the other pieces combined, and by 
estimating its effect on the mobility, 
king safety, king attack and other fea- 
tures of the evaluation function, when 
placed on each of the vacant squares, it 
is possible to produce a ranking order 
for the vacant squares which indicates 
which squares are the best candidates 
for drops. By reducing the number of 
such squares from (at least) 42 to ten, 
we can reduce the total number of 
moves which the program needs to con- 
sider. This is especially important when 
more than one type of piece is to be 
held in hand. 



If a Shogi-playing Program 
is Too Difficult 

It is, perhaps, daunting enough to the 
reader for me to suggest that you learn a 
new game as complex as shogi without 
my adding to this suggestion with the 
thought that you should also write a 
shogi-playing program. You may feel 
that the game itself requires enough of 
your time, and that a shogi-playing pro- 
gram might be beyond you, especially in 
view of the paucity of literature on 



shogi heuristics. In that case, there is 
still one programming exercise which 
you will definitely find worth your 
while, as it will test your understanding 
of many of the tree-searching ideas that 
we have discussed in this series of 
articles, and it will stretch your ability 
to write code that executes efficiently. 

Just as there are many people who 
are interested in chess problems ('White 
to Play and Mate in two Moves'), so there 
is even greater interest in shogi prob- 
lems. An extremely interesting pro- 
gramming exercise can be found in 
writing a program which will search for 
checkmates. In the composition of a 
chess problem it is part of the com- 
poser's task that he must not allow a 
checking move to be the key to the 
solution. In shogi, the opposite is true 
all moves in a shogi problem must 
be checks or replies to check. 

A program which solves shogi prob- 
lems must therefore employ an efficient 
test to determine whether or not a move 
is legal (ie, whether a reply to check 
achieves the aim of moving out of 
check), and whether or not a move gives 
check. These two tests are sufficient, 
since a move which fails both tests is in- 
admissable in the tree search. Your 
problem-solving program has only a very 
small number of branches at each node, 
and so a deep search is possible without 
the program consuming enormous 
amounts of time. There is not too much 
scope within a problem-solving program 
for speeding up the search without the 
use of heuristics, but one or two notions 
do suggest themselves. Prefer a checking 
move that is near to the enemy king to 
one which is further away (reason a 
far away move allows more interposing 
possibilities). Prefer a 'safe' checking 
move to a move which allows the free 
capture of material (reason with 
more pieces of your own side on the 
board, you have greater chances of 
forcing mate). Prefer to evade check by 
moving the king than by interposing a 
piece (reason an interposing move 
may allow a free capture). Prefer to 
evade check by capturing the checking 
piece than by moving the king (reason 
the less material your opponent has 
on the board, the harder it will be for 
him to force checkmate). 

Of course, these rules of thumb all 
have very many exceptions, but other 
things being equal (which they never 
are) all of them have some value in 
ordering the search. rj 

Bibliography 

Fairbairn, J: How to Play Shogi. 
Shogi Association: Shogi (magazine). 

The reader is strongly warned against all 
other shogi literature published in any 
language other than Japanese. Up to the 
time of writing this article (May 1981) 
no other accurate literature is known, 
and errors in the rules and the moves of 
the pieces abound. 



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Choro^ * 10OO.OO A Up 




When the Atari computer was first 
designed. Atari planned on selling a good 
deal of software for it. They knew that 
the more varied and interesting displays 
they could program for it, the more 
software they could sell. So they designed 
in as much software-controlled hardware 
flexibility as possible. In this way they 
hoped to achieve widely varied effects, 
but never to have to change the basic 
hardware. 

Over the past few months we've been 
looking at the capabilities of the Atari. 
We've covered playfield (i.e., display list 
generated) graphics and become familiar 
with player-missile graphics. In this column 
I'll cover another of the many playfield 
features: the ability to reprogram a char- 
acter set. 

"What's a character set?" you ask. A 
character set is the table of shapes the 
computer uses to define what a character 
looks like. This character set. or shape- 
table, is what makes an "A" character 
look different from a "B" character 
onscreen. With the Atari, these shapes 
may be altered at will. 

With many computers, you're stuck with 
the characters the designers provide. The 
shapes are stored in a ROM. which is an 
unmodified memory, and can't be changed 
except by making a new chip. This places 
a limitation on those machines, for repro- 
gramming character shapes is a powerful 
tool for certain applications. Here's an 
example. 

Let's say you are writing a program 
that will be a lesson dealing with the Russian 
language. Naturally, you would like to be 
able to write words in that language. But 
since the Russian language has a different 
alphabet from English, with most machines, 
you would be stuck at this point. Unless 
you use high resolution graphics to draw 
characters— a slow and clumsy process— 
you can't get them onscreen. 



A Beginner's Guide to Character Sets 



David and Sandy Smali 



On the Atari, however, it's easy to design 
your own characters. You can use those 
new letters for the lesson, and save yourself 
time and effort. 

If you should happen to need some 
small, high resolution figures on a character 
screen, but don't want to hassle with mixing 
graphics modes, a character set might be 
just the thing. You can control dots the 
size of an individual graphics 8 pixel with 
custom characters and you can mix the 
special symbols you create right in with 
your text. For mathematicians in need of 
special characters (summation, integral) 
this could be a real help. 

As soon as you begin to consider char- 
acters as graphics 8 figures drawn at high 
speed onscreen, more and more interesting 
posibilities will occur to you. So first let's 
review a bit about character shapes and 
generation, then learn how to modify 
them. 



Character Shapes 

The Atari plots letters and graphics on 
the screen using the same individual TV 
dots. It uses 320 horizontal dots and 192 
scan lines for this purpose. Characters 
are 8x8 groups of dots, some lit, some 
not. Since there are 320 horizontal dots, 
that's 320/8 or 40 characters across and 
192/8 or 24 rows. There is no space on 
the screen between characters; that space 
is provided within the character shapes. 
(Brief detour: This thoughtful add-on 
makes possible continuous script letters, 
which "flow" from one to the next with 
no interruption. It also allows screen 
graphics using characters that have no 
breaks in them.) 

A character shape is stored as an 8 x 8 
group of bits. A lit dot is represented by a 
1 bit, an unlit dot by a bit. (See Diagram 
1.) Since each horizontal "slice" of the 
character is 8 bits, the Atari designers put 
each slice into one byte, making for eight 
bytes total per character. There are 128 
different characters possible, and they are 
stored all grouped together, so the com- 
patible "character set" is 128 x 8 or 1024 
bytes long. (See Diagram 2.) 



Byte 


* 


1 


00000000 


Byte 


* 


2 


11110 


Byte 


« 


3 


01101100 


Byte 


♦ 


•4 


01100100 


Byte 


* 


5 


01100100 


Byte 


# 


6 


110 110 


Byte 


* 


7 


01111000 


Byte 


# 


8 


00000000 

8 bytes in memory 
per character. 



Diagram 1. 



190 



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Atari, Continued... 

Every time a character is displayed, the 
Atari consults this table. Let's quickly 
examine the process. 

When Antic finds a display list entry to 
generate characters (modes 0-1-2 to Basic 
memory users), he looks to his current 
location in display memory, kept in an 
internal register. 

Let's assume graphics for now. One 
graphics instruction means 40 characters 
are plotted in one row (in one display 
block). In a character mode, one byte of 
display memory represents one character, 
so Antic fetches 40 bytes. Each character 
has a unique number, 0-127, and Antic 
uses that number to look up the shape of 
the characters in the character set. Let's 
see how it finds the shape. 

First Antic must find the character set. 
That's easy, it is POKEd to Antic every 
sixtieth of a second by the operating system 
as part of the screen refresh process. It is 
given to Antic from location 2F4 hex or 
756 decimal in memory. 

This location we'll call CHBAS, for 
"character set base." The number in this 
byte, when mutiplied by 256, specifies the 
start of the character set in memory. 

(Why by 256? In the Atari, like all 6502 
processor machines, memory is divided 
up into "pages." Each page is 256 bytes 
long, corresponding to 8 bits of address. 
In a 16-bit address, the upper 8 bits specify 
which page number, and the lower 8 bits 
specify which byte within the page. Because 
the character set always starts on an even 
page mark, we only need to tell Antic 
where the first page of the character set 
is.) 

The character number in display 
memory, known as the "internal character 
set number" {not ATASCII!) is multiplied 
by 8. This is then added to the CHBAS*256 
number to give Antic the starting address 
in memory of where the shape table for 
the character is stored. (See Diagram 3.) 
When displaying the character. Antic grabs 
the first byte of the shape table, displays 
it as eight on or off dots according to the 
bits in the shape table, then for the next 
line down, it just moves down one byte in 
the shape table. After eight passes, it has 
moved down eight scan lines and eight 
bytes and is finished with the character. 
(See Diagram 4.) 

Now if we were to tell Antic the shape 
table began somewhere else in memory, 
he would faithfully look to the new location 
and start using whatever data was found 
there to display characters. You will recall 
a few columns back we told Antic that 
display memory was located in low 
memory, to watch him display pages 
and 1 of memory as characters. This is 
the same idea. If the new area of memory 
happens to be a table of character shapes, 
redefined to what you want them to be. 
, Antic will use them without complaint. If 



Character Set 
Memory 



Each character is stored as an 8 byte shape 
table of dot patterns. 



There are 128 characters per character set, 
or 128 x 8 - 1024 bytes total. 



Each character has a fixed position in the 
character set. 



Diagram 2. 



Character Set 
Memory 





t-8 

♦ 16 
f24 
02 

40 
► 48 

♦ 56 



Each character shape is 8 bytes long. 
ANTIC finds the start of the character set, 
takes the character number, and multiplies 
that by 8 to find the position of the start 
of any character's position. 

(Actually, the beginning of character set memory 
has other characters in it than letters; these arc 
used for clarity) . 



Diagram 3. 



Character Set 


lemory 


A 




B 




C 
D 

E 




•^— 


00000000 


F 




11110 


G 




110 110 
1 10 10 
1 10 10 


1 


1 10 1 10 


t 


11110 






00000000 



ANTIC pulls the data from the shape table 
in order to plot a given character. 

It plots one line at a time out of the 
character set table, from top to bottom. 



Diagram 4. 



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Atari, continued... 

not, he will still use them, but what you 
see won't be much like a character dis- 
play! 

Now we can't change the existing char- 
acter set. That's stored in ROM at EOOO 
hex and cannot be modified. So what we 
need to do is copy that ROM character 
set into RAM, where we can modify it, 
and tell Antic to start looking to RAM for 
a character set. All we do to change where 
Antic looks is to POKE a new page number 
in memory into location 756. A sixtieth of 
a second later, the operating system will 
give Antic that new value as part of the 
screen refresh, and he will start using it. 



Examples 

Time now for some examples and 
programs. Let's run some routines to help 
us visualize the process and see how 
characters are stored. 

Program I begins at the start of the 
unmodifiable character set the Atari 
normally uses, the ROM character set. It 
fetches the 8 bytes per charater, breaks 
each byte up into individual bits, and 
displays them as O's and l's. (Well, actually, 
it displays O's as spaces to make the l's 
stand out). It goes through the entire 
character set this way, displaying the 
characters in binary patterns. See the listing 
for an example. 

You will soon notice that characters 
are not stored in ATASCII order. They 
are in the order of the internal character 
set, which is a different thing. You can 
find a listing of the internal order on page 
55 of your Basic manual. 

Program 2 dumps the specified character 
to the printer; just type in the letter whose 
bit pattern you want to display. It is 
converted into an ATASCII number, then 
into the internal character set number, 
then displayed. Hence, this program is 
handy for showing how to convert from 
ATASCII to internal format. To find the 
right bytes in the character set, the internal 
number is just multiplied by 8 and added 
to the number that represents the start of 
the character set, which you'll recall is 
just how Antic does it (CHBAS+(8*char 
number)). 

The character set at which we are 
currently looking is in ROM. Let's learn 
how to move it to RAM so we can modify 
it. There are three steps we must follow: 

1. Finding a place to put it; we need 
1024 free contiguous bytes of RAM. 

2. Copying the ROM character set to 
RAM. 

3. Changing the "pointer" Antic uses to 
find the character set from its old ROM 
location to the new RAM location. 

Step 1 is tricky. To understand how to 
do this, we must delve into some Atari 
memory secrets. 



220 
230 
240 



70 REM PROGRAM 1 

80 DIM BIN»( 8) 

90 REM O.S. SHA00U FOR CHBAS=2F4 HEX 

100 CH=2*2S6+1S*lG+4 

130 CHBAS=PEEK(CH >»256 

200 REM 

210 FOR CHNUM=0 T0M27 

211 PRINT CHNUM,CHR»<CHNUM) 

212 GOSUB'220 

213 PRINT 

214 NEXT CHNUM 

215 REM FIDDLE CHR» VALUE TO ROM VOL 
IF CHNUM<32 THEN CH=CHNUM+64 

IF CHNUM<96 THEN IF CHNUM >31 THEN CH=CHNUM-32 
IF CHNUM >95 THEN CH=CHNUM 

250 REM PULL 8 BYTES, TRANSLATE , PR I NT 

260 CLOC = CHBAS + ( 8aCH > 

270 FOR B=0 TO 7 

280 BYTE=PEEK< CLOC+B ) 

290 GOSUB 500 

300 PRINT B+1)"* ")BIN* 

310 NEXT B 

320 RETURN 

500 REM DECIMAL TO BINARY 

505 BIN»=" 

510 DIV=128 

515 BYTE1=BYTE 

520 FOR T=1 TO 8 

530 BIT=INT< BYTEI/DI V > 

IF •?IT=1 THEN BIN«< T,T >=M " 

IF 3IT=1 TH£N BYTE1=BYTE1-DIV 

DIV=!NT< DI V/2 ) 
560 NEXT T 
610 RETURN 



535 
540 
550 



Program I. 



70 REM PROGRAM 2 

80 DIM BIN«< 8 ) 

90 REM O.S. SHADOW FOR CHBAS=2F4 HEX 

100 CH=2»256+15*16+4 

130 CHBAS=PEEK< CH )«256 

200 PRINT "ENTER CHARACTER NUMBER" 

210 INPUT CHNUM 

211 PRINT CHNUM, CHRt< CHNUM) 

212 GOSUB 220 

213 PRINT 

214 GOTO 200 

215 REM FIDDLE CHR» VALUE TO ROM VAL 
220 IF CHNUM<32 THEN CH=CHNUM+64 

230 IF CHNUMOG THEN IF CHNUM >31 THEN CH«CHNUM-32 

240 IF CHNUM >95 THEN CH=CHNUM 

250 REM PULL 8 BYTES. TRANSLATE , PR I NT 

260 CLOC = CHBAS+< 8»CH ) 

270 FOR B=0 TO 7 

280 BYTE = PEEK< CLOC + B ) 

290 GOSUB 500 

300 PRINT B+1)"* ")B1N* 

310 NEXT B 

320 RETURN 

500 REM DECIMAL TO BINARY 

505 BINt=" 

510 DIV=128 

515 BYTE1=BYTE 

52e FOR T=l TO 8 

530 B1T= INT< BYTE1/DIV > 

535 IF ilT = l THEN B I N»( T , T )= " 1 " 

540 IF 3IT=1 THEN BYTE1 =BYTE1 -D I V 

550 DIV-INTi DI V/2 ) 

5G0 NEXT T 

610 PETUPN 



Program 2. 



When the Atari is first turned on, a 
check is made to determine where RAM 
ends. This can be anywhere from 8K to 
48K from the beginning of memory; it 
depends on how many boards you have 
installed. In location 106 decimal (6A hex) 
is stored the page number of the first byte 
of nonexistent memory. In other words, 
256*PEEK( 106) is the address of the first 
byte of nonexistent memory. 



The Atari uses the very top of RAM 
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display memory and display list storage. 
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each other into free RAM when they use 
more memory.) (See Diagram 5.) So, 
whenever a graphics command is executed, 
and the Atari needs to set up a new display 



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195 



Atari, continued... 

memory display list, it checks location 
106 to see where RAM ends. It then backs 
up the required number of locations and 
puts the display memory in. Thus 106 can 
be thought of as a "fence." that is used to 
find the end of memory. 

Now let's assume we POKE 106. PEEK 
( 106)-4. This will move the end-of-memory 
fence back four pages. Each page, you 
will recall, is 256 bytes, so that's 4 x 256 or 
1024 bytes moved back. We then re-execute 
a graphics command, so the Atari will 
move the display memory display list out 
of that 1024-byte area, behind its fence. 
(See Diagram 6.) In this way we reserve 
1024 bytes of memory starting on a page 
border. 

There are several advantages of getting 
1024 bytes this way. It doesn't matter 
what size memory your machine has. as 
long as the minimum 1024 bytes are 
available. Nor does it matter how long 
your Basic program is or what graphics 
mode you are in. You can see it is quite a 
handy general purpose thing to have. 

This is also the preferred technique to 
use when reserving memory for the Player- 
Missile bitmap area. Eight pages are 
required for a 2048-byte bitmap (single 
line resolution) or four for 1024 bytes 
(double line resolution). You will see this 
byte 106 modification in most Player-Missile 
articles. 

One warning note: Basic cannot handle 
setting up a display list and display memory 
for graphics modes 7 and 8 in all cases 
when you modify the 106 pointer by less 
than 4K at a time. This means graphics 8 
will produce truly bizarre results if you 
use PEEK(106)-8. Use a minimum of 4K 
change, or PEEK(106H6. This may explain 
the problems some people have using 
Player-Missile graphics with high resolution 
graphics modes. 

Copying the Character Set 

We now know the beginning of the 
RAM area, and where the ROM character 
set starts (E000 hex or 57344 decimal). 
Let's use Program 3 to copy the ROM 
character set to RAM. This program moves 
the 106 pointer back four pages and copies 
the character set over. It takes a while — 
around ten seconds to copy 1024 bytes— 
but later we will see a better way to do 
this. 

Finally, the CHBAS pointer is changed 
to reflect the page of the beginning of 
RAM. Antic is now using the RAM char- 
acter set. (See Diagram 7.) 

Now Program 3 doesn't show you much, 
for Antic will still be displaying characters 
as usual. So, let's watch the copy process 
in action. This time we will move the 
character set pointer first, then do the 
copy. Your screen will then display what- 
ever junk is in memory at the start of the 



fiddress 



Usage 



PEEK (106) 



3000 
???? 




???? 
???? 




???? 
???? 




???? 
???? 




???? 
• ■tMTOP 



Operating System 



Basic Program Storage 

Grows Downwards into Free Memory 

Free Memory 
(Size varies) 



Display List 



Display Memory 

Grow Upwards into Free Memory 



(Cartridge, etc, or end of ROM) 



Hence, PEEK (106) marks the last address of usable 
memory to the fttari. The display memory is put 
immediately above it. 



Diagram 5. 



(free) 



(free) 



(d i sp 1 ay 
area) 



106 "fence" 



(display 
area) 



(memory now 
open for 
user's 
needs) 



106 "fence" 



1024 bytes 



When the 106 "fence" is moved upwards, and a 
graphics command re-executed, memory below it 
is left open for user's applications (character 
sets, player-missile graphics, and so forth). 



Diagram 6. 



copy as the pointer is changed, then more 
and more letters will appear as Basic copies 
character shapes into the RAM table. At 
the end of the copy, the screen will once 
again appear normal. (See Program 4.) 

Program 5 represents an interesting 
variation. It copies characters from ROM 



to RAM upside down. It does this by 
copying the eighth byte of every character 
into the first byte of the new bitmap for 
that character, the seventh to the second, 
and so forth. The result is that the new 
RAM bitmap is an inverted image of the 
ROM bitmap. This is fun; the characters 



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Atari, continued... 

are still onscreen, and you can edit and so 
forth, but they are upside down. (See 
Diagram 8.) 

58 REM PROGRAM 3 

60 REM COPIES CHARSET TO RAM 

iee MEMTOP=PEEK< 106 ) 

110 GRT0P=MEMT0P-4 

120 POKE 106.GRT0P 

130 REM RESET 

140 GRAPHICS 

141 LIST 

160 CHROM=PEEK< 756 >«256 

170 CHRAM=GRT0P*2S6 

ISO PRINT "COPYING." 

500 FOR N=0 TO 1023 

510 POKE CHRAM+N,PEEK< CHROM+N ) 

520 NEXT N 

530 PRINT "COPIED." 

535 REM NOW MODIFY POINTER 

540 POKE 756,GRT0P 

Program 3. 

SO REM PROGRAMS 

60 REM COPIES CHARSET TO RAM 

100 MEMTOP = PEEK' 106 ) 

110 GRT0P=MEMT0P-4 

120 POKE 106.GRT0P 

130 REM'RESET 

140 GRAPHICS 

141 LIST 

160 CHROM=PEEK( 756 )«256 
170 CHRAM=GRT0P»256 

172 REM NOW MODIFY POINTER 

173 POKE 756.GRT0P 
180 PRINT "COPI 1NG. " 
500 FOR N=0 TO 1023 

510 POKE CHRAM+N,PEEK( CHROM+N ) 

520 NEAT N 

530 PPINT "COPIED. " 

Program 4. 



Program 6 shows yet another useful 
variation. It makes the last byte of every 
character a 255, or solid l's. This puts a 
solid line at the base of the characters, 
and creates a line at the bottom of each 
of the 24 character rows— a nifty effect. 

Program 7 illustrates another handy 
character set feature. We can POKE 
different values into the CHBAS pointer 
and thus switch between multiple character 
sets immediately. In Program 7 we have 
two character sets, one normal, one flipped 
upside down. The program switches 
between them rapidly for an effect that is 
hard on the eyes. Assembly language 
programmers take note: with a display 
list interrupt, you can change character 
sets midway down the screen. The possi- 
bilities are amazing. Just POKE a new 
value into the Antic hardware address for 
CHBAS. 



Changing a Character 

Now let's assume we have decided to 
change a ROM character set character to 
a custom one. Let's work it out by hand 
the first time. Incidentally, an editor based 
on this hand working out is none too 
difficult to write and there are many more 
on the market. None, however, has the 
storage scheme I'm going to explain which 
is so convenient. 



First, let's design the character we want 
as an 8 x 8 dot matrix. (See Diagram 9.) 

This is, of course, the character from 
the "Have a Nice Day!" button. 

Next, let's determine the bit patterns. 
You can do this by converting to hex 
each nibble (four bits), and then going to 
decimal (as I do), or by adding the number 
shown on the top of the column to the 
total for that line whenever the dot it 
represents is on. For example, in the 
diagram, 16 and 18 are on. so add 16+8 
=24. 

At the end of this process, you will 
have 8 bytes of data which represent the 
bitmap for that character. Next, let's figure 
out which character we will replace with 
our character. How about the space 
character? There are plenty of those 
onscreen. OK, the space character is the 
first one in the ROM-RAM character 
set— character #0, in internal code., So 
what we do is to POKE these eight bytes 
into the location where the bitmap of the 
space character is located, replacing it 
with the "smile" character. See Program 
8, which is our copy-the-character-set-from- 
ROM-to-RAM routine with the added 
POKEs. (The numbers are in the DATA 
statement.) 

If we wanted to replace another char- 
acter we would multiply its character 
number by 8, add it to the start of the 



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Atari, continued. 



40 REM PROGRAM 5. COPIES UPSIDE DOWN. 

50 REM COPY CHARSET UPSIDE DOWN 

100 MEMTOP=PEEK< 106 > 

1 10 GRT0P=MEMT0P-4 

115 CLOC=GRTOP 

120 POKE 106.GRT0P 

130 REM RESET GR.O DM/DL AREA 

140 GRAPHICS 

141 LIST 
150 CH=7SG 

160 CHROM = PEEK( CH >»256 

170 CHRAM=GRT0P*256 

175 PRINT "CHRAM=" jCHRAMl" CHR0M= • I CHROM 

180 PRINT "COPTING." 

190 REM COPY ROM TO RAM 

300 POKE CH.CLOC 

500 FOR N=© TO 1023 

510 POKE CHRAM+N,PEEK( CHROM+N ) 

520 NEXT N 

530 PRINT "COPIED." 

550 REM NOW COPY UPSIDE DOWN 

600 FOR CHNUM=0 TO 127 

610 FOR BtTE=0 TO 7 

615 Z=PEEK( CHROM+< CHNUM«8 )+BYTE ) 

620 POKE ( CHNUM«8 » + ( CHRAM )+< 7-BYTE >,Z 

630 NEXT BYTE 

635 NEXT CHNUM 

640 PRINT "RECOPIED." 

Program 5. 

40 REM PROGRAM 6. UNDERLINES CHARS. 

100 MEMTOP=PEEK( 106 ) 

110 GRT0P=MEMT0P-4 

115 CLOC=GRTOP 

120 POKE 106.GRT0P 

130 REM RESET GR.O DM/DL AREA 

140 GRAPHICS 

141 LIST 
150 CH=756 

160 CHROM=PEEK< CH >»25G 

170 CHRAM=GRT0P«256 

175 PRINT "CHRAM=" JCHRAM; 

180 POKE CH.GRTOP 

GOO FOR CHNUM=0 TO 127 

610 FOR BYTE=0 TO 7 

615 2 = PEEK< CHROM + ( CHNUM«8 )+BYTE ) 

616 IF 3rTE=7 THEN LET 2=255 
620 POKE ( CHNLMf 8 )+( CHRAM )+( BYTE ) , Z 
630 NEXT BYTE 
635 NEXT CHNUM 
640 PRINT "RECOPIED." 



CHPOM=" JCHROM 



Program 6. 



40 REM PROGRAM 7. COPIES UPSIDE DOWN. 

45 REM THEN FLIPS BACK AND FORTH 

100 MEMTOP=PEEK( 106 ) 

110 GRT0P=MEMT0P-4 

1 15 CLOC=GRTOP 

120 POKE 106.GRT0P 

130 REM RESET GR.O DM/DL AREA 

140 GRAPHICS 

141 LIST 
150 CH=756 

160 CHR0M=PEEK< CH)«256 

170 CHRAM=GRT0P*256 

175 PRINT "CHRAM=" JCHRAMl" CHROM= ") CHROM 

180 PRINT "COPYING. " 

190 REM COPY ROM TO RAM 

300 POKE CH.CLOC 

500 FOR N=0 TO 1023 

510 POKE CHRAM+N.PEEKC CHROM+N ) 

520 NEXT N 

530 PRINT "COPIED." 

550 REM NOW COPY UPSIDE DOWN 

600 FOR CHNUM=0 TO 127 

610 FOR BYTE=0 TO 7 

615 Z=PEEK( CHROM + ( CHNUM«S ) + BYTE ) 

620 POKE ( CHNUM»8 )+( CHRAM )+< 7-BYTE ),Z 

630 NEXT BYTE 





NEXT CHNUM 






640 


PRINT "RECOPIED 


" 




700 


REM FLIP 






710 


POKE CH, 224: REM 


NORMAL 


ROM 


720 


POKE CH.CLOC 






730 


GOTO 710 






Program 7. 







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Atari, continued. 











PEEK (106) 
MEMTOP 


Basic 


The ROM character set is copied 
to RAM, then the CHBAS pointer 
ANTIC uses is changed to tell 
ANTIC to use the RAM characters. 


Free 
RAM 


D i sp 1 ay 
Memory 


RAM 
C-SET 




CHBAS POINTER (new) 




CHBAS POINTER (old) 




ROM 
C-Set 


















Diagram 7. 



1HIS UN Wiyai INA3dl3a SDd33N 



Sample of inverted characters. Editing and 
all cursor functions can be performed with the 
Atari in this mode. 



Diagram 8. 



address of the character set and start 
POKEing there. That's why I added the 
LOC=(CHBAS + (8*0)), which at first 
seems nonsensical. Replace the with 
whatever number you wish. 

At this point your Atari will be smiling 
proudly. Take a minute and enjoy its 
happiness at your success. 



Storing and Retrieving Your Character 
Set 

You don't want to have to re-POKE 
your character set each time you want to 
use it. And let's face it, the POKE method 
of copying the 1024 bytes from ROM to 
RAM is incredibly slow. Let's solve these 
problems with some custom routines. They 
all work with string manipulations, which 
I'm rapidly beginning to realize are 
extremely powerful and usable on the 



Atari. The reason for their power is their 
speed in an otherwise slow Basic; the 
string manipulation routines are just high 
speed assembly language copy routines. 
Let's subvert them for our purposes, and 
have assembly speed without all the 
hassles. 

Each string is stored in memory as a 
continuous group of bytes. A string has a 
DIMensioned length, a "currently in use" 
length, and a location in memory. Let's 
say we have two strings. RAMS and ROMS, 
and assume they both have length 1024. 
Assume also that the storage location where 
the Atari thinks RAMS is in memory just 
happens to be our RAM character set 
area. (What a marvelous coincidence.) 
Let's further assume that ROMS is in the 
ROM character set area (or so the Atari 
thinks.) What will happen then when we 
execute RAMS=ROM$? 



The Basic string manipulation routines 
will copy 1024 bytes (dimensioned length) 
from ROMS to RAMS, and thus copy the 
ROM character set to the RAM character 
set at extremely high speed! 

Now let's modify the RAM character 
set. Bear in mind that you can do this 
with either a POKE or a string operator: 
when you modify the string, you're modi- 
fying the RAM character set. (It won't let 
you modify ROMS for obvious reasons). 
Then let's write RAMS out to disk. Fine, 
the Atari will store your character set on 
disk as a string. Next, let's read it back in, 
still using all string manipulation operators, 
and store it back into the character set 
area. You will have stored and recovered 
your character set. Nice, eh? No hassles 
with bits and bytes, just a PRINT to disk 
and an INPUT later on. (The details of 
reading and writing said string I'll leave 
to you; it's awfully easy). 

Incidentally, the power of the copy 
capability is also usable in player-missile 
graphics. In the April 1981 "Outpost: Atari," 
George Blank assigned a string to the 
player bitmap area, and then moved the 
player up or down at high speed using a 
$=$. This is a nice, fast way to move a 
player vertically, which before required 
either assembly language or slow POKE 
copies. And strings may be used for data 
storage; the display list interrupt routine 
I wrote and documented not too long ago 
used a string to store data bytes for color 
registers, and another string to hold the 
assembly program used for the interrupt 
handling. 

Let's learn how to change where the 
Atari thinks a string is located in memory. 
Then we'll get to the actual subroutines 
you can use. 

The Atari keeps two tables in memory 
for Basic that deal with string variables. 
One is called the variable table, the other 
the array table. There are 128 possible 
variable names on the Atari, numbered 0- 
127, and the variable table has an 8-byte 
entry for each name in use. All the entries 
are packed together. For strings this entry 
has dimensioned and in-use length, and 
location in the array table in which the 
string is stored. 

The other table is the array table, in 
which the actual data of the string is kept. 
So, what we have to do is alter the dimen- 
sioned and in-use length as shown in the 
variable table, both to 1024, then modify 
where the Atari thinks the variable is stored 
in the array table. The only tricky part of 
this is that the address of where the string 
is actually stored is relative to the array 
table; in other words, a for this value 
doesn't mean the string starts at location 
9, it starts at the beginning of the array 
table. 



202 



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Atari, continued... 

You can find (he beginning of the 
variable table by: 
VT=PEEK( 134)+256*PEEK< 135) 
and the array table by: 
AT=PEEK( 140)+256»PEEK( 141) 

Next, we must consider the actual layout 
of the variable table entries. I will assume 
that RAMS and ROMS are the first two 
variables in the table. In reality, to do this 
they must be the first variables typed in a 
NEW program or ENTERed from a pro- 
gram LISTed to disk (A SAVE-LOAD 
won't work, it stores the variable table 
along with the program). So if you are 
starting out with a new program, just have 
the DIM line ( 10 DIM RAMS! 1 ).ROMS( 1 )) 
as the first line of your program after a 
NEW. If you're adding these to an existing 
program, make that the first line and LIST- 
ENTER it to disk. 

Note: The variable table entry is created 
for any variable referenced by your pro- 
gram. This includes variables you used 
once and then deleted; they are still there 
taking up space. You can run out of space 
in the variable table when it gets too full 
of these nonexistent variables. LIST, then 
ENTER the program from disk to clear 
out the table; it forces a new variable 
table to be built. 

Table 1 shows the variable table with 
explanations. 



SO REM PROGRAM S 

60 REM COPIES CHARSET TO RAM 

70 REM POKES POINTER B/4 COPY 

80 REM ADDS SMILE 

100 MEMT0P = PEEK< 106 ) 

110 GRT0P=MEMT0P-4 

120 POKE 106.GRT0P 

130 REM RESET 

140 GRAPHICS 

141 LIST 

145 CHR0M=PEEK< 756 >«256 

150 REM NOW MODIFY POINTER 

160 POKE 756.GRT0P 

170 CHRAM=GRT0P«256 

180 PRINT "COPYING." 

500 FOR N=0 TO 1023 

510 POKE CHRAM+N,PEEK( CHROM+N ) 

520 NEXT N 

S30 PRINT "COPIED. " 

540 REM ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPORSTUVUXYZ 

5S0 REM 123567890' "•»;<&'•< ><>- = + » 

1000 REM SMILE SUTTON LAYOUT: 

1010 REM OOOOOOOO 00 00 

1020 REM 01100110 66 102 

1030 REM 01100110 66 102 

1040 REM 00000000 00 000 

1050 REM 01000010 42 66 

1060 REM 00111100 3C 60 

1070 REM fcOOIIOOO 16 24 

1080 REM 00000000 00 00 

1089 REM 

1090 DATA 00,102,102,000,66.60,24,00 
1100 FOR ADDR=CHRAM TO CHRAM+7 

1110 READ DAT: POKE ADDR.DAT 
1 120 NEXT ADDR 



This is the entry for RAMS, the first 
string in the table. The entry for ROMS 
immediately follows. 

This subroutine should now become 
clear. It modifies the address and length 
of RAMS to that of the chracter set. It 
not only copies ROMS to RAMS, it also 
modifies the variable table data for ROMS. 
(All the modifying, by the way, is quite 
speedy, so the RAM$=ROM$ still executes 
much faster than the previous POKE copy). 
(See Program 9.) 



Conclusion 

Well, there you have it. A painless 
introduction to character sets. If you've a 
mind for a little experimenting, you can 
have a great deal of fun with them, while 
expanding the abilities of your Atari 
tremendously. I'm considering using mul- 
tiple reprogrammed characters, for exam- 
ple, in a dungeon game I'm thinking of 
writing, to show in fine detail the monster 
approaching you. That's just one of many 
applications. D 



Location 


Value 


Meaning 


VT+0 


129 


"This is a string" 


VT+1 





"This is variable #0" 


VT+2,VT+3 


?'.' 


16 bits. Location from 
the start of AT. 


VT+4, VT+5 


'.'? 


DIMensioned length. 


VT+6, VT+7 


?'.' 


In-use length 



Table 1. 



REM PROGRAM 9 

REM PROGRAM TO COPY ROM TO RAM 

PEM USING STPiNG MANIPULATORS 

REM 

REM NOTE MOST CALCULATIONS ARE NOT 

9 REM MARDCODED TO ALLOW OTHER USE 

10 DIM PAM»( 1 >,R0M»< 1 >:REM VT ENTPY 1 
90 REM GET ARRAY .VARIABLE, DL , DM LOC 
105 AT=PEEK< 140 > + 256«PEEK< 141 ) 

110 VT = PEEK( 134 ) + 256»PEEKi' 135 ) 
120 POKE 106,PEEK< 106 >-l6:REN 4K MOVE 
125 GRAPHICS 0:REM RESET OUT OF TOP AREA 
130 RAMLOC=PEEK' 106 >«256 
_150 PEM CALCULATE OFFSET FROM AT 
160 OFFRAM=RAMLOC-AT 
170 OFFROM=( 14*4096 >-AT 

PEM CALCULATE LO.HI BYTES 
225 LENS=1025:REM C-SET LENGTH 
230 LENHI = INT( LENS/256 ) 
240 LENL0=INT< LENS-< LENHI*25G > ) 

REM 
250 0FFRAMH= I NT< OFFRAM/256 ) 
260 OFFRAML=INTl 0FFftAM-< 256»0FFRAMH ) ) 
270 0FFR0MH=INT' 0FFR0M/256 > 
280 OFFP0ML=INT'. OFFROM-l 256»0FFR0MH ) ) 

300 REM REWRITE RAMi DAThMN VT 

■< PEM VT + = 129 
.320 PEM VT»1 = .' VAP ••» I 
320 POKE VT+2,0FFRAML: PEM OFFSET 
340 POKE VT+3,0FFRAMH:REM OFFSET 
350 POKE VT+4,LENL0:REM DIM LENGTH 
360 POKE VT+S,LENHI:REM DIM LENGTH 
370 POKE VT+6, LENlO: PEM USED LENGTH 
380 POKE VT+7.LENHI :REM USED LENGTH 
' PEM PEHP1TE POM* DATA IN VT 
^ 410 REM VT+8 = 129 

• REM VT + 3 = 1 ( VAP #0 ) 
' POKE VT+10,OFFROML:REM OFFSET 
440 POKE VT+1 1 .OFFPOMHlREM OFFSET 
4S0 POKE VT+12,LENL0:REM DIM LENGTH 
460 POKE VT+13,LENHi : REM DIM LENGTH 
VT+14,LENL0| I' LENGTH 

460 POKE VT+l5,LENHi : D LENGTH 

"> PEft PESTOPE ChPmS POINTEP 
510 POKE 756, PEEK >. 106 l 
Si5 PEM NOW DO COP i . 
520 RAM*=R0Mt 



Program 8. 



Program 9. 



204 



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writer/Diablo'Qume as well as its ASCII printing features 
I Serial Interlace only i 

And. as with all SuperSoft products, a complete online HELP 
system and user manual is included. 

Price: $100 00 (manual only): $15 00 
Requires: 32K CP/M 



Available from line dealers everywhere. 

or directly from: 

SUPERSOFT ASSOCIATES 

PO BOX 1628 

CHAMPAIGN. IL 61820 

(217)359 2112 

Technical Hot Line (217)359 2691 



\» eojajajoM ma 



atom amano 



SuperScft 



Software available lor virtually all CPfM 
Systems Specify your system 



u k ond Europe 

DIGITAL DEVICES 

134 LONDON ROAD 

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TUNBRIOGE WELLS 

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ENGLAND Uie. 9S&S? 

Tel Tunbridge Wens (069?) 3T97T/9 

Japan 

ASR CORPORATION INTERNATIONAL 

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JAPAN 

T*l i03)43<*390l Teiei 242 3296 



First in Software Technology 



CIRCLE 256 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 175 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









Getting Acquainted 
With Your VIC20 



Getting Acquainted With Your VIC20 by Tim Hartnell leads 
the reader, step by simple step, from the absolute basics of 
programming the VIC to writing complex, sophisticated 
programs. It thoroughly describes use of the sound, music 
and color graphics capabilities and illustrates the use of 
these functions in over 60 programs and games 

By following the comprehensive explanation given for 
each program and computer function, the reader will learn a 
great deal about the VIC. the Basic language and micro- 
computers in general. 

Parents and teachers will find the section VIC as a Teacher 
a valuable aid in making the most effective use of the computer 
in the teaching/learning process 

This book is a worthwhile resource and will help the reader 
make the most of his computer. The reader will never feel 
quite the same about it after surviving a round of FRENZY, 
or listening to the VIC20 compose a symphony . 

Softbound. 132 pages. 5 1/2 x 8". $8 95; add $1 50 for 
shipping and handling. 

creative computing 



39 E. Hanover Avenue 
Morris Plains, NJ 07950 



Toll-free 800-631-8112 
In NJ 201-540-0445 




210,000 

niLESPERQflUOTI! 

Take a colorful, challenging 700 mile journey in this 
computer version of the French card game loved by 
millions around the world Overcome accidents, flat tires, 
gas shortages, speed limits, and traffic lights to arrive 
before your opponent Spectacular high resolution color 
graphics will make this the program you use to demonstrate 
the abilities of your Apple II Beat the energy shortage; 
with your computer and a color TV. you can play over 
300 games on the electricity made from one gallon of oil 

MILESTONES 

48K Apple II Plus Applesoft Basic 

Cassette CS 401 5 $14 95 Diskette CS 4515 $19 95 



Order Today 



creative 

computing 

software 



39 E Hanover Avenue 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -*1t 2 

InNJ 201*540-0445 



To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus S? 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morns Plains NJ 07950 Visa MasterCard 
and American F * press orders may be called 
m toll free 

Order today at no risk If you are no* 
completely satisfied your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 






CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



mmm 



m 



The Investor's 
Eclee 



If you are a serious investor, you need to be able to 
know how well you are doing, how well your past strategies 
have worked, the potential success of future action - ', and 
even the present state of your portfolio to make intelligent 
decisions. A computer with the right program can signif- 
icantly reduce the amount of effort necessary to determine 
this information 

Stock and Options Analysis, by Dr Alfred Adler. contains 
four programs that can justify the purchase of a computer 
by the serious investor. With these programs, you can 
easily graph the possible returns from different investment 
strategies You can intelligently use puts and calls in 
combination with stock purchases and sales to minimize 
risk, maximize returns, or even limit risk at the same time 
you increase returns. Another program allows you to 
quickly produce a listing, item by item, of the cost, current 
value per share, total current value and capital gain of a 
portfolio that may mix long and short stock and long and 
short option positions. 



Stock and Options Analysis is available for two popular 
microcomputer systems, the Apple II and the TRS-80 It 
comes with a 25 page instruction manual that thoroughly 
discusses the use of computer generated charts and 
tables generated by these programs to analyze your own 
investment strategy. The manual is available separately 
for $2 and we recommend that you purchase it first if you 
have any hesitation about purchasing this outstanding 
package. 

STOCK AND OPTIONS ANALYSIS 
CS 3801 TRS-80 Diskette (32K of memory) $99 95 
CS 4801 Apple II Diskette (32K of memory) $99 95 
RP-03 Instruction booklet (separately) $2 00 

Also available for the TRS-80 computer: 

Advanced Statistics 

CS 3303 16K Cassette $24 95 

CS 3505 32K Diskette $24 95 

Graphics Package 

CS3301 16K Cassette $11 95 

Investment Analysis (6 programs) 
CS 3305 4K Cassette $24 95 



Order Today 



To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains NJ0'9">0 Visa MasterCard 
and American E x press orders may be ca'ied 
in toll-tree 

Order today at no risk If you are not 
completely satisfied your money will he 
promptly and courteously refunded 



creative 

compatind. 

software 



39 E. Hanover Avenue 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 80043141 12 

InNJ 201-540-0445 



MM 



MM 



m 



■MM 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 



AppteW 



seRsatioRa 
software 




creative 

conepating 

software 



CAI Programs Vol I 



Cassette CS-4201 $11 95 



Requires 16K Apple II or Apple II Plus 





MINT 
COReURETC* 

; CRRBURETOR 

SUPER 

=HESS OMV I.EV FOR NEXT HORO 
PRESS -S- TO STOP 



U.S. Map Identitystatesandtheircapitals Spelling Study aid with your list ot trouble- 
some words 



8*1=3 
UOU ! ■ 



Math DrIM Arithmetic drill and practice with Add With Carry Drill and practice on sums 
large or small display requiring numbers to be earned 




Ecology Simulations - / 



Disk CS-4 706 $24 95 

Cassette CS-3201 $24 95 
DiskCS-3501 $24 95 

Start 

STERL allows you to investigate the 
effectiveness ot two different methods of 
pest control — the use of pesticides and the 
release ot sterile males into a screw-worm 
fly population The concept of a more 
environmentally sound approach versus 
traditional chemical methods is introduced 
In addition. STERL demonstrates the effec- 
tiveness of an integrated approach over 
either alternative by itself 




Requires 48K Applesoft in ROM 
or Apple II Plus 
Requires 16K TRS-80 
Requires 32K TRS-80 

Pop 

The POPsenes of models examines three 
different methods of population protection, 
including exponential. S-shaped or logistical 
and logistical with low density effects At 
the same time the programs introduce the 
concept of successive refinement of a model, 
since each POP model adds more details 
than the previous one 

Tag 

TAG simulates the tagging and recovery 
method that is used by scientists to estimate 
animal populations You attempt to estimate 
the bass population in a warm-water, bass- 
bluegill farm pond Tagged fish are released 
in the pond and samples are recovered at 
timed intervals By presenting a detailed 
simulation of real sampling by tagging and 
recovery. TAG helps you to understand 
this process 

Buffalo 

BUFFALO simulates the yearly cycle of 
buffalo population growth and decline, and 
allows you to investigate the effects of 
different heard management policies Simu- 
lations such as BUFFALO allow you to 
explore what if questions and experiment 
with approaches that might be disatrous in 
real life 



CAI Programs Vol II 



Ecology Simulations - II 



Cassette CS-4202 $ 1 1 95 



Requires 16K Apple II or Apple II Plus 





European Map Identify countries and 
their capitals 



Music Composing Aid Make and play 
your own music on the Apple No addi- 
tional hardware required Includes a 
sample from Bach s Tocatta S Fugue in 
D minor 



Meteor Math Learn math skills by destroy- 
ing menacing meteors 



DiskCS-4707$24 95 
Cassette CS-3202 $24 95 
Disk CS-3502 $24 95 

Pollute 

POLLUTE focuses on one part of the water 
pollution problem, the accumulation of certain 
waste materials in waterways and their effect 
on dissolved oxygen levels in the water 
You can use the computer to investigate 
the effects ot different variables such as 
the body ot water, temperature, and the 
rate of dumping waste material Various types 
of primary and secondary waste treatment, 
as well as the impact of scientific and 
economic decisions can be examined 





Requires 48K Applesoft in ROM 

or Apple II Plus 

Requires 16K TRS-80 

Requires 32K TRS-80 
Rats 

In RATS, you play the role of a Hearth 
Department official devising an effective. 
pratical plan to control rats The plan may 
combine the use of sanitation and slow kill 
and quick kill poisons to eliminate a rat 
population It is also possible to change the 
initial population size, growth rate, and 
whether the simulation will take place in an 
apartment building or an eintire city 

Malaria 

With MALARIA, you are a Health Official 
trying to control a malaria epidemic while 
taking into account financial considerations 
in setting up a program The budgeted use 
of field hospitals, drugs for the ill. three 
types of pesticides and preventative medica- 
tion, must be properly combined for an 
effective control program 

Diet 

DIET is designed to explore the effect of 
four base substances, protein lipids, calories 
and carbohydrates, on your diet You enter 
a list of the types and amounts ot food eaten 
in a typical day. as well as your age. weight, 
sex. health and a physical activity factor 
DIET is particularly valuable in indicating 
how a diet can be changed to raise or lower 
body weights and provide proper nutrition 



CAI Programs I and II Stock & Options Analysis 



Disk CS-4 701. $24 95 
Requires 32K Integer Basic 

This disk contains all 7 programs from cas- 
settes CS-4201 and CS-4202 



Note The ecology simulations programs 
are not available on cassette 



Stock & Options 

DiskCS-4801 $99 95 

Requires 32K Applesoft or Apple II Plus 

DlskCS-3801 $99 95 

Requires 32K TRS-80 

This is a comprehensive set of tour programs 
for the investment strategy of hedging listed 
options against common stocks A complete 
description is in the TRS-80 section 



Order Today 



To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains NJ 07950 Visa MasterCard 
and American E x press orders may be called 
in toll-free 



Order today at no risk If you are not 
completely satisfied your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 

Creative Computing Software 

Morris Plains NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631-81 12 

In NJ 201-540-0445 



creative computing software 



AdcX* -» ttw rrQitumtmts ttacMrtnar* o* Appt* CompuWr tnc 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Making the Most 
of Your TRS-80 
Color Computer 



Making The Most of Your TRS-80 Color Computer by Tim 
Hartnell is a curious and interesting book. While at first sight 
it appears to be a book which simply tells the reader how to 
write and develop games programs for the Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Color Computer— and gives the listings of over 60 
programs in the process— it is far more. By simply studying 
the explanation given for each game and computer function 
the reader will learn a great deal about the Color Computer, 
the BASIC language and micro-computers in general. 

However, the book is not all games. For parents or teachers 
the section The Color Computer As a Teacher is a valuable 
aid in making the most effective use of the computer in the 
teaching/learning process 

The book is a worthwhile resource and will help the reader 
make the most of his computer. The reader will never feel 
quite the same about it after surviving a round of FRENZY, 
or listening to the Color Computer compose a symphony'. 

Softbound. 144 pages, 5 1/2" x 8", $8.95; add $1.50 for 
shipping. 

creative computing 



39 E. Hanover Avenue 
Morris Plains, NJ 07950 



Toll-free 800-631-8112 
In NJ 201-540-0445 



Su per Paddle 




Are the paddle controllers on your Apple wearing out? Or did 
you get a new Apple without paddles? 

We've got good news for you! Super Paddles. Each paddle 
control consists of a high-precision linear potentiometer and a 
big (1/2" D) industrial-quality pushbutton mounted in a sturdy 
4" x 2" x 1" metal case which matches the Apple. Each of the 
two paddles is connected with a long 5-foot cable to the Apple 
paddle socket. 

Every component in a set of Super Paddles is the very finest 
quality available. The set is backed by a 90-day limited warranty 
from the manufacturer as well as Peripherals Plus' moneyback 
guarantee of satisfaction. 

To order, send $39.95 plus $2.00 postage and handling (NJ 
residents add $2.00 sales tax) to the address below. Credit card 
customers may call orders to our toll-free number. 




Toll-free 800-631 -811 2 
(in NJ 201-540-0445) 



39 E. Hanover Avenue 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




GRAPHICS 

FOR LABS 

BY PAUL K. WARME 



SCIENTIFIC 
PLOTTER 

48K APPLE II + , $24.95 

Draws professional-looking graphs of your data. EASIER. 
FASTER. NEATER and more ACCURATE than hand- 
plotting. You choose data format, length and position of 
axes. 20 symbols, error bars, labels anywhere in 4 orienta- 
tions etc Includes 5 DEMOS on disk with 30-PAGE 
MANUAL 



CURVE FITTER 

48K APPLE II + , $34.95 

Selects the best curve to fit your data SCALE. TRANS- 
FORM. AVERAGE. SMOOTH. INTERPOLATE (3 types). 
LEAST SQUARES FIT (3 types). EVALUATE UNKNOWNS 
from fitted curve Includes 5 DEMOS on disk with 33- 
PAGE MANUAL 



Order Today 



To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus $2 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morns Plains NJ 07950 Visa MasterCard 
*nd Amertcan b -press orders may be called 
m toll free 

Order today al no risk It you are not 
completely satisfied your money will he 
promptly and courteously refunded 



creative 

computing 

software 



Morns Plains NJ 07950 

Toll-free M0-631-S1 12 

InNIJ 201-540-0445 



Can a Small Computer 
Really Save You Time? 



Yes. If you know the right way to use it And that s where we 
can help. 

Whatever your business— manufacturing or banking, retail or 
research— Small Business Computers is the magazine that will 
dramatically increase your business effectiveness while saving 
you both time and money. In a down-to-earth style. Small 
Business Computers explains how to use small computers 
effectively in your business. 

Our hard-hitting evaluations help you select the best equipment 
and software packages to meet your specific needs Our easy- 
to-read tutorial articles describe how businesses make effective 
use of micros and minis And our program applications are 
guaranteed to save you time and money 

To enter your subscription at no risk whatsoever, send us 
your business card If you are not completely satisfied after 
seeing SBC. write cancel across your invoice One year (6 
issues) costs just $12. 

Subscribe today at no risk. Small Business Computers is the 
best consultant your business will ever have. 

Small 

Business Computers 

Magazine 

39 E Hanover Ave Morris Plains. NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 
(InNJ 201-540-0445) 
CIRCLE 290 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



208 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Super Cassette Sale 





Cassettes A thing of the past" 7 You might 
think so by the number of software houses 
that have dropped them from their line m 
the past year or so 

However, we have always tried to make 
our software available on both cassette and 
disk for as many computers as possible 
This is a policy we intend to continue 

But right now we have so many new 
software packages coming along that we 
are consolidating and merging some of the 
programs from our cassettes into the new 
lineup As a result we are selling out of 
some existing cassettes now in stock 

All of the cassettes are high quality 
durable tape in Norelco-style plastic boxes 
and are backed by our unconditional guaran- 
tee The savings on these cassettes are 
tremendous' 20 to 45% So order yours 
now' At these prices they II move fast 

All orders subject to stock on hand 

PET/CBM 

Graphic Games- 1 cassette includes Escape. 
Snoopy Chase Sweep, and Darts Top rated 
by three reviewers' Available in old and 
new ROM version CS-1004 regular $1 1 95. 
sale price $7 95 




Graphic Games-2 cassette includes 
Checkers Dodgem. Bounce Nuclear Reac- 
tion. LEM. and Artillery Our most popular 
Pet cassette Available in old and new ROM 
version CS-1005 regular $1 1 95 sale price 
$7 95 

Conversational Games cassette includes 
Hexletter Hurkle. Hangman Haiku and 
Eliza Old and new ROM version available 
CS-1006 regular $1 1 95 sale price $7 95 

Board Games cassette includes Yahtzee. 
One-Check Backgammon. Trek 3. and 
Blackjack Old and new ROM available 
CS-1007 regular $1 1 95. sale price *7 95 



SUPER PET SALE 

Take all tour cassettes 12 1 programs in all') 
for only $29 95 



111 HIT 
11 III 



Apple Pet Atari. TRS-80 and Tl 99/4 
are registered trademarks 




ADVENTURES 



Adventureland will excite you as you 
search for treasures on a deserted island, 
or so you think' Available tor the 1 6K Apple 
II or Apple II Plus ICS-401 1 ) Of the Sorceror 
(CS-50031. list S14 95. sale price $1 1 95 

Pirate Adventure takes you from your 
London flat to try to recover Long John 
Silvers buried treasure Available for the 
16K Apple II or the Apple II Plus ICS-401 21 
TRS-80 ICS-30081 or the Sorcerer (CS- 
5004) List $14 95. sale price St 1 95 

Your Mission Impossible if you decide 
to accept it. is to save the worlds first 
nuclear reactor from doom Available for 
the 16K Apple II or the Apple II Plus ICS- 
401 31 or the Sorcerer (CS-5005) List 
$14 95 sale price $11 95 

Wander through the Voodoo Castle in 
search of the secret ol Count Cristo but 
beware the Voodoo man Available for the 
1 6K Apple II or the Apple II Plus ICS-401 4 1 
TRS-80 (CS-30101 or the Sorcerer (CS- 
5006) List $14 95. sale price $1 1 95 

Beware The Count as you move through 
the haunted castle looking for clues to allow 
you to escape unharmed Available lor the 
16K TRS-80 (CS-3011). or the Sorcerer 
(CS-5007) List $14 95. sale price $1 1 95 

Other suppliers are raising the price on 
these programs to $19 95 Save 50% with 
this never-to-be-repeated offer while 
supplies last* 
Apple II 

CS-401 1 Adventureland 
CS-4012 Pirate Adventure 
CS-4013 Mission Impossible 
CS-40 1 4 Voodoo Castle 
Package price $39 95 

Sorcerer 

CS-5003 Adventureland 
CS-5004 Pirate Adventure 
CS-5005 Mission Impossible 
CS-5006 Voodoo Castle 
CS-5007 The Count 
Package price $49 95 



TRS-80 

CS-3008 Pirate Adventure 
CS-3010 Voodoo Castle 
CS-3011 The Count 

Package Price $28 95 



TRS- 80 

Space Games includes Star Lanes. 
Romulan. Star Wars and Ultra Trek Cassette 
ICS-30021 list $1 1 95. sale price $9 49 

Strategy Game* includes Evasion Tunnel 
Vision Motor Racing. Jigsaw, and The Mas- 
ters One of our most popular cassettes' 
Cassette (CS-3005) list $1 1 95 sale price 
$9 49 

Battle Games includes Gunner Sub Hunt. 
Tank Battle, and Getacross Rave reviews 
of this package Cassette (CS-3012) list 
$11 95. sale price $9 49 

Deep Space Games includes three chal- 
lenging games Space Lifeboat. Astenods. 
andGalaxyl Cassette (CS-3013) list $1 1 95 
sale price $9 49 

Teit Processing is a line-oriented simpli- 
fied text editor lor letters, documents, 
reports, etc Cassette ICS-3302) list $14 95 
sale price $1 1 95 





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LISI IJlSiWDI 




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Checking Account is a home budgeting 
system that keeps track of individual checks, 
payees, etc Cassette (CS-3304) list $1 1 95 
sale price $9 49 

10 Test is a valid 60 question IO test with 
a machine language scoring routine that 
defies cheating Cassette ICS-32031 list 
$14 95 sale price $11 95 

TRS-80 SALE 

Pick any four packages for $29 95 Take 
all seven lor $49 00 



SOL-20 

Air Traffic Controller simulates, in real 
time, the actions and responsibilities of an 
air traffic controller Cassette [CS-8001 1 
list $1 1 95. sale price $9 50 

Space Game* includes Astenods Lunar 
Star Wars, and Romulan Cassette (CS-8003) 
list $ 1 1 95. sale price $9 50 

Strategy Games includes Wumpus I. 
Wumpus II Trap. Race and Kingdom Our 
most popular Sol package Cassette tCS- 
8004) list $1 1 95. sale price $9 50 

Reading Comprehension will help students 
to learn the skills needed to master good 
reading habits Available in a five-cassette 
package tor $50 00 sale price $39 95 

GAME SALE 

CS-8001 Air Traffic Controller 
CS-8003 Space Games 
CS-8004 Strategy Games 
Package price $24 95 



APPLE Games Sale 

Space Games-1 includes four games by 
Bob Bishop Saucer Invasion. Rocket Pilot. 
Star Wars, and Dynamic Bouncer Available 
in Integer and Applesoft version (CS-4001 ) 
list $1 1 95 sale price $9 49 

Sports Games 1 includes Baseball Break- 
out. Torpedo Alley and Darts Available in 
Integer version ONLY (CS-4002) list $1 1 95 
sale price $9 49 

Strategy Game* includes Blockade UFO. 
Skunk. Genius and Checkers Available in 
Integer version ONLY (CS-4003I list $1 1 95. 
sale price $9 49 

Brain Games includes Dodgem. Nuclear 
Reaction Parrot. Dueling Digits Midpoints 
Lines and Tones Available in Integer ver- 
sion ONLY (CS-4004) list $ 1 1 95. sale price 
$9 49 

Haunted House is a nightmare simulation 
leaving you only six hours to find the secret 
passage leading out of the many room 
mansion Available in integer version ONLY 
ICS-4005) list $1 1 95. sale price $9 49 

Space Wars is a version of a classic MIT 
game redesigned lor the Apple Available 
in Integer and Applesoft version (CS-4009) 
list $14 95. sale price $11 95 



Outdoor Games includes Forest Fire. Fish- 
ing Trip Treasure Island I and Treasure 
Island II Available in Integer version ONLY 
(CS-4010) list $14 95. sale price $1 1 95 

Know Yourself includes Alcohol. Sex Role. 
Life Expectancy. Psychotherapy, and Com- 
puter Literacy Available in Integer version 
ONLY (CS-43011 list $1195. sale price 
$9 49 

INTEGER SALE 

Pick any four tapes tor $32 95 Pick any 
six tapes lor $44 95 Take all eight cassettes 
for $54 95 

Order Today 

To order any of these software packages 
send payment plus $? 00 postage and 
handling per order to Creative Computing 
Morris Plains NJ 07950 Visa MasterCard 
and American E ipress orders may be called 
m toll tree 

Order today at no risk It you are not 
comp'etely satisfied your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded 



creative 

coiiepatiRfS 

software 



39 E Hanover Avenue 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631-8112 

InNJ 201-540-044* 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



icts . . . new products . . . nev* 



CPU's, MEMORY 



MEMORY FOR INTERACT 




Micro Video Corporation has released 
a device which expands the RAM of the 
Interact computer to 32K. 

Comprised of two PC boards— a memory 
board carrying the extra 16K RAM and a 
power supply board to absorb the load of 
the additional hardware — the expansion 
resides within the main electronics assembly 
housing of the computer. 

The expansion gives users direct access 
to over 16K RAM for Basic programming, 
plus 4K for machine language routines 
accessible from Basic. 

An expanded version of Microsoft Basic 
which provides access to the added mem- 
ory. RS-232 support, and enhanced graphics 
capabilities is included in the expansion 
package. $226.50. 

Micro Video, P.O. Box 7357. 204 E. 
Washington St.. Ann Arbor. MI 48107. 
(313) 996-0626. 

CIRCLE 351 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Z-80 CPU CARD FOR H-8 

Heath Company announces the HA-8-6 
Z-80 PCU Card for the Heath H-8 Com- 
puter. 

The Z-80 CPU Card is designed to 
replace the 8080A CPU supplied with the 
H-8. and is compatible with all current 
Heath disk-based software for the H-8. 



The card also includes all features of 
the HA-8-8 Extended Configuration Option, 
eliminating the need to purchase the ex- 
tended configuration option separately 
before adding the Heath CP/M Operating 
System or the Heath H-47 8" Floppy Disk 
System. $199. 

Heath Company. Dept. 350-135. Benton 
Harbor. MI 49022. (In Canada, write Heath 
Company, 1480 Dundas St. E., Mississauga. 
ONT L4X 2R7.) 

CIRCLE 352 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

RAM/EPROM CARTRIDGE FOR 
TRS-80 COLOR 




The CMemory plug-in cartridge for the 
TRS-80 Color Computer gives the user 
8K of continuous memory. This memory 
can be divided up into any combination 
of 2K blocks of RAM memory and/or 
2716 EPROMs. 

Users may save programs on cartridges. 
The CMemory with RAM installed can 
also be used for storing copies of the 
video screen or machine language sub- 
routines used by a Basic program. 

The CMemory occupies the unused 
address space $C000 to $E000 normally 
reserved for plug-in game cartridges. By 
adding a jumper, the Color Computer 
can be set to automatically execute a 
program in EPROM whenever the reset 

210 



button is pressed. $24.95. 2K RAM chips 
are available for $19.95 each, and 2K 
2716 EPROMs for $14. 

Micro-Labs. Inc.. 902 Pinecrest. Rich- 
ardson. TX 75080. 

CIRCLE 353 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

64K RAM CARD FOR APPLE II 

Legend Industries, Ltd. announces a 
64K RAM card for the Apple II com- 
puter. 

The board gives the Apple the ability 
to access double its own RAM space by 
bank switching 16K banks of RAM over 
the existing ROM space. 

The board is compatible with the Apple 
Language Card and is configured to operate 
as four banks of Language Cards. $349. 

Legend Industries, Ltd., P.O. Box 112. 
Pontiac. MI 48056. 

CIRCLE 354 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

MEMORY SYSTEM 
FOR ATARI 800 




Axlon Incorporated has announced a 
128K memory system for the Atari 800. 

The Ramdisk Memory System comes 
with software that makes the new system 
function like a disk device. The system 
can also be programmed as bank selectable 
RAM memory. 

The Ramdisk Memory System, when 
utilized as an additional disk device in 
conjunction with an Atari 810 disk drive, 
is compatible with existing software written 
for the Atari 800 system. $699. 

Axlon Inc., 170 N. Wolfe Rd., Sunnyvale. 
CA 94086. (408) 73O0216. 

CIRCLE 355 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



JAY ROSENBERG'S 



SUPER 
SKETCH 



THE ULTIMATE 
GRAPHICS PROGRAK 

• KEYBOARD OR 
PADDLE CONTROL 

• DRAM ALPHA-NUMERICS 

OP ANY SIZE. COLOR OR ANGLE 

• MERGE ANY HI -RES 
PICTURES TOGETHER 

• CREATE AND SAVE SLIDE SHOWS 

• MOVE ENTIRE 

HI-RES PICTURES ANYWHERE 
ON THE SCREEN 

• APPLE II* WK DISK 



TO ORDBRi SEND $24.95 TO 

JAY ROSENBERG'S SUPER SKETCH 
5 PRASER AVE. 
MONTICELLO. N.Y. 12701 

N.Y.S. RESIDENTS ADD 7% SALES TAX 



CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



'<&& 



YORK lO 

BASF-DPS 

WORLD STANDARD TAPE 



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• PROFESSIONAL S-SCREW SHELL 

• UNIVERSAL INDUSTRY ACCEPTANCE 

DATA TRAC - C-10, C-20 
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CIRCLE 283 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



the CP/M* and S-100 user's journal 



Finally, there's a magazine with up-to-date, informative articles 
for the serious microcomputer user! MICROSYSTEMS foucuses 
on CP/M*. Pascal, and related software, on North Star and 
S-100 bus hardware (including 16-bit systems). You, II find 
applications, tutorials, hardware and software reviews, and a 
software directory. No longer will you have to hunt through 
magazines to find the articles you.ve been waiting for. Now 
you can find them all in MICROSYSTEMS! 

Keep up with the latest developments In the SIOO 
and CP/M world with MICROSYSTEMS! 
MICROSYSTEMS. 39 E Hanover Ave . Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

□ Sign me up! 

□ Send a sample copy ($2 enclosed) 

Name 



•TMK 
Digital 

Research 



Address 



\ 



City 

State/Zip 






pig."** 



WCPOC 



Term USA 

3YR| 18 issues) D S24 

?YR(T2 issues! D $18 

TYR16 issuesl D $10 



Canada Foreign 

Mexico (Air) 

' J38 □ $69 

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D *15 D *25 

□ Payment enclosed D Bill me ($1 charge) 

D Visa D MasterCard O American Express Exp. Date: 

Card Number: 

.Signature: 



° MPUT tt?S 



Edited by Sol Libes 

Published every other month 

CIRCLE 247 ON READER SERVICE CARP 



JANUARY 1982 



211 



Computer Information Exchange 
Box 159 (714) 757-4849 
San Luis Rey CA 92068 



Shack-80 Model-1 Users: 
Restore Reliability 

Tired of spontaneous re-booting, "loss" of 
memory, UL ERROR on programs that are 
correct. "BAD RAM" or ROM that is good and 
other symptoms of dirty edge connectors? 

CIE Cramol in cleaning kit lets you quickly, 
safely strip away coatings of high-resistance 
oxide films built upon S-80's non-gold- 
plated edge fingers, and coat them to reduce 
further buildup. Contains one bottle cleaner, 
one lubricant/sealer. 
CIE Cramolin $8.95 ($8.49 CA) 

Silver Solder Rejuvinates 
Shack -80 Edge Connectors 

Ratty Radio Shack edge fingers require 
frequent Cramolin cleaning for system 
reliability. Tandy did not goldplate them, but 
after you silver them you can tug cables and 
jar computer without system reboot! 

Kit contains special high-quality flux and 
16" (about 1.5 oz) of solder. 5-6% silver, 
balance tin (contains no cadmium, zinc, or 
lead). Caution: do not resolder fingers with 
ordinary solder, or system will be totally 
unusable! 

CIE $4.50 ($4.77 CA) 

Media Buys: 

Diskettes 
5" Unbranded, single-density, 10, in 
envelopes, fully guaranteed $19.95* 
5" Memorex sngl dens., box 10 $24.75* 
5" Memorex dbl. dens., box 10 $26.55* 
5" Dysan, plastic box of 10, double-density 
ultra- reliable $44 95* 
5" Wabash SSSO with hub ring $26.55* 
5" Wabash DSDD with hub ring $$38 98* 
Reinforcements, 50 rings for 5" $7.75* 
Ring tools- -apply reinforcements $4.95* 
Cleaning kits, 3M or FD, 2 disks $22 46* 



GUARANTEE 
AM CIE disks guaranteed 
If you get a bad disk. CIE i 



Hardware: 

Percom, LNDoubler Savings 
DOUBLE DENSITY attachments 

$153.50/$157.50/$207« 
Double disk storage with either Percom or 
LNW Research plug-in adapters. No 
soldering. Percom Doublet- 2 comes with 
DoubleDOS TRSDOS varient. is $153.50*. 
LNDoubler 1 includes DOS-plus deluxe 
operating system. LNDoubler 5/8. with 
operating system, allows use of double 
density with either 5" or 8" drives!, just 

$207* 

Lowest Prices 
On Disk Drives! 

TE AC 40- track single/double density, single 
headed (writes, reads on one side of disk), 
with incredible 1-yr factory guarantee! 
Cased, with power supply, ready to plug in and 
run. Exclusive: no extender cable needed! 
$275* 

80- TRACK. 1 -HEADED $395* 

80-TRACK. 2-HEADED (dbl sided) $550* 
Bare 40-track, unpowered $215* 

Bare-80-track $225* 

SOFTWARE to 50% off 

Leading brands including Acorn, Allen 
Gelder. Alternate Source, Apparat, 
Blechman Enterprises. Breeze Computing, 
CIE, Data Soft. Dorset!. Edu Ware, Ellis 
Computing. Hexagon Systems, Micro Clinic, 
Micro Works, Microsoft. Modular Software, 
Nepenthe, Personal Computer Service, 
ProSoft, and Ramware. 
BOOKS, leading publishers. 10% off 



Discounts: 

•prices CIE net, including }0\ discount 

for $50 or more total order, 3 or more items 

nominal shipping charge on all but books and 

softwre 



CIRCLE 122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Products, continued... 

32K UPGRADE FOR TRS-80 
COLOR COMPUTER 

Spectral Associates introduces the Ram- 
charger, a 32K upgrade module for the 
TRS-80 Color Computer. The Ramcharger 
module will extend the memory of a 16K 
Color Computer to 32K and is compatible 
with Color Basic. 

Ramcharger is an assembled and tested 
printed circuit board which fits inside of 
the Color Computer and requires no sol- 
dering or hardware modifications. This 
leaves the ROM-PAK port free for other 
peripherals. $99.95. 

Spectral Associates, 141 Harvard Ave., 
Tacoma. WA 98466. (206) 475-8483. 

CIRCLE 3S6 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERIPHERALS 



CONVERSION FOR 
ELECTRONIC TYPEWRITER 




I soon Products, Inc. announces the EP- 
567 conversion system which allows 
computer-controlled operation of any IBM 
Electronic Typewriter Model 50, 60. or 
75. 







APPLE II 48K . 
W APPLE DISC II DRIVE 


$1299 00 








COMPUTERS BY Mi 


W/CONT. •> 3.3 
•k XEROX SAM MICROCOMPUTER 


559.95 
2595.00 


P.O. Box 1805 Hawthorne, CA 90250 


. MICROPRO WORD STAR 
* MICROSOFT Z-S0 CARD 


24995 






28500 


PRINTER AND INTERFACES 




. MICROSOFT 16K RAM BOARD 
* DANATRONICS 16K RAM BOARD 


149.95 

12675 


ANADEX 9500132 COL 


1290 00 


, MOUNTAIN 




ANA0EX 9501 132 COL 


1290 00 


+ CPS MULTIFUNCTION CRD 


175.00 


EPSON MX80 PIN FEED 

EPSON MX80 TRACTOR/FRICTION 

EPSON MX70 PIN FEE0 


585 00 
675 00 
405 00 


CPS CABLE 


21 95 


ADVANCE BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY 




EPSON PARALLEL CARD 


65 95 


10 KEY PAO (OLD OR NEW) 


99 95 


EPSON SERIAL ADAPTOR BOARD 


61 95 


APPLE CLOCK 


219 95 


EPSON CARTRIDGE RIBBON 


1300 


100.000 DAY CLOCK 


31900 


EPSON PARALLEL INTERFACE CABLE 


21 95 


SUPERTALKER 


254 00 


TRENDCOM 200 80 COL 


540 00 


ROMPLUS 


129 95 


CENTRONICS 7721 W/O CABLE 


95 95 


ROMWRITER 


14500 


CENTRONICS 7728 W/O CABLE 


95 95 


INTROL'X 10 CONTROLLER 




CALIFORNIA COMPUTER SYSTEMS 




CARD ONLY 


170.00 


ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL 


125 95 


MUSIC SYSTEM W/SOFTWARE 


450 00 


SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL 


139 95 


A/D D/A W/O CABLE 


28500 


PARALLEL 


95 95 


1/0 CABLE ASSEMBLY 


42 95 


MONITORS 




BUSINESS SOFTWARE 




AMDEK 13 COLOR 


420 00 


PERSONAL SOFTWARE 




AMDEK 12 B 4 W 


150 00 


DESK TOP PLAN 


155 95 


AMDEK 12 100 GREEN 


175 00 


CCA DATA MGT 


7295 


SANYO 9" B * W 


169 00 


LJK 




SANYO 12" HI RES B*W 


24900 


LETTER PERFECT 


109 95 


SANYO 13 COLOR 


425 00 


CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 




SANYO 12 HI RES GREEN 


270 00 


HOME MONEY MINDER 


28 95 


NEC 12" COLOR 


360 00 


CPA 1 GENERAL LEDGER 


177 95 


MODEMS 

HAYES MICROMODEM II (APPLE II) 




CPA II ACCTS RECEIVABLE 


177 95 


295 00 


CPA III ACCTS PAYABLE 
CPA IV PAYROLL 
MUSE SUPER TEXT II 
ADDRESS BOOK 
FORM LETTER MODULE 


177 95 
177 95 
11500 
39 95 
85 00 


HAYES MICROMODEM 100 IS 1001 
HAYES STACK (RS 232) 
SOUTHEASTERN DATA CAPTURE 4 


31500 

239 00 

44 95 


DISK DRIVES 




STONEWARE DB MASTER |NEW) 


179 95 


MICRO SCI 40 TRACK W/CONT 


460 00 






MICRO SCI 40 TRACK W/O CONT 


395 00 


MISCELLANEOUS SOFTWARE 




EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 




PERSONAL SOFTWARE 
VISICALC 3 3 


155 00 


E0UWARE 




VISIPLOT 


149 95 


STATISTICS 


2495 


VISIDEX 


159 95 


EDU PAK 1 


32 95 


VISITERM 


119 95 


STORY TELLER 


1695 


VISITREND/VISIPLOT 


21000 


ALGEBRA 1 


32 95 


ON LINE EXPEDITER II 


79 95 


UNI SOLVE 


1995 


HAYDEN APPLESOFT COMPILER 


159 95 


COMPU MATH ARITH SKILL 


32 95 


LAZER LOWER CASE ADAPTER 


59 95 


COMPU MATH FRACTIONS 


32 95 


PAYMAR LOWER CASE REV 7/LATER 


39 95 


COMPU MATH; DECIMALS 


32 95 


SOLID STATE MUSIC 




COMPU SPELL (REO DATA DISKI 


2495 


AIO SERIAL PARALLEL CARD 


160 00 


SPACE 


2495 






SPACE II 


1995 


S 100 SYSTEMS 




NETWORK 


1695 


CALIFORNIA COMPUTER SYSTEMS 




TERRORIST 


2495 


32K STATIC RAM MODULE 


650 00 


WINDFALL 


1695 


64K STATIC RAM MODULE 


560 00 


PRISONER 


2495 


INTEGRATED SYSTEM 




MICROSOFT TYPING TUTOR 


1695 


W/MAINFRAME 


1995 00 


SUB • LOGIC FLIGHT SIMULATOR 


29 95 


DISK CONTROLER 


300 00 


SYNERGESTIC STAR GAZERS GUIDE 


25 95 


MOTHER BOARD 


105 95 


ACCESSORIES 




4PORT SERIAL I/O INTERFACE 


250 00 


DANATRONICS COOLING FAN 


39 95 


Z 80 CPU 


259 95 


TO. JOYSTIX 


44 95 


NOTE: COMPLETE SELECTI 


ON OF 


GAME PADDLES 


32 95 


ENTERTAINMENT SOFTWARE 


AVAIL 


80 COLUMN SYSTEMS 




ABLE. PLEASE CALL (213) 533 4071 


M < R SUPERTERM 


2495 


INCLUDE NAME. ADDRESS PHONE 


NUMBIM 


APPLE DOUBLE VISION 


235 00 


ADD3° t FRT/HANDLING CALIF RESIDENTS ADD 


APPLE II 80 COL. VIDEO CARD 
VIDEX VIDEO TERM CARD 80 COL 


31500 
295 00 


6 SALES TAX ALL MFRS WARRANTIES APPLY 
ALL PRODUCTS IN STOCK! VISA/MC ADD 


MISC HARDWARE 




INCL EXP DATE PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 


VIDEX SWITCHPLATE 


16 95 


CBMPO BOX 1805 HAWTHORNE. CA 90250 


KEYBOARD DISPLAY ENHANCER 


99 95 


12131533 4071 





212 



CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Computer Games! 

How can we tell you about 400 
computer games in one advertisement? 



Weve got the worlds largest line of 
computer games Over 400 in all. 
They re on cassette and disk for eight 
popular personal computers: Atari. 
Apple. Tl 99/4. PET. TRS-80. Sorcerer. 
SolandCP/M 

From A to Z. Action Games to Z-Chess 
II. weve got loads of best-sellers inclu- 
ding Super Invader for the Apple, a 
complete line of six Adventure games. 
Backgammon. Milestones and Cycle 
Jump. 

Not only that, we publish the best- 
selling books. Basic Computer Games 
and More Basic Computer Games with 
over 500.000 copies in print 

Weve also got a nifty board game. 
Computer Rage, sets of three binary dice, 
acrobatic toy robots. T-shirts and lots of 
other goodies. 

You II find comprehensive descriptions 
of all of our software, books, games and 
peripherals in our huge 48-page catalog 
Its unique in the small computer field For 
your free copy, write or call us today or 
circle our number on the reader service 
card. 



sco<-t -eetee mi -scope -oeoeo 



* * !" -Kt« 



** ii % 



Super Invader features superb high- 
resolution graphics, nail-biting tension 
and hilarious antics by the moon crea- 
tures. 

GPeattve 
computing 

39 East Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631-8112 

In NJ 201-540-0445 

CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The only thing you 
can do with a baked 
Apple is eat it. 

The more you stuff your Apple in with plug-in 
boards, the more of a chance it has to overheat. 

And once that happens, it won't do anybody any 
good. Your program bombs and you start losing 
time and money. 

The solution? Simple. Take two minutes to install 
the Dana Industries fan in the back of your Apple, 
and you'll practically never have to 
worry about overheating agaia 

So pick up the Dana Industries , 
fan at your local 
computer store. 
And your Apple 
will have a long and 
fruitful life. 

"Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. 




more . . . 

SPECTACULAR 
OFFERS 



BASF 



! MAXELL 



WABASH 



OPUS 



We stock the complete line ol BASF diskettes, 
reel-to-reel tapes, mag cards, disk packs and 
cartridges. We also carry MAXELL. OPUS and 
WABASH products. All are 100% certified and 
fully guaranteed. 



Box of 10 diskettes: 



SC- 



OPUS ss/sd S20 *21 

BASF ss/sd 23 24 

WABASH ss/sd 23 24 
MAXELL . TOO LOW TO QUOTE. CALL 
5'/4 "-10 sector-now available 
Sectoring must be specified 



5V4 ■ or 8" Vinyl Storage Pages 10/$S 



LIBRARY CASES 



8" Kassette/10 $2.99 

5</4- Mini Kas-selte/10 . $2.49 



4 



HAROHOLE DISK PROTECTORS 
Reinforcing rings of tough mylar 
protect disk hole edge from 
damage. 

51* ' •' 

Applicators $3 $4 

Hardhole Rings (50) $8 $8 

DISK DRIVE HEAD . 

CLEANING KITS 4k» 

Prevent head crashes and ^tfm 

ensure error-tree operation. *^r^ 

5V»-or8" $19.50 

SFDC-10CASSETTES 10/87 

(All cass ettes include box ana labels.) 

Get 8 cassettes, C-10 
Sonic, and Cassette/8 
Library-Album, as illustrated, 
for only $8 

*~ 

SNAP-IT POWER CENTER •. , %^ J 

Turns 1 outlet into 6. Wall 3k 

mount or portable. Circuit iJW'J^^ 
breaker, lighted switch and ^Sr 
UL approved. "* 

4-x3'x2* $19.95 




We also offer printer ribbons, printwheels, 
type elements, equipment covers, power con- 
soles, paper supplies, storage and tiling equip- 
ment, furniture and many other accessories 
for word and data processing systems. Write 
for our free catalog. 



CIRCLE 195 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VISA • MASTERCHARGE • MONEY 

ORDERS • CERTIFIED CHECK • FOR 

PERSONAL CHECKS ALLOW TWO WEEKS 

• COD. REQUIRES A 10% DEPOSIT • CAL. 

RES. ADD 8% SALES TAX • MIN $2 

SHIPPING & HANDLING • MINIMUM 

ORDER $10 • SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 

OR FULL REFUND 



PRODUCTS 

8868 CLAIREMON' ' 
SAN DIEGO 



Toll Free 800-854 1555 Orda* Only 

Fo< Information 01 California Ordara 

(7141 268 3537 



CIRCLE 105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^ r 



Why would anyone spend $59.95 for a joystick? 



Super 
Joystick 



Star Wars Played with paddles, it s difficult 
at bpst and frustrating at worst. But with 
a joystick it becomes an entirely new 
experience It's still challenging Its also 
fun. And very addictive. 

Have you ever used a drawing program 
in which one paddle controls the horizontal 
movement of the brush and the other 
paddle the vertical? Its slow, tedious work. 
But with a loystick, drawing is an absolute 
joy. 

Exceptional Precision 

The Apple high-resolution screen is divided 
into a matrix of 160 by 280 pixels. To do 
precise work on this screen, you need a 
precise device Most potentiometers used 
in paddle controls are not quite linear. If 
you rotate a paddle control at a constant 
speed, you'll notice that the cursor speeds 
up slightly at the beginning and end of the 
paddle rotation 

The Super Joystick has a pure resistive 
circuit which is absolutely linear within one 
tenth of one percent. In other words it would 
give you precise control over an image of 
1000 by 1000 pixels, were such resolution 
available Thus it is suitable for high precision 
professional applications as well as educa- 
tional and hobbyist ones. 

Matched to your application 

The Super Joystick also has two external 
trim adjustments, one for each direction. 
This allows you to perfectly match the unit 
to your application and computer. Say you 
want to work in a square area instead of the 
rectangular screen. Just reduce the horizontal 
size with the trim control. 

How many times have you played Space 
Invader and had your thumb ache for hours 
from the repeated button pressing? This 
won t happen with the Super Joystick Its 
two pushbuttons are big Moreover, they 
use massive contact surfaces with a life of 
well over 1 .000.000 contacts A few games 
of Super Invader using these big buttons 
will justify the purchase of the Super Joy- 
stick. 

The Super Joystick is self-centering in 
both directions. That means when you take 
your hand off it. the control will return to the 
center. However, if you want it to stay where 
you leave it, self-centering may be easily 
disabled 

The Super Joystick plugs right into the 
paddle control socket and doesn t require 
an I/O slot. 



High-quality construction 

The sturdy high-impact molded plastic 
case of the Super Joystick matches that of 
the Apple computer. Every component used 
is the very highest quality available 

We invite your comparison of the Super 
Joystick with any other unit available Order 
it and use it for 30 days If you re not 
completely satisfied, return it for a prompt 
and courteous refund plus your return 
postage You can t lose 




By removing two springs, self-centering 
can be defeated. 

The Super Joystick consists of a self- 
centering, linear joystick, two trim controls, 
and two pushbuttons mounted in an attrac- 
tive case. It comes complete with instructions 
and a 90-day limited warranty. Cost is 
$5995. 



Order Today 

To order the Super Joystick send $59.95 
plus $200 postage and handling (NJ 

residentsadd $3 00salestax)toouraddress 
below. 

Experience the joys of using the world s 
finest joystick. Order your Super Joystick 
at no obligation today. 



39 East Hanover Ave. 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -8112 

(InNJ 201-540-0445) 



New Products, continued... 

A single-board computer is the heart of 
the system, giving the user full control of 
all typewriter operations, including "code" 
functions. Speed is retained at maximum. 
15-1/2 cps. RS-232 and Parallel computer 
input is accommodated in the standard 
package, with an adapter to 1EEE-488 
available as an option. 

A 96-character buffer is used for in- 
coming character storage, with various 
handshaking protocols accommodated. RS- 
232 baud rates are switch selectable from 
1 10 to 9600. 

Price of the system is $435 for the RS- 
232/Parallel. $535 for IEEE-488. 

Fscon Products. Inc.. 12919 Alcosta 
Blvd.. San Ramon. CA 94583. (415) 820- 
1256. 

CIRCLE 357 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APPLE PARALLEL INTERFACE 




CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



214 



The Grappler is a Centronics-compatible 
parallel interface for the Apple II and 
Apple II Plus computers which features 
on-board firmware to copy the Apple high- 
resolution graphics screen to many popular 
graphics printers. 

It also features text commands, including 
text screen dumps, setting of margins and 
page lengths, auto-skip-over perforation 
and word wrap-around with breakpoint 
on nearest blank. 

The Grappler interface is compatible 
with Apple Pascal and CP/M. and currently 
supports Anadex. IDS Paper Tiger. Cen- 
tronics 739. Epson MX70 and MX 100 print- 
ers. It also supports Epson MX80 and 
MX80/FT printers with the Graftrax-80 
graphics upgrade installed. 

Orange Micro. 3150 E. LaPalma #1. 
Anaheim. CA 92806. (800) 854-8275 or 
(714) 630-3322. 

CIRCLE 358 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TRS-80 JOYSTICK INTERFACE 

Joy-6 is a joystick interface for TRS-80 
Models I and III. featuring potentiometer- 
type joysticks with pushbuttons, sound 
effects capability, and simple control soft- 
ware. It can also be used as a general 
purpose six-channel analog to digital con- 
verter with temperature sensors or other 
transducers and can drive an external relay 
for control applications. 

The complete package includes Joy-6. 
two joysticks with pushbuttons, power 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Unwrap 
Ihe Crypto 
Mystery 

VMV| Thanks to the Western 
Digital CryptoPrimer ™ 
■** ^^^ Development Kit, 

$^M ^j I cryptography is no 

^ L^™4^^ longer a deep, 

^^f ^pjJ^J* dark secret. In fact, 
the kit is specially 
designed for personal computer owners 
and is based on the National Bureau 
of Standards' data encryption algorithm. 
Included in the kit are: a 
CryptoPrimer"' manual, , 
a cryptographic sys- 
tem built around our 
WD 2001/2 data 
encryption 
chip, a con- 
venient RS 
232 con- 
nector and 
a special 

hardware manual. All for just $495. Best 
of all, you'll end up with more than a clue 
on how to implement all the benefits of 
data encryption. So send your check or 
money order (including $9.00 for ship- 
ping and 6% sales tax if you're a Califor- 
nia resident) to: Western Digital, 2445 
McCabe Way, Irvine, CA 92714. Please 
also specify your computer's make and 
model number. 

We think keeping cryptography a 
mystery is a crime. 




Haki 



"9«,oi, 



e *di„ Q 



w °rkf£ 



you. 



WESTERN DiGJTAL 

CORPORA T I O N 

Telecommunications Division 
2445 McCabe Way, Irvine, CA 92714 

(714)557-3550 
CIRCLE 180 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PROGRAMMING TOOLS 
FOR YOUR TRS-80® 



INSTANT ASSEMBLER 

The INSTANT ASSEMBLER is a new. powerful tape- based assembler and debugger for 
the TRS-80. Now you can assemble directly to memory and immediately debug your 
program with the built m single stepping debugger Ouickly switch from assembler to 
debugger and back again without losing the source code This feature makes INSTANT 
ASSEMBLER an excellent learning tool tor assembly language programming 
INSTANT ASSEMBLER is absolutely unique among tape based assemblers m that it 
produces relocatable code modules that can be linked with the separate LINKING 
LOADER, which is supplied »n two versions for loading programs into either high or low 
RAM This lets you build long programs with small modules INSTANT ASSEMBLER also 
features immediate detection of errors as the source code «s entered, a compactly coded 
source format that uses 1 3 as much memory as standard source and many operational 
features including single stroke entry of DEFB and DEFW. pinpoint control of ' 
alphabetic fcsting of symbol table, separate commands tor listing error bnes or the symbol 
fable Wock move function, and verification of source tapes 

INSTANT ASSEMBLER s debugger provides single stepping with full register displays, 
decimal or hex entry of addresses, forward or backward memory displays disassembly 
of object code in memory, memory display m ASCII format, and hex-to-decimal or 
decimal- to- hex conversion The single stepper will step one instruction at a time or at a 
fast rate to any defined address 

INSTANT ASSEMBLER occupies less than B400 bytes of memory In a 16K machine this 
will leave you enough memory to wnte assembly language programs of around 2000 
bytes This and its module- tin kino, feature make INSTANT ASSEMBLER ideal for users 
with only 16K machines The instruction manual may be purchased separately for S3 
which will apply towards the purchase of the INSTANT ASSEMBLER 
Specify Model I or Model III. INTASM S29 95 



SINGLE STEP THROUGH RAM OR ROM 

STE P80 aHows you to step through any machine language program one instruction at a 
time, and see the address, hexadecimal value. Zilog mnemonic, register contents, and 
step count for each instruction The top 14 lines of the video screen are left unaltered so 
that the target program may perform its display functions unobstructed STEPB0 will 
follow program flow right into the ROMs . and is an invaluable aid m learning how the ROM 
routines function Commands include step (trace), disassemble run m step mode at 
variable step rale, display or alter memory or CPU registers, jump to memory location 
execute a CALL, set breakpoints m RAM or ROM. write SYSTEM tapes and relocate to 
any page m RAM The display may also be routed to your line printer through the device 
control block so custom print drivers are automatically supported 
Specify Model I or Model III. STEP80 $16 95 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM 

This machine language program may be used as a smart terminal with time share 
systems or tor high speed file transfers between two disk -based micros over modems or 
direct wire It is menu driven and extremely simple to use Functions include real-time 
terminal mode, save RAM buffer on disk, transmit disk file, receive binary toes, examine 
and modify UART parameters, program 8 custom log-on messages, automatic 16-btt 
checksum verification of accurate transmission and reception, and many more user 
conveniences Supports bne printers and lowercase characters With this program you 
will no longer need to convert machine language programs to ASCII tor transmission and 
you will know immediately it the transmission was accurate This program comes on a 
formatted disk 
Specify Model I or Model III TELCOM $39 95 

PROGRAM INDEX VERSION 2.0 

Assemble an alphabetized index of your entire program library from disk directories 
Program names and free space are read automatically (need not be typed in) and may be 
alphabetized by disk or program The hst may also be searched for any disk . program . n, 
extension, disks or programs added or deleted, and the whole hst or any part sent to the 
printer Pnnter output may be requested in three different formats including labels The 
hst itself may also be stored on disk for future access and update II also includes a 
PURGE mode lor quickly kiikng unwanted files Directory reads and alphabetizing is 
done m machine code tor speed i .000 programs may be sorted m less than 10 seconds 
Works with TRSDOS NEWDOS. and NEWOOS 80 single or double density One drive 
and 32K required 
Specify Model I or Model III. INDEX $24 95 

DUPLICATE SYSTEM TAPES WITH CLONE 

Make duplicate copies of any tape written for Level II They may be SYSTEM tapes or 
data lists The file name, load address, entry point, and even/ byte (m ASCII format) are 
displayed on the video screen Model III version allows changing tape speed 
Specify Model I or Model HI. CLONE $16 95 



OKDI KINCi i omplet' < <i lull refund will 

■ system) tlisk In. 

SPECIFY MODhl I OK 
MODKl Ill Dealei inquiries inv li 

MUMFORD MICRO SYSTEMS 

Box 400 A Summerland. California 93067 <805) 969-4557 



CIRCLE 3130N READER SERVICE CARD 



© Dysan 

•/corporation 



kbwlOMi 

i Mock wafcki 24 hom. C*l lot RIEE 
1 23S-41 J7 lot prtcas ond HmwMliiii 

1M1 




PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd 
San Luts Obispo CA 
93401 (In Cal call 
(805) 543-1037) 



CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



You can pay more — 
But you can't get more! 




Model III 16K 

$839 

Model III 48K 
2 disc & RS232C 

$2100 




Color Computer 4K 

$310 

w/16KExt Basic 

$459 



BUY DIRECT. Those are jutt i lew ol our great 
otters which include Printers. Modems. Com- 
puters. Peripherals, Disc Drives. Software and 
more cjmtoufrk 1-BOO-S4S-8124 

We have the lowest COmpUtBT 

possible fully *rJl tap 

warranteed prices Wr "e »or your |*»#0 

and a full complement 'ree catalog 

j... ... ' „ 245A Groai Rood 

of Radio Shack Software. lm ,., n ma 01440 . 
CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Converse with your Computer 

ELIZA 

Play it — Program it 

More than just a computerized psychiatrist, this 
new expanded implementation ol ELIZA, the 
world-renowned artificial intelligence demonstra- 
tion program, brings to your micro the full capability 
of the original — and then some. 

ELIZA converses with you in plain English, re- 
sponding to your comments Plus, it lets you modify 
its responses, and add new phrases to its reper- 
toire. You can even create an entirety new set of 
conversational gambits on any topic you choose. 

ELIZA comes with the original non-directive psy- 
chiatrist script' developed at MIT Documentation 
includes a copy of the original research paper, plus 
tut instructions on how to program ELIZA'S re- 



ELIZA requires 40K RAM and costs only $24 95 
Specify: 8" CP/M disk 

5" Heath/Zenith disk 

Add S3 shipping and handling. S2 for 5" disks. $5 
for overseas. CA residents add sales tax 

Ttje Software c Toolw6rks 

14478 Glorietta 
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423 

(213)986-4885 
Circle reader service number for complete catalog. 
CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Products, continued... 

supply, user's manual, and a 16K Level II 
machine language cassette with six joystick 
games. The Model III requires an adaptor 
cable. $124.95. A kit is available for 
$99.95. 

Mega Systems Inc.. 262 Park Lane. King 
of Prussia. PA 19406. (215) 337-3876. 

CIRCLE 359 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

MULTIFUNCTION CARD AND 
RS-32 ADAPTER FOR APPLE II 




Adapter. Consisting of a printed circuit 
card with one male and one female DB25 
connector mounted on it and incorporating 
a special "matrix switch." this device en- 
ables users to mate almost any serial I/O 
device to any computer by rerouting RS- 
232C signals. 

The PRA eliminates the task of fabri- 
cating special cables or resoldering existing 
cable wiring to achieve signal interfaces 
between a computer and peripheral I/O 
device, such as a modem, printer or termi- 
nal. A simple flat cable with DB25 con- 
nectors and the PRA adapter ties the 
proper signal lines together. $59.95. 

Mountain Computer Inc.. 300 El Pueblo 
Rd.. Scotts Valley. CA 95066. (408) 436- 
6650. 

CIRCLE 360 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Mountain Computer CPS Multi- 
Function Card provides the capabilities 
of a serial interface, parallel output inter- 
face and real-time calendar/clock on one 
card. Serial and parallel output may be 
used simultaneously from CPS. 

CPS is configured from a set-up program 
on diskette which sets the parameters (such 
as baud rate, etc.) for all functions con- 
tained on the card and is stored in CMOS 
RAM on the card. 

Mountain Computer Inc. also announces 
the RS-232 DB25 Pin Reconfiguration 



DISK SYSTEMS 



DISK DRIVES FOR H-89, H-8 

Percom Data Company has announced 
add-on drives for Heath H-89 and H-8 
computers. 

Both 40- and 80-track versions of the 
"Z" drives are available and may be ordered 
in either one- or two-drive modules. 




18 



&&* 



APPLE OWNERS 

Add the Omega Micro 18-Key 
Numeric Keypad now for easier and 
faster number entry. 

• No soldering: Plug-in installation 

• Seven popular function keys 

• Uses no I/O expansion slots 

• Fully hardware & software 
compatible — even with Visicalc 

AVAILABLE NOW - sugg. list $199. 

SEE IT AT YOUR DEALER 
OR WRITE FOR FREE BROCHURE 



215 W. 1st., Ste. 105-61 

Tustin, CA 92680 

MICRO 714-730-1463 




PACKER Machine language program that edits all or 
part of your Basic program to run faster, save memory, 
or ease editing The 5 options include UNPACK - 
unpacks multiple statement lines into single statements 
maintaining logic inserts spaces and renumbers lines 
SHORT -deletes unnecessary words, spaces, and REM 
statements PACK - packs lines into maximum multiple 
statement lines, maintaining program logic RENUM— 
renumbers lines, including all branches MOVE -moves 
line or blocks of lines to any new location in program 
On 2 cassettes for 16K 32K. & 48K For TRS-80™ 
Mod I or III Level II or Disk Basic S29 95 

SYSTEM TAPE DUPLICATOR Copy your SYSTEM 
format tapes Includes verify routines The Model III 
version allows use of both 500 and 1 500 baud cassette 
speeds 

For TRS-80™ Model! or III Level II $15 95 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER A mini word processor 
to print cassette labels on a line printer. Includes 50 
peel-andstick labels on tractor teed paper 
For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II & Printer $17 95 
PRINT TO LPRINT TO PRINT Edits your Basic program 
in seconds to change all Prints to LPnnts (except 
Print*? or Print*) or L Prints to Prints Save edited 
version 

For TRS-80™ Modell or III Level II $12 95 

FAST SORTING ROUTINES For use with Radio 
Shacks Accounts Receivable, Inventory Control I. 
and Disk Mailing List Systems for Model l Level II 
Sorts in SECONDS' You II be amazed at the time they 
can save Supplied on data diskette with complete 
instructions 
FAST SORT for Accounts Receivable $ 1 9 95 

FAST SORT for Inventory Control I $ 1 9 95 

FAST SORT tor Disk Mailing List (specify data diskette 
cassette for 1 drive system) $14 95 

ALL THREE ROUTINES $44 95 

Prices subject to change without notice Call or write 
tor complete catalog Dealer inquiries invited VISA 
and MasterCard accepted Foreign orders in US 
currency only Kansas residents add 3% sales tax 
On-line catalog on Wichita FORUM-80 316-682-21 13 
Or call our 24 hour phone 316-683-4811 or write 
COTTAGE SOFTWARE 
614 N Harding Wichita. KS 67208 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corooration 



CIRCLE 155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

216 



CIRCLE 1 61 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
CREATIVE COMPUTING 



FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM FOR PET 




The 40-track drives work with all H- 
89/H-8 software, while 80-track units sup- 
port HDOS programs after a minor change 
to the Heath disk -operating system is made. 
$399. 

Percom Data Company. 211 N. Kirby. 
Garland. TX 75042. 800-527-1592. 

CIRCLE 361 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CGRS Microtech. Inc. introduces a 
floppy disk system for the Commodore 
PET series of computers. 

Pedisk II can be purchased with 5 1/4" 
or 8" disk drives. A small 2 1/2" x 5" disk 
controller board mounts inside the machine 



SORCERER SOFTWARE 



SUPER ASTEROIDS by Apollo 

'A new era in real time graphic arcade 
games'. 

Never has there been such a captivating and superbly written 
arcade game tor the Sorcerer Styled alter the well known and 
very popular ASTEROID DELUXE arcade game. SUPER ASTER 
OIDS is destined to become the most popular piece of demonstra 
tion software used by dealers and users alike Perhaps it is the 
outstanding use of fine line graphics or the silky smooth 
movement Maybe it is the breathtaking speed, dauling 
eiplosions. gripping sound effects or simply the challenge of 
avoiding those tire halls from that persistent flying saucer that 
insidiously follows you across the screen. Whatever it is. we 
warn you NOT to purchase this game for fear that you may toin 
the ranks of hundreds ot other ASTEROID Addicts who. sguare 
and bleary eyed at 3 am, just MUST have ONE more go at trying 
to beat that High Score 

The object is to guide a small space ship across the screen 
avoiding but shooting asteroids as they glide past. When an 
asteroid is hit. it will break up into many smaller pieces. By 
repeatedly hitting the pieces they will soon disintegrate and 
disappear If you crash your ship into an asteroid it will break 
into pieces and splinter across the screen in a shower of sparks 1 
However, it you manage to stay in one piece, chances are you'll 
soon be pursued by a flying saucer that shoots balls of fire 1 Best 
that you treat him with care, else you may make his friends 
VERV aggressive 

Apollo has used a novel but mgenus method of continually 
reprogrammng graphics characters and has obtained stunning 
results! All movement is done pixel by puel but without speed 
loss Numbers of asteroids, directions, speeds and such kke are 
all totally unpredictable If you can show us a piece of software 
that has finer, smoother and faster graphics than SUPER ASTER 
OIDS. we guarantee to refund your money in full 1 

Cassette $29.95 

ZAP80 'Secret Code 
Disassembler', by Ian Robinson 

This is tar from your average run of the mill disassembler' Other 
than being a mere 4K long, able to disassemble at the speed of 
light and packed with options. ZAP80 will display before your 
very eyes all those unknown instructions ZILOG never talk 
about! Ian has been doing eitensive research into the actions of 
the Z80 processor when confronted with the 700 or so undocu 
mented land so catted illegal' I code sequences Over 100 ot 
these are VERV useful! Did you know you have eitra 8 bit 
registers and a complete set of instructions to manipulate them' 
Old you know about eitra rotate instructions 7 

ZAP80 will disassemble ANY code sequence Nothing is illegal! It 
wi allow you to program with codes that no other disassembler 
can decipher! Think about that 

ZAP80 comes with documentation and explanation ot all new 
mnemonics used Three versions are supplied that reside in low. 
mid and high memory. Options include ASCII output, screen 
pause and customised printer control 

Whether you are a serious programmer, a beginner or simply 
curious. ZAP80 is a piece of software you must have Come and 
play a REAL adventure game 1 



HOW TO ORDER: 

ALL PRICES ARE IN AUSTRALIAN DOLLARS. 

One Australian dollar equals 1 . 16 American and 1 .4 
Canadian. All programs come standard on cassette 
but some may be requested on either Micropolis II 
Quad density or VISTA 5 'A" diskettes for an addi 
tional cost of $5 00 per diskette. Note that more 
than one program will fit on a diskette. Programs 
available or diskette include CIRCUS. GALAXIANS. 
GROTNIK WARS and ZAP80. 
$2 discount if this form is used. (Photostat will 
suffice). 



PROGRAM 



PRICE 



Postage within Australia is $1 for initial item 
and 50c for each additional. Outside Australia is 
$2 and 50c. 



Less $2 Discount 
TOTAL 



$2.00 



I enclose, 

(a) Cheque or money order for the above 
amount, or 

(b) My credit card, expiry date 

(Master Charge. Visa, Bankcard. American 

Express. Diners Club) 

No 

My name and address: 

NAME: 

STREET: 

TOWN/CITY: 

POSTCODE: COUNTRY: 



Cassette $24.95 



POST THE ABOVE FORM TO: 

sysTCm sQFTuiare 

1 KENT STREET, BICTON 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA 6157 

TELEPHONE: ISD (619) STD (09) 339 3842 

Sunday through to Friday. 

Ask for Richard Swannell for personal service. 

We are a dynamic Western Australian enterprise 

whoe sole aim is to bring you the best in Sorcerer 

software. 

A catalogue such as this is produced regularly and 

sent to approximately 2000 interested Sorcerer 

users in all parts of the world. Let us know if you 

wish to be included on our mailing list. 



the BEST 

lower case adapter 

gazer 



lower, cm 




$69.95 

— AND— 
the BEST 

keyboard buffer 

M32§£._ 




CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Separately, they have more features 
and out perforin all the rest. But 
together as a team they perform even 
better. Look for the Graphics +Plus 
soon. It '8 a RAM based character 
generator to compliment the Lower 
Case +Plus. Send for our free booklet 
"Lower case adapters and keyboard 
buffers from the inside, out". 

1791-G Capital 
Corona, CA 91720 
(714)735-1041 

CIRCLE 285 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



tMS INC 






RESTAURANT 



#1 



MAGAZINE 

With More Restaurant News and Information Than Any Other 
Magazine Page after Page of Restaurant Reviews with Photo- 
graphs Menu Selections Prices House Specialties, And The 
Reviewers Impartial Opinions Plus Many Letters From The Dining Out Public 
About Their All Time Favorites And New Discoveries A One Of A Kind 
Publication That Has No Peers 

SAVE 50% OFF 

COVER PRICE OF $1.75 
12 ISSUES FOR $10.00 

PLUS FREE 

MASTERCHEFS 

COOKBOOK 

R*UM Vatu* $1 2 SO 

LEARN THE 

TECHMOUES OF WORLD 

FAMOUS CHEFS 

YES. PLEASE SEND ME 12 MONTHLY ISSUES OF 
RESTAURANT MAGAZINE AND THE MASTER CHEFS 
COOKBOOK— BOTH FOR ONLY $10.00. 

Nam* 

Address 

City 




State. 



Zip. 



Mail this card and enclose $10 00 to 

RESTAURANT MAGAZINE. 806 S Robertson. LA.. CA 90035 

CIRCLE 166 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Products, continued... 

and contains the PDOS software ROM 
and all the disk control circuitry. 

One. two. or three drives connect to 
the Pedisk II controller board. The single 
drive 5 1/4" system retails for $595 and 
offers 143K bytes of storage. The dual 
drive 5 1/4" quad density system provides 
572K bytes of high speed storage and 
retails for $1195. 

CGRS Microtech. Inc.. P.O. Box 102. 
Langhorne. PA 19047. (215) 757-0284. 

CIRCLE 362 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

DISK SUBSYSTEMS FOR 
PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

Matchless Systems introduces the MX- 
800C, a disk subsystem compatible with 
Heath/Zenith 89, Apple II. TRS-80 Model 
II and all S-10O-based computers. 

The subsystem includes case, power 
supply, fan. cables and a choice of four 
different drive configurations: one single- 
sided drive ($1050). two single-sided drives 
($1595). one double-sided drive ($1395), 
and two double-sided drives ($2095). 
Single/double density controllers and soft- 
ware are available at additional cost. 

Matchless Systems. 18444 South Broad- 
way. Gardena, CA 90248. (213) 327-1010. 

CIRCLE 363 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



new friends 




for your child 

Katie and the Computer 




Fred D'lgnazio and Stan Gilliam have 
created a delightful picture book adven- 
ture that explains how a computer works 
to a child. Katie "falls" into the imaginary 
land of Cybernia inside her Daddy's home 
computer. Her journey parallels the path 
of a simple command through the stages 
of processing in a computer, thus 
explaining the fundamentals of computer 
operation to 4 to 10 year olds. Supple- 
mental explanatory information on com- 
puters, bytes, hardware and software is 
contained in the front and back end 
papers. 




IJ II itijt 



Thrill with your chidren as they join the 
Flower Bytes on a bobsled race to the 
CPU. Share Katie's excitement as she 
encounters the multi-legged and mean 
Bug who lassoes her plane and spins her 
into a terrifying loop. Laugh at the 
madcap race she takes with the Flower 
Painters by bus to the CRT. 

"Towards a higher goal, the book 
teaches the rewards of absorbing the 
carefully-written word and anticipating 
the next page with enthusiasm ..." 

The Leader 

"Children might not suspect at first 
there's a method to all this madness — a 
lesson about how computers work. It 
does its job well." 

The Charlotte Observer 

"...the book is both entertaining and 
educational." 

Infosystems 



Order Today 

Katie and the Computer is hardbound, 
illustrated in full color throughout and costs 
just $6.95. A T-Shirt picturing the program 
bug in the story is also available (purple 
bug on a beige shirt). Shirts are available 
in adult S, M, L. XL. children's S. M and L 
and cost just $6 00. 

To order send payment plus $2.00 postage 
and handling per order to the address 
below. 

creative 
computing 

39 E. Hanover Avenue 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631-8112 

In NJ 201-540-0445 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISCELLANEOUS 



LEARNING SYSTEM OFFERS 
INTERACTIVE VIDEO 
CAPABILITIES 




Coloney Productions announces Carrel, 
a custom-built student learning station. 

The system includes a 48K Apple II 
Plus computer, disk drive, laser reflective 
videodisc player. 12" color monitor, audio 
amplifier, stereo speakers, and the Coloney 
interface package housed in a fiberglass 
and wood carrel. 

The interface package consists of a 
videodisc control card, video switching 
and junction box. cables, operating software 
in Basic and Pascal, and system documen- 
tation. The interface switches the computer 
and videodisc output to a single monitor 
where they can be combined in Computer 
Assisted Instruction applications. 

The complete system sells for $6500. 
The carrel is available separately for 
$800. 

. Coloney Productions, 1248 Blountstown 
Hwy., Tallahassee, FL 32304. (904) 575- 
0691. 

CIRCLE 364 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




"Damn the rescue, man! Did you bring me any 
new programs?" 




#20 SOFTWARE 



ULTIMATE SOFTWARE PLAN 



We II match any advertised price on any 
item that we carry And il you lind a lower 
price on what you bought within 30 days of 
buying it. just show us the ad and we II 
refund the difference 
Its that simple 



DISK WITH 
MANUAL 
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 
MedicallPAS-3l S849 (40 

Dental PAS-3 1849 '$40 

ASYST DESIGN 

Prol Time Accounting (549(40 

aral Subroutine (269/(40 

Application Utilities $439 $40 

COMPLETE BUS SYSTEMS 
Creator (269/(25 

Rep $169/ $20 

Both (399/(45 

COMPUTER CONTROL 

Fabs l (159 $20 

UllraSorlll (159/(25 

COMPUTER PATHWAYS 

$ 99 $25 
$299/ $40 

Pearl I. $549 $50 

DIGITAL RESEARCH 
CP M22 

NorthStai $149 $25 
TRS-80 Model II P-TKt59(35 

Micropenis $169 $25 

Cromemco $189 $25 

PL/1-80 $459/$35 

BT 80 (179/(30 

M.ii $ 85/(15 

Sid $ 65(15 

Z-Sid $ 90/$ 15 

Ten $ 90/(15 

DeSpool $ 50 $10 

.'C8-80 $459/$35 

^CBasic-2 $ 98/$20 



/ 



MANUAL 
ONLY 

MICROTAX 

•* Individual 
•^ Professional 
• Partnership 
p* Package 



Combine our price protection with the 
availability of lull professional support and 
our automatic update service and you have 
the Ultimate Software Plan 

Its a convenient, uncomplicated, logical 
way to get your software 

\S (New items or new prices) 

CP/M users 

specify disk systems and lormats Most formats available 

PASCAL 

1250 Pascal Ml • (429$30 

$1000 Pasi $349 $30 

$750 Pascal/UCSD 4 $429 $50 

$1500 Pascal M $189 $20 

WORD PROCESSING 



ORGANIC SOFTWARE 

TexlWritei III $11 1 $25 

Djt. Book II $269 $25 

Miles' $289/$30 



OSBORNE 




General Ledger 


$ 59 $20 


Acct Rec/Acct Pay 


$ 59 $20 


Paytoll w/Cost 


$ 59, $20 


All 3 


$129/ $60 


All 3 • CBASIC-2 


$199 $75 


Enhanced Osborne 


$269 $60 


With C Basic 


$349$ 75 


PEACHTREE 




General Ledger 


$399 $40 


Acct Receivable 


$399 $40 


Acct Payable 


$399 $40 


Payroll 


$399 $40 


Inventory 


$399 $40 


Surveyor 


$399 $40 


Property Mgt 


$799 $40 


CPA Client Write-up 


$799 $40 


P5 Version 


Add $129 



DMA 

Ascom 

DMA-DOS 

CBS 

Formula 

GRAHAM -DORIAN 

Ledger 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 
Job Costing 
Payroll II 
Inventory II 
Payroll 
Inventory 
Cash Register 
Apartment Mgt 

MICRO AP 
S Basic 

Mr IV 



$149/$15 
$1/9 $35 
$369 $45 
(539/(45 

$729 $40 
$729 $40 
(729(40 
$729/$40 
$729 $40 
$/29 $40 
$493/ $40 
$493/ $40 
$493 $40 
$493 $40 

$269 $25 
$469 $35 



SOFTWARE WORKS 
AdaphCDOStoCP M $ 69 liu 
Ratlor $ 86 $n.i 



SOHO GROUP 

MatchMaker 
WorkShe. [ 



$ 97 $20 
$177 $20 



STRUCTURED SYSTEMS 

^•GLor ARor APorPay $849 $40 

s Inventory Control $849 $40 

Analyst $199/$25 

Letlenghl $ 1 79/$25 

OSort $ 89/$20 

NAD $ 87 $20 



MICRO DATA BASE SYSTEMS 

HOBS $269 $35 

MDBS $795 $40 

DRSorQRSorRTL $269/$10 

MDBSPKG $1295 $60 
MICROPRO 

WordStar $319 $60 
Customization Notes $ 89/$na 

Mail Merge (109(25 
WordStar Mail-Merge $419 $85 

DalaStar $249 $60 

W. : lM.i-.lc. $119/(40 

SuperSort I $199 $40 

Spell Star $175 $40 

MICROSOFT 

Basic -80 $289 
$329 

Fortran-80 $349 

Cobol-80 $574 

M-Sort $124 

Macro-80 $144 

Edit-80 $ 84 

MuSimp MuM.ith $224 

MuLisp-80 $174 



SUPERSOFT 

Diagnostic I 

Diagnostic II 

Disk Doctor 

Forth 18080 or Z80) 

Fortran 

Fortran w/Rartor 
s C Compiler 
' Star Edit 

Other 



$ 49 $20 
$ 84 $20 
$ 84 $20 
$149 $30 
$219 $30 
$289 $35 
(174/(20 
(189/(30 
less 10% 



Wuki Search 
SpellGuard 
VTS80 
Magic Wand 

Spell B 

OTHER GOODIES 

Select 
Forecaster 
■** Micro Plan 

ttt One 
'Calc 
Target 
BSTAM 
BSTMS 
Tiny C 

Tiny C Compilei 
Nevada Cobol 
MicroStat 
Vedit 

MimModel 
StalPat 
Micro B * 
Raid 

Stnng/80 
Slrmg/80i source; 
ISIS II 
Plan 80 



INFO UNLIMITED 
•* EasyWnter 
s Datadex 

Other 

MICROSOFT 
^SollcardlZ-80CP/Mi 

Fortran 

Cobol 
• Tasc 

MICROPRO 

Wor 

MaMMi 

Wordstar/ MailMerge 
SuperSort I 
"* Spellstar 



$1/9 $50 

$289 $45 
$349 $45 

$269 $na 
$199 $n, i 

$549 tna 

$189 SJO 
$149 $15 
$149 $15 
$ 89 $50 
$229/$50 
$129 $25 
$224 $25 
$105 $15 
$449 $50 
$449 $40 
$229/(20 
(224/(35 
( 84/(20 
(279/(na 
5 19') $',(/ 
$269 $30 



$199 
$249 

I.".-, t5 



(279 
(179 
(499 
(139 

(269 
( 99 
(349 
(159 
(129 



PERSONAL SOFTWARE 



TCS 

GL or AR or AP or Pay ( 79/(25 

All 4 (269/(99 

Compile : ( 99 (25 



UNICORN 
Mince 
Scribble 
Both 

WHITESMITHS 
C Compiler 
Pascal unci C 

DATA BASE 

FMS-80 
^dBASE II 

Condor II 
* Access 80 Level 1 
•** Access 80 Level 2 
s Access 80 Level 3 

Optimum 



(149 (25 
(149/(25 
(249/(50 



(600 (30 
$850 (45 



$649 $45 

$595$50 

$899 ISO 

(249 

(429 

(679 

(749/(50 



Visicalc 3 3 
Desktop/Plan II 
Visiterm 
Visidex 
Visiplot 

Visilrend /Visiplot 
e" Visilile 

PEACHTREE 
General Lad 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 
Payroll 
nlory 

OTHER GOODIES 

s dBASE II 
VUH3R 

iusew, Visicalc 
Context Conn, 

(usew/Vrsicalc) 
Micro Couner 
TCS Apple 

complete business) 
Super-Text II 
Data Factory 
DB Master 
Charles Mann 
STC 



(159 
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(224 (40 
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less 15 

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ORDERS ONLY-CALL TOLL FREE VISA • MASTERCHARGE 

1 800-854 2003 ext 823 - Calif 1 800-522 1500 ext 823 

Overseas add (10 plus additional postage • Add (2 SO postage and handling per each item • California 
■ ■ Allow 2 weeks on checks. COD ok • Prices subiect to change without notice 
All items subiect to availability • « - Mfgs Trademark 

THE DISCOUNT SOFTWARE GROUP 

6520 Selma Ave Suite 309 • Los Angeles Ca 90028 ■ (213) 837-5t4)1 

Int I TELEX 499-0032 BVHL Attn DiscSott • USA TELEX 194-634 BVHL Attn DiscSott • 

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JANUARY 1982 



219 



CIRCLE 131 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Uiik: computer store cf the month 




'SOFTWARE' 



AJfi 


,RI 

• o 




MMNMWM MIMMNnOMMi 








VI Atfventureland (Cats) 


t 1995 


New 


14 50 


e2 Pirates Adventure |Cm| 


$ 19.95 


Now 


i4.se 


•3 Mission Impost (Cass) 


t 19.95 


New 


la JO 


•4 Voodoo Casus (Cass) 


t 19.95 


New 


la JO 


»5 The Count (Cass) 


$ 19.95 


New 


14. JO 


•C Strange Odyssey (Cass) 


t 1995 


New 


14.50 


S7 Mystery Fun House (Cast 


)( 19.95 


New 


14.50 


«8 Pyramid of Doom (Cass) 


$ 19.95 


New 


14.50 


•9 Ghost Town (Cass) 


S 19.95 


New 


14 JO 


• 10 Savage Island (Caaa) 


$ 1995 


New 


14 JO 


• 11 Snag* Island II (Cass) 


$ 1995 


New 


14 JO 


• 12 Golden Voyags (Cass) 


$ 19.95 


New 


14 JO 


Adventures 1-12 (Caaa) 


$100 00 


New 


•7 JO 


Lunar Lander (Cass) 


$ 14 95 


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IS JO 


Star Trek 3.5 (Cass) 


$ 19.95 


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14 JO 


Galactic Empire (Cass) 


$ 19.95 


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Dateslonss of Ryn (Cass) 


S 19.95 


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Invasion Orion (Cass) 


t 24 95 


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Mortocs Tower (CaSS) 


t 19.95 


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Rescue at Rtgrl (Cass) 


t 2995 


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1450 


MM 








Bask (Rom) 


t 60 00 


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4750 


Word Processor (Disk) 


$15000 


New 


U9J0 


Basketball (Rom) 


$ 30 00 


New 


t4J0 


Asteroids (Rom) 


t 40 00 


New 


Jt 50 


Star Haiders (Rom) 


t 40 00 


New 


MJ0 


Space Invaders (Cass) 


$ 20 00 


New 


14.00 


Education Master (Rom) 


t 25.00 


New 


to JO 


Economics (Cass) 


S 3000 


New 


14 50 




t 3000 




14.50 


Physics (Cass) 


S 3000 


New 


14 50 


U S History (Cass) 


$ 30 00 


New 


1450 


World History (Cass) 


$ 30 00 


New 


14*0 


Basic Algebra (Cass) 


$ 30 00 


New 


1450 


TeteUnk (Rom) 


$ 25.00 


New 


tO 50 


Music Composer (Rom) 


t 60.00 


New 


44 50 


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Compu Reed (Disk) 


t 29.95 


New 


14 JO 


Compu-Math Fractions (Disk) $ 39 95 


New 


Jt SO 


Compu-Mati F.acaona (Cass) S 29 95 


Now 


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Compu Main Oeii-nals (Disk) $ 39 95 


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Jt JO 


Cornpu-Mall Osornab) (Cass) S 29 95 


New 


14 JO 


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Letter Perfect (Disk) 


S149.95 


Now 


114 JO 


OeWJSK SVSTSMS 









Wuuaid Pnnccss (Disk) S 32.95 Now 

Jawbreaker (Disk) S 29.95 Now 

Soft Pom Adventure (Disk) t 29.95 Now 



519995 Now 144-50 
$ 19.95 Now 14.50 
t 1995 New 14.50 



t 19.95 Now 14.90 

t 17 95 Now 14.50 

$ 1495 Now lt.50 

$ 22.95 Now 10.90 

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Visacetc (Disk) 
Checker King (Caaa) 
Mtcrochess (Cass) 

OUsaJTV SOflu>rsM 

Fsslgammon (Cass) 
Name That Tune (Drsk) 
Name That Tune (Cass) 
Slerbase Hypenon (Drsk) 
Starbaae Hyperion (Cass) 



• SEND FOR FREE 
PRICE UST ft CATALOG * 

DEDUCT 3% IF PAYMENT ACCOMPANIES 
ORDER. INCLUDE $2 00 FOR SHIPPING ANO 
HANDLING IF YOU PHONE ORDER WE WILL 
I CREDIT $1.00 FOR CALL. CALIFORNIA RESID- 
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• 518 E. ECHO CT., 

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V PHOWE ORDERS (714) 1*476, ^ 

CIRCLE 309 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computer Center, New York 

Numerous computer stores sell Creative Computing Magazine. Press, and Software. 
In this issue we are spotlighting Computer Center. N.Y. We would like to recognize 
their salesmanship, success and service to the community. 

No visit to the "Big Apple" would be complete without a visit to the Computer 
Center, one of New York's fastest growing computer chains. The management 
team at the Computer Center believes in customer support and education and 
interested beginners and visitors alike browse in a relaxed atmosphere. Due to 
the free advice and information provided, most customers get involved with the 
store because of the attention they receive and desire for additional knowledge. 




Scotch' Diskettes 

Rely on Scotch* diskettes to keep your valu- 
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220 



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MICRO MANAGEMENT 
SYSTEMS INC. 

DF.PT. NO. 3 

Downtown Ploro Shopping Center 

IISC Second Ave SW 

Cairo Georgia 31778 

91? 377 7130 Go Phone No 

Write For Free Catalog 



Futuristic decor in the store lends visual appeal that touches everything from 
mirrored walls to the brightly lit display units that bring together the largest 
selection of computer software and "state of the art" technology in the country 
today. With something for everyone, the product lines include Creative Computing 
Magazine. Press, and Software as well as Cromemco, Hewlett Packard, NEC, Atari 
and Apple. 

The Computer Centers are located at 31 East 31st Street and 480 Madison 
Avenue and a third store presently being planned is due to open late this year. 
The New York phone number is (212) 889-8130, from outside New York you can 
call toll free (800) 221-3144. If you are ever in New York, stop in and see them. 



CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



TM 



ECHO SERIEb m speech synthesizers 

COMPUTERS ARE SPEAKING OUT I 



Now you can add intelligible speech to your computer 
without using vast amounts of memory! The ECHO ] [™ 
speech synthesizer for the Apple* is the first of a 
series of synthesizers based on the same technology 
that made the Speak & Spell* * a success. 

The initial operating system allows the creation of 
your own vocabulary with phonemes (word sounds) 
while using very little RAM memory (approx. 800 bytes 
+ 20 bytes/word). Enhanced operating systems and 
vocabulary ROMs will be offered as they become 
available. 

The ECHO ][™ comes complete with speaker, instruc- 
tion manual, and a disk containing a speech editor, 
sample programs, and a sample vocabulary. Sug- 
gested list price is $225. 



See your dealer or contact: 




fSECJ 



STREET ELECTRONICS 
CORPORATION 

'Trademark of Apple Computer 



3152 E. La Palma Ave., Suite C 
Anaheim, CA 92806 (714) 632-9950 



Trademark of Texas Instruments 
CIRCLE 268 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




How will personal computers change our 
lives in the future? How will the equipment 
and its applications evolve in the coming 
years? What roles will personal computers 
have in society? 

The world s leading authorities on personal 
computers provided some insightful answers 
at The Boston Computer Society second 
annual Forum on the Future of Personal 
Computers. October 15. 1981. 

• Philip D. Estridoe Director, Entry Systems 
Business. International Business Machines. 
Boca Raton, Florida. Mr. Estridge— the 
creator of IBM s new personal computer- 
looked into the near future and The Next 
Steps for Personal Computers. 



• H.E. James Finke President, Commodore 
International. Ltd., Norristown. Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Finke gave his perspective on the 
explosive growth of microcomputers with 

The Mass Market Micro: The Future Ain t 
What It Used to Be 

• William H. Gate* President. Microsoft. 
Bellevue. Washington. Mr. Gates— the father 
of microcomputer software— provided an 
inside look at Things to Come in Personal 
Computer Software 

• A.C. (Mike) Markkula President. Apple 
Computer Inc.. Cupertino, California. Mr. 
Markkula examined forthcoming break- 
throughs in personal computer technology 
in his talk "Making Computers Easier to 
Use: Trends in the User Interface." 

• Peter Rosenthal. Marketing Manager. Atari 
Computer Division. Sunnyvale. California. 
Mr. Rosenthal offered a vision of The Home 
Computer of the Future" and its impact on 
our homes 



Shirley Vice President, Radio Shack 
Computer Merchandising, Fort Worth, Texas. 
Mr. Shirley explored the business applica- 
tions of future computers with "Personal 
Computers in the Office of the Future 

• Nigel Searle Vice President. Sinclair 
Research Ltd.. Cambridge. England Mr 
Searle considered the impact of personal 
computers on consumers in his talk The 
Consumer Marketplace for Future Personal 
Computers." 

Moderated by Jonathan Rotenberg. Presi- 
dent. The Boston Computer Society. 

All seven presentations along with ques- 
tions and answers are available on two C- 
90 tape cassettes (2-1/2 hours) for $25 
postpaid. If you would also like to subscribe 
to Small Business Computers, add $12 to 
your order ($37 total) Or. to subscribe to 
Creative Computing, add $20 ($45 total). 
Send payment or credit card number and 
expiration date (Visa. MasterCard. American 
Express) to the address below or call our 
toll-free number. 

creative 
GompatfRg 

39 E. Hanover Avenue 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631-8112 

In NJ 201-540-0445 







EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

TRS-80, COLOR COMPUTER, PET 
4 APPLE II 



ELEMENTARY 
SCIENCE 
GEOGRAPHY 
ECONOMICS 



MATH 
HISTORY 
ACCOUNTING 
BUSINESS ED. 



FOREIGN LANG. COIN INVENTORY 
GRAMMAR FARM RECORDS 

Write for FREE Catalogue: 

MICRO LEARNINGWARE, Box 

2134, N Mankato, MN 56001 

(607) 625-2205 

VISA & MASTER CARD ACCEPTED 

We pay 1 5% royalty for Educational 
Programs listed with us. 
TRS-80 is a registered trademark of 
TANDY CORP 

PET is a trademark of COMMO- 
DORE BUS. MACHINES. 
APPLE is a trademark of APPLE 
COMPUTER CO 



CIRCLE 18S ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 




TRS-80 ^ 

COLOR GAME 

LIMITED OFFER ! 



we LI SEND TOU OUR BONUS GAMf Of THE MONTH 
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m mMMom 5 12.95 

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JOYSTICKS REQ'D ""£+<££ " 

CfRIIFtCOCMICKS OR MONfv OftOCRS ONLV 

illustrated memory banks 

P.O.BOX 289 

WILUAMSTOWN. MA 01267-0289 
EXPIRES 12-15-81 "CASSETTE 

S ' 

CIRCLE 188 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




NEW! for 
the '89 from 

MAGNOLIA* 

MICROSYSTEMS 

DOUBLE DENSITY 
DISK CONTROLLER 

for both 5V4" & 8" drives 

only vpGvdvD complete 

including CP/M ,M 2.2 

MAGNOLIA MICROSYSTEMS. INC. 

2812 Thomdyke W. Seattle 98199 

(206) 285-7266 (800) 426-2841 

CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 



CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SSonttcv 

COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

10% Discount 



APPLE ATARI 


IRS 80 L1 1 


Adventure Series »1 1 1 T. AT. AP 


• 17 96 Tape 


Conflict 2500 T AT AP 


13 50 Tape 


Deathman 5000 T AP 


1 1 65 Tape 


Empire of the Overmmd T. AT. AP $31 50 Disk 


27 00 Tape 


Invaders Irom Space T only $18 85 Disk 


13 45 Tape 


Rescue at Rigel T. AT. AP 


26 95 Tape 


Super Script T onfv 


26 95 Disk 


fewala s Last Redoubt T (2245 Disk 


1 7 96 Tape 


AP $26 95 Disk 





Many more games, utilities, business, etc available 
Disk and Cassette 

Purchase by M O Check (Allow 10 days to clear], 

or COO 

Add SI 00 Pottage Per Order 

|MD Add 5% Sales Tan) 

For price sheet, write to: 



cl8asula< 



Computer Software 

PO BOX 5961 2. WALTER REED STATION 

WASHINGTON. D C 20012 

CIRCLE 176 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



\ferbatim 

flexible disks 

Call Free (800) 235-4137 for 

prices and information. Dealer 
inquiries invited. C.O.D. and 
charge cards accepted. 




visa- 



PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd. 
San Luis Obispo. CA 
93401 InCal call 
(800) 592-5935 or 
(805) 543-1037. 



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If you own a mini or micro. . .you could 
be on your way to lantaatlc richer Put 
your computer to a new uaa by monitor- 
ing thaaa investments. Sat up your own 
office In your home... never work for the 
other guy again. It la the moat Ingenious 
method ever Oevlsed. Make six digits 
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First time offered. Complete package- 
$25.00. We pay postage & handling. Sand 
check or M O. to: 

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P.O. Box 163 

Ontario. OH 44862 



CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SAVE 



1150.00 for a 4-MH2 Z80A ayates with 
64-KB of aeaory plua a real front panel 
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• 200.00 for a 24x80 full function CRT 1 1 
you can roll your own technology, aave 
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222 




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RAM 

For ATARI 

Get the most from your ATARI 4(X) 
Memory expansion to a full 48K is now 
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$299 
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INTEC 

Suite "111 
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(714) 864-5269 

CA resident! ,\<k\ 6 percent tax 

ATARI is trademark of ATARI Inc 



CIRCLE 284 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Save On 

TRS-80™ Computers 




For the best deals on TRS80 Comp .• 
we have SPECIAL DISCOUNTS. FREE SHIP 
PING and a TOLL FREE ORDER NUMBER 

Pan American 
Electronics 

Dept 22 • 1117 Conway • Mission. TX 78572 

Telex Number 767339 

Toll Free Order Number 800/531 7466 

Texas & Principal Number 512/561-2766 

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CIRCLE 186 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
CREATIVE COMPUTING 



...petail poster... 



CALIFORNIA 

Advance Data Concepts -2280 Dia- 
mond Blvd., Concord 94520; (415) 671 - 
9016. 9-5 Mon.-Fri. Vector-Graphic. 
CP/M Software Headquarters-User's 
Group. 

D.E.S. Data Equipment Supply — 

8315 Firestone, Downey 90241. (213) 
923-9361. 7 days. Commodore PET 
specialists. Hardware, Software, Books, 
Mags, Supplies, In House Maintenance. 

CONNECTICUT 

Computer-works- 1439 Post Rd., 
East Westport 06880; (203) 255-9096. 
12-6 Tues.-Fri., 12-9 Thu., 10-5 Sat. 

GEORGIA 

Atlanta Computer Mart -5091 
Buford Hwy., Atlanta 30340; (404) 455- 
0647. 10-6 Mon.-Sat. 

ILLINOIS 

Computer Land/Downers Grove — 

1 36 Ogden Ave., Downers Plaza 6051 5; 
(312) 964-7762. 10-6 Mon.-Sat., 10-8 
Tue., Thurs. Apple, Atari. Osborne 
xerox, Vector. 

Data Domain of Schaumburg — 1612 

E. Algonquin Rd., Schaumburg 60195; 
(312)397-8700. 12-9 Tues.-Fri., 11-5 
Sat. Apple, Alpha Micro, Hewlett- 
Packard Calculators. Largest book and 
magazine selection. 

Farnsworth Computer Center 

1891 N. Farnsworth Ave.. Aurora 
60505; (312) 851-3888. 10-8 Mon.-Fri., 
10-5 Sat. Apple. Hewlett-Packard series 
80 systems. HP Calculators, IDS 
Printers. 

Gavin Computers -5935 W. Addison 
St.. Chicago 60634; (312) 286-4232. 
Mon.-Thurs. 9-8:30, Tues.-Sat. 9-6. 
Apple B & H, Atari & Commodore 
Systems. 

Ulllpute Computer Mart, Inc. -4446 

Oakton, Skokie 60076; (312) 674-1383. 
M-F 10:30-8pm, Sat. 10-6. We sell 
Cromemco, Gimix, Bell & Howell, North 
Star and others. Starting our fifth year 
in business. 



Video Etc. -465 Lake Cook Plaza, 
Deerfield 6001 5; (31 2) 498-9669; Open 
Every day. Strong software support 
for Apple, Atari. 

The Video Station-872 So. Mil- 
waukee Ave., Libertyville 60048; (31 2) 
367-8660. Open 7 days. Atari Com- 
puters, Hardware and Software. 

MASSACHUSETTS 



»—679 Highland Ave., Needham 
02194; (617) 449-1760. 9-5:30 Mon.- 
Fri. Commodore, Apple, Superbrain, 
Atari. 

Science Fantasy Bookstore — 18 

Eliot St.. Harvard Sq.. Cambridge 
021 38; (61 7) 547-591 7. 11 -5 Mon.-Sat., 
11-8 Thur. Apple & TRS-80 games; 
Epyx, Microsoft, Creative Computing. 

MICHIGAN 

Computer Center —Garden City; (31 3) 
425-2470 & West Bloomfield; (313) 
855-4220; Books, Magazines, Hard- 
ware and Software for Apple. North 
Star, TRS-80 & PET. 



NEVADA 

Home Computers — 1775 E. Tropi- 

cana #6. Las Vegas 89109 (702) 798- 
1022. 10-7 Mon.-Sat. Apple, Commo- 
dore. Atari. AIM 65, (Books) Sales & 
Service. 

NEW JERSEY 

Computernook — Rt. 46, Pine Brook 
Plaza, Pine Brook 07058; (201 ) 575- 
9468. 10-6:30 MTWS. 10-8 Thurs., Fri. 
Apple/Commodore Authorized deal- 
er. 

The Computer Universe— 155 Route 
1 7S., Raramus 07652; (201 )262-0960- 
347-9006. Mon; Wed; Fri., and Sat., 
10-6. Tues., and Thurs; 12-9. 
Specializing in Apple Computers. 

Silent Partner— 2050 Center Ave., 
Fort Lee 07024; (201 ) 947-9400; Mon.- 
Sat. 10-6. Apple/Atari/Commodore/ 
Vector/Malibu. 



t— 352 Bloomfield Ave., 
Caldwell 07006; (201 ) 228-4949. Soft- 
ware for Apple, Atari, TRS-80 and PET 
always 10-20% off list. 

Software City— Pine Brook. 101 Rt. 
46 East, 07058; (201)575-4574. Bus/ 
Rec Utility/Home Programs for TRS- 
80, Atari, Apple and IBM. Up to 20% 
off list. 

Software City — 1 1 1 Grand Ave., 
River Edge 07661; (201) 342-8788. 
Bus./Rec./Utility Home programs for 
TRS-80. Atari, Apple and IBM up to 
20% off list. 

Stonehenge Computer Shop— 89 

Summit Avenue, Summit 07901 ; (201 ) 
277-1020. 10 am-6:30 pm Mon.-Sat. 
Apple/Bell & Howell/Commodore 
Authorized Dealer, Sales and Ser- 
vice. 

NEW YORK 

The Computer Center— 31 East 31st 
St., New York 1001 6; (21 2) 889-81 30. 
10-7 Mon.-Fri., 11-6 Sat., 10-8 Thur. 

Upstate Computer Shop— 629 
French Rd.. Campus Plaza. New Hart- 
ford 13413; (315) 733-9139. 10-6 Mon.- 
Fri., 11-5 Sat. Apple— Commodore- 
Data General. 

OHIO 



i II - 1 41 7 Bernath Pkwy., Tole- 
do 43615; (419) 865-1009. 10-6. 10-7 
Thurs. Apple, Osborne, Adds, NEC, 
Atari, Epson & IDS Printers. 

Barnhart Stores-612 N Main St; 
(513)653-7257. 8am-5pm. Atari Com- 
puters at MAIL ORDERS prices/ 
Authorized Atari Service Center. 

Mloro Mini Computer World— 74 

Robinwood Ave., Columbus 43213; 
(614) 235-5813/6058. 1 1-7 Tues.-Sat. 
Authorized Apple/Commodore dealer. 
Sales, Service, Business Software. 

North Coast Computers— 626 Dover 
Center. Bay Village 44140; (216) 835- 
4345. 10-6 Mon.-Sat.. 10-8 Tue., Thur. 
Apple/ Atari/Vector Graphic/Data Gen- 
eral. 

WISCONSIN 

Petted-4265 W. Looms Rd., (I-894- 
Hwy. 36, Milwaukee 53221 ; (41 4) 282- 
4181 . 1 2-8 Mon.-Fri.. 10-4 Sat. Author- 
ized Commodore PET, CBM, VIC 
dealer. Books, Magazines, Chips, etc. 

To include your store in Crealive Computing's 
Retail Roster, call the Advertising Department at 
(XI) 540-9168 



JANUARY 1982 



223 



* index to advertisers * 



Reader 

Service Advertiser 

102 Aardvark Technical Services 

105 ABM Products 

106 Accent Software 

103 Adwar Video 
ALF Products 

112 Allenbach Industries 

1 59 Alpha Byte Stores 

1 70 Alpha Byte Stores 

114 Alpha Supply Co 
101 Amber Software 

1 1 3 Amber Software 

117 Apple Computer Corp 

121 Applied Analytic Inc 

109 ASAP Computer Products Inc 
116 Aspen Software 

118 Atari 

107 Aurora Systems 

110 Automated Simulations 

160 Beagle Brothers Micro Software 
164 Big Five Software 

115 The Bit Bucket 
1 76 Bonita Computer Software 
322 Broderbund Software 
264 Broderbund Software 

129 Broderbund Software 

1 25 Bytes & Pieces 
203 CBAS 

119 Central Point Software 

133 Charles Mann & Associates 

111 Cload Magazine 

126 Comm Data Systems 

120 Commodore Business 
Machines 

198 Communications Electronics 

1 23 Computer Age 

1 08 Computers by Mail 
141 Computer Exchange 

122 Computer Information Exchange 
148 Computer Mail Order 

1 24 Computer Plus 
222 Computer Products International 

127 Computer Services Corp 

128 Computer Shopper 

134 Computer Specialties 
* Computer Tutor 

132 Computerville 

130 Computer Wholesale 

137 Computronics 

1 38 Computronics 

1 35 Concord Computer Components 
1 40 Consumer Computers Mail Order 

161 Cottage Software 
248 Countryside Data 

171 CPU Shop 

139 Creative Software 
143 Cybertext Corporation 
256 Data Resource Corp 
266 Data Soft 
150 Designer Software 



Page 

109 
213 

43 

58 
147 

90 

127 

88.89 

163 

83 
163 

8.9 
162 
111 
107 
24.25 

57 

7 

160 

2 

105 

222 

31 

43 
105 
115 
222 
134 
169 
114 
199 

Cover 2 
119 
135 
212 
113 
212 
197 
216 
198 
5 
199 
193 
143 
175 
188 
149 
151 
200 
121 
216 
143 
155 
195 

83 
205 
123 

15 



Reader 
Service 

145 
173 
146 
158 
131 
343 
136 
154 
142 
177 
178 

257 
183 
190 
144 

208 
147 
188 
280 
149 
284 
151 
199 
197 
291 
293 
294 
219 
295 
182 
206 
278 
162 
207 
2 



Advertiser 



Page 



Reader 
Service 



Advertiser 



195 
185 
210 
308 
309 
189 
172 
247 
224 
342 
212 
313 
314 
226 
285 
196 
153 

155 
201 
200 



Digatek Corporation 


222 


Digibyte Systems 


59 


Digi-key Corporation 


189 


Discount Data Products 


133 


Discount Software Group 


219 


DJ Al Systems 


183 


Dynacomp 


116.117 


Ecosoft 


153 


Electronic Specialists 


169 


Exidy Systems 


35 


Frederick Computer Products 


185 


Heath Co 


65 


H & H Trading 


169 


Horizon Simulations 


125 


Howard Industries 


99 


Huntingdon Computing 


101 


HW Electronics 


201 


IBM 


1 


IDSI 


81 


1MB 


222 


Intocom 


27 


Inmac 


169 


Intec 


222 


Interpretive Education 


160 


Jade Computer 


139-141 


Jenson Tools 


125 


Kleinhammer Business Software 


Kleinhammer Business Softwa 


re 187 


Konan Corporation 


87 


Krell Software 


39 


Lazer Micro Systems 


217 


Leading Edge 


Cover 4 


L 1 Computer General Store 


187 


LNW Research 


51 


Magnolia Microsystems 


222 


Mannfred Electronics 


187 


Mark of the Unicorn 


13 


Micro Business World 


95 


Micro Distributors 


213 


Micro Learmngware 


222 


Micro Mail 


175 


Micro Mountain 


161 


Micro Mountain 


220 


Micro Power & Light 


199 


Microsoft 


23 


Microsystems 


211 


Micro Technology Unlimited 


63 


Microtek 


173 


Microworks 


203 


Mumford Microsystems 


215 


Muse Software 


40 


Muse Software 


128 


Neeco 


129 


Net Profit Computers 


165 


Northern Technology Books 


93 


NRI Schools/Electronics Division 


Omega Micro 


216 


Omega Microware 


171 


Omega Microware 


185 




"Computer crime is on the rise. Somebody broke in last night 
and stole ours'" 

224 



202 Omega Microware 

213 Omega Sales 

191 Omnitec Data 

250 Orange Micro 

315 Osborne/ McGraw Hill 

169 Pacific Exchanges 

169 Pacific Exchanges 

169 Pacific Exchanges 

169 Pacific Exchanges 

186 Pan American Electronics 
292 Pegasys Systems 

239 Peripherals Plus 

239 Peripherals Plus 

239 Peripherals Plus 

239 Peripherals Plus 

1 57 Personal Computer System 

235 Perry Oil & Gas 

251 Professional Software 
Professional Software 

165 Programmers Institute 

282 Prometheus Products Inc 
194 Quality Software 

205 Racet Computes 

* Rainbow Computing 

325 Realty Software 

166 Restaurant Publishing Co 
Retail Roster 

326 R H Electronics 

327 R H Electronics 
303 River Bank Software 
156 Scelbi Publications 
330 Service Technology 

Sinclair Research Ltd 

238 Sinus Software 

332 Sir-tech 

234 Software Street 

167 Software Toolworks 
271 Spectral Associates 

Spectrum Software 

334 SRA 

290 Small Business Computers 

233 The Stocking Source 

245 Strategic Simulations 

268 Street Electronics Corp 

187 Sublogic 
184 Supersketch 

1 74 Supersoft 

1 75 Supersoft 
215 Sync 

277 Systems Plus 

192 System Software 

193 Total Information Service 
1 8 1 Trans Net Corporation 
338 Vital Information 

340 VR Data 

1 79 Wesper Micro 

180 Western Digital 

283 York 10 Computerware 

Creative Computing 



300 Apple Software 

300 Apple Software 

300 Atari Software 

350 Basic Computer Games 

350 Blister Ball/Torax 

350 Cassette Software Sale 

350 Colossal Computer Cartoon Book 

350 Computers for Kids 

350 Computers in Mathematics 

350 Future of Personal Computers 

300 Games Software 

350 Getting Acquainted with your VIC 

350 Katie and the Computer 

300 Making the most of your TRS-80 

Color Computer 

300 Milestones 

300 Plotter/ Curve Fitter 

350 Problems for Computer Solution 

350 Stock and Options Analysis 

Subscriptions 

300 TRS-80 Software 

300 Trucker and Streets of the City 



Page 

90 

54.55 

205 

76.77 

85 

105 

216 

220 

222 

222 

90 

29 

191 

208 

214 

102 

195 

32 

69 

195 

21 

71 

181 

131 

222 

218 

223 

57 

201 

201 

160 

179 

16 17 

72.73 

74 

203 

216 

36 

137 

163 

167 

96 

79 

221 

147 

211 

179 

205 

19 

11 

217 

134 

199 

66 

49 

Cover3 

215 

211 



61 
207 

45 
213 

33 
209 
144 

47 
158 
221 
211 
206 
218 

208 
206 
208 
158 
206 
145 
177 
53 



'Write advertiser directly 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



INSTANT 80 COLUMN APPLE 

The miracle of the 80's... everything you want in an 80-column card. 



STOP STARING AT 40 COLUMNS 

WIZARD-80 lets you see exactly what you will get 

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with all these 

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■ Fully compatible with Apple II and Apple II Plu^ 

■ Fully compatible with most word processors, 
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Lists BASIC programs, integer and Applesoft 
Fully compatible with Pascal 

- Uses software to switch between 40 and 80 
column formats 
Displays 7X9 matrix characters 
Provides upper/lower case characters with full 
descenders 

- Fully edits... uses ESCape key for cursor 
movement 

■ Scrolling stop/start uses standard Control-S entry 

■ Retains text on screen while it is being printed 

■ Contains crystal clock for flicker-free character 
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■ Has low power consumption for cool 
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■ 2K ird RAM. 50 or 

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~ Inverse video selection 
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'Registered trademarks 
of Apple Computer Inc. 







CIRCLE 179 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



AVAILABLE AT ALL FINE 
COMPUTER STORES 

■OlllESPEH ll|ii:illl 
Systems 

SUBSIDIARY OF WESPERCORP 

14321 New Myford Road 
Tustin, California 92680 




* . 



Leading Edge Products, Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021 
Toll-free: 1-800-343-6833, in Massachusetts (617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624. 



C.RCLE 182 ON READER 



SERVICE 



CARD